Stephen Bernard

Summary

Affiliation: Monash Medical Centre
Country: Australia

Publications

  1. ncbi Paramedic intubation of patients with severe head injury: a review of current Australian practice and recommendations for change
    Stephen A Bernard
    Metropolitan Ambulance Service, and Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Emerg Med Australas 18:221-8. 2006
  2. pmc New indications for the use of therapeutic hypothermia
    Stephen Bernard
    The Intensive Care Unit, Dandenong Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
    Crit Care 8:E1. 2004
  3. ncbi Treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with induced hypothermia
    Stephen A Bernard
    Intensive Care Unit, Dandenong Hospital, Dandenong, Australia
    N Engl J Med 346:557-63. 2002
  4. doi Induction of therapeutic hypothermia by paramedics after resuscitation from out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest: a randomized controlled trial
    Stephen A Bernard
    The Intensive Care Unit, The Alfred Hospital, Commercial Rd, Prahran, VIