- Scripts and medical diagnostic knowledge: theory and applications for clinical reasoning instruction and researchB Charlin
Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Acad Med 75:182-90. 2000....
- The Script Concordance test: a tool to assess the reflective clinicianB Charlin
Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, C P 6128, Succ Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7, Canada
Teach Learn Med 12:189-95. 2000..That kind of organization of knowledge is named a script. The SC test places examinees in written, but authentic, clinical situations in which they must interpret data to make decisions...
- Comparison of an aggregate scoring method with a consensus scoring method in a measure of clinical reasoning capacityBernard Charlin
Faculty de Medicine Direction, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 Canada
Teach Learn Med 14:150-6. 2002..Nevertheless, in written clinical reasoning assessment, the common practice is to ask experts to reach a consensus on each item and to assess students on a unique "good answer."..
- Assessment in the context of uncertainty using the script concordance test: more meaning for scoresBernard Charlin
Center of Pedagogy Applied to Health Sciences, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Teach Learn Med 22:180-6. 2010..Raw test scores have meaning only if statistics (mean and standard deviation) describing the panel's performance are concurrently provided...
- Optimization of answer keys for script concordance testing: should we exclude deviant panelists, deviant responses, or neither?Robert Gagnon
CPASS, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Centre Ville Station, QC, Canada
Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 16:601-8. 2011..However, if removal of deviant answers is judged necessary, the distance-from-mode strategy is recommended...
- The script concordance test in radiation oncology: validation study of a new tool to assess clinical reasoningCarole Lambert
CPASS, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7, Canada
Radiat Oncol 4:7. 2009..Scores reflect the degree of concordance between the performance of examinees and that of a reference panel of experienced physicians. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate SCT's usefulness in radiation oncology...
- Composition of the panel of reference for concordance tests: do teaching functions have an impact on examinees' ranks and absolute scores?Bernard Charlin
University of Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7, Canada
Med Teach 29:49-53. 2007..Scoring is based on a comparison of examinees' answers with those of a panel of reference, including their variability. This allows construction of tests that are close to real clinical life, with all its complexity and ambiguity...
- Script concordance testing: more cases or more questions?Robert Gagnon
CPASS, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Centre Ville Station, Box 6128, Montreal, QC H3C3J7, Canada
Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract 14:367-75. 2009..Nested questions contribute to a significant portion of score variance, with the implication that formulation of up to 5 questions per case is an efficient way to optimize the reliability of SCT scores...
- Script concordance testing: a review of published validity evidenceStuart Lubarsky
Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Med Educ 45:329-38. 2011..Script concordance test (SCT) scores are intended to reflect respondents' competence in interpreting clinical data under conditions of uncertainty. The validity of inferences based on SCT scores has not been rigorously established...
- The script concordance test as a measure of clinical reasoning: a national validation studyThamer Nouh
Department of Surgery, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Am J Surg 203:530-4. 2012..The script concordance test (SCT) is an innovative tool for clinical reasoning assessment. It has previously been shown to be a reliable and valid measure of clinical reasoning among general surgical residents...
- Assessing clinical reasoning in pediatric emergency medicine: validity evidence for a Script Concordance TestBenoit Carrière
Section of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte Justine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Ann Emerg Med 53:647-52. 2009..We gathered validity evidence for the use of a pediatric emergency medicine Script Concordance Test to evaluate residents' reasoning skills...
- Script concordance tests: guidelines for constructionJean Paul Fournier
CPASS, Direction de la recherche, Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale Centre Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7, Canada
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 8:18. 2008..It probes the multiple judgments that are made in the clinical reasoning process. Scoring reflects the degree of concordance of these judgments to those of a panel of reference experts...
- Scripts and clinical reasoningBernard Charlin
Department of Surgery, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Med Educ 41:1178-84. 2007....
- In Brief: Validity of Case Summaries in Written Examinations of Clinical ReasoningValerie Dory
a Department of Medicine and Centre for Medical Education, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Teach Learn Med 28:375-384. 2016..Construct: The purpose of this study was to provide initial evidence of the validity of written case summaries as assessments of clinical problem representation in a classroom setting...
- Clinical reasoning processes: unravelling complexity through graphical representationBernard Charlin
Centre for Applied Pedagogy in Health Sciences CPASS, University of Montreal, and Department of Neurology, Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Med Educ 46:454-63. 2012..Knowledge-modelling software such as mot Plus (Modelling using Typified Objects [MOT]) may be exploited to generate models capable of unravelling some of this complexity...
- Use of a script concordance test to assess development of clinical reasoning in nursing studentsMarie France Deschênes
Collège de Maisonneuve, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
J Nurs Educ 50:381-7. 2011..The scores' reliability is high. The script concordance test is an innovative instrument that provides a standardized method for assessing nurses' clinical reasoning...
- Is the script concordance test a valid instrument for assessment of intraoperative decision-making skills?Sarkis Meterissian
Royal Victoria Hospital, 687 Pine Ave W Sl0 22, Montreal, Quebec H3A 1A1, Canada
Am J Surg 193:248-51. 2007..The script concordance test (SCT), based on cognitive psychology script theory, is a new tool of clinical-reasoning assessment that may be used to evaluate a candidate's approach to ill-defined problems encountered in the operating room...
- Poorly performing physicians: does the Script Concordance Test detect bad clinical reasoning?François Goulet
Practice Enhancement Division, Collège des médecins du Québec, 2170, René Lévesque Ouest, Montreal, Québec H3H 2T8, Canada
J Contin Educ Health Prof 30:161-6. 2010....
- The Script Concordance Test: a new tool assessing clinical judgement in neurologyStuart Lubarsky
Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Centre for Medical Education, McGill University, Montreal, Canada
Can J Neurol Sci 36:326-31. 2009..The SCT has been validated in several medical disciplines, but has not been investigated in neurology...
- Assessment of clinical reasoning in the context of uncertainty: the effect of variability within the reference panelBernard Charlin
URDESS Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Med Educ 40:848-54. 2006..In accordance with theory, the presence of variability ensures discrimination between levels of clinical experience. These results imply important considerations for the construction of efficient SCTs...
- Clinical reasoning difficulties: a taxonomy for clinical teachersMarie Claude Audétat
Universite de Montreal, Canada
Med Teach 35:e984-9. 2013..Clinical reasoning is the cornerstone of medical practice. To date, there is no established framework regarding clinical reasoning difficulties, how to identify them, and how to remediate them...
- What is so difficult about managing clinical reasoning difficulties?Marie Claude Audétat
Départment of Family and Emergency Medicine and CPASS Centre de Pédagogie appliquée aux Sciences de la Santé, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Med Educ 46:216-27. 2012..We therefore sought to: (i) describe the current state of affairs in various clinical teaching settings, and (ii) explore the factors that determine the behaviour of clinical educators in this respect...
- Varying conceptions of competence: an analysis of how health sciences educators define competenceNicolas Fernandez
Centre for Pedagogy Applied to Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Med Educ 46:357-65. 2012..A straightforward examination of what is meant by the term 'competence' is noticeably missing from the literature, despite its impact on medical training...
- How to construct and implement script concordance tests: insights from a systematic reviewValerie Dory
Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique FNRS
Med Educ 46:552-63. 2012..A recent review of the literature examined the validity argument concerning the SCT. Our aim was to provide potential users with evidence-based recommendations on how to construct and implement an SCT...
- The cognitive validity of the Script Concordance Test: a processing time studyRobert Gagnon
Unit for Research and Development In Health Sciences Education, University of Montreal, Montreal, Canada
Teach Learn Med 18:22-7. 2006..According to the theory on which the Script Concordance Test (SCT) is based, scripts contain expectations on features that are associated with each illness and about the range of values that are typical, atypical, or incompatible...
- Choosing the right physical laparoscopic simulator? Comparison of LTS2000-ISM60 with MISTELS: validation, correlation, and user satisfactionAndrée Sansregret
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ste Justine s Hospital, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Am J Surg 197:258-65. 2009..Our purpose was to validate the LTS and to correlate its scoring performance with that of the McGill Inanimate System for Training and Evaluation of Laparoscopic Skills (MISTELS), a widely used and well-validated physical simulator...
- Exploring a New Simulation Approach to Improve Clinical Reasoning Teaching and Assessment: Randomized Trial ProtocolThomas Pennaforte
Sainte Justine Hospital, Department of Neonatology, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada
JMIR Res Protoc 5:e26. 2016..Finally, a brief general debriefing ends the session. System-1 process of clinical reasoning is assessed by verbalization during management of the case, and System-2 during the iterative discussions without providing feedback...
- Mapping as a learning strategy in health professions education: a critical analysisBeatrice Pudelko
UER Unité d Enseignement et de Recherche Education, Télé Université, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Med Educ 46:1215-25. 2012..The assumption driving the development and use of concept mapping is that it supports and furthers meaningful learning...
- Assessing clinical reasoning in optometry using the script concordance testCaroline Faucher
Ecole d Optometrie, Universite de Montreal, Montreal, Canada
Clin Exp Optom 99:280-6. 2016..The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a script concordance test for the field of optometry...
- What is reflection? A conceptual analysis of major definitions and a proposal of a five-component modelQuoc Dinh Nguyen
Division of Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Med Educ 48:1176-89. 2014..Because reflection has taken on multiple meanings, it remains difficult to operationalise. A standard definition and model are needed to improve the development of practical applications of reflection...
- Online clinical reasoning assessment with the Script Concordance test: a feasibility studyLouis Sibert
Department of Urology, Rouen University Hospital, 1, rue de Germont, 76031 Rouen Cedex, France
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 5:18. 2005..This tool has been used up to now mainly in medicine. The purpose of this pilot study is to assess the feasibility of the test delivered on the Web to French urologists...
- On line clinical reasoning assessment with Script Concordance test in urology: results of a French pilot studyLouis Sibert
Department of Urology, Rouen University Hospital, 1, rue de Germont 76031 Rouen Cedex, France
BMC Med Educ 6:45. 2006..This study assesses the feasibility, reliability and validity of the SC test made available on the Web to French urologists...
- [Medical education in France and Canada: is there a best system?]Christophe Segouin
Service de santé publique et économie de la santé, Groupe Hospitalier Lariboisière Fernand Widal, 75745 Paris 10
Rev Prat 58:121-7. 2008..In conclusion, we highlight the important of taking into consideration these factors before undertaking reform of educational systems or transferring methods from one country to another...
- Stability of clinical reasoning assessment results with the Script Concordance test across two different linguistic, cultural and learning environmentsLouis Sibert
Department of Urology, Rouen University Hospital, France
Med Teach 24:522-7. 2002..Candidates obtained higher scores when correction was done using the answer key provided by the experts from the same country. These data support the stability of the construct validity of the tool across different learning environments...
- Standardized assessment of reasoning in contexts of uncertainty: the script concordance approachBernard Charlin
University of Montreal
Eval Health Prof 27:304-19. 2004..It makes it possible to measure skills or domains that were up to now difficult to measure...
- Assessment of clinical reasoning competence in urology with the script concordance test: an exploratory study across two sites from different countriesLouis Sibert
Department of Urology, Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, Pavillon Derocque 1, rue de Germont, 76031 Rouen, France
Eur Urol 41:227-33. 2002..The script concordance (SC) test is designed to measure the organisation of knowledge that allows interpretation of data in clinical reasoning. This study explores the use of this new written examination tool in urology...
- Communication between consultants and referring physicians: a qualitative study to define learning and assessment objectives in a specialty residency programLouis Sibert
Department of Urology, Rouen University Hospital Charles Nicolle, 1, rue de Germont, 76031 Rouen, France
Teach Learn Med 14:15-9. 2002..Outpatient consultation constitutes a major part of medical practice. However, little is known about the skills which should be taught to residents in order for them to improve their consultant-referring physician relationships...
- Medical students as school sex educators: a comparative studyJean Charles Pasquier
Med Teach 28:665. 2006
- Measurement of perception and interpretation skills during radiology training: utility of the script concordance approachLucie Brazeau-Lamontagne
University of Sherbrooke, Canada
Med Teach 26:326-32. 2004..More studies are necessary to document the approach usefulness for assessment in radiology training...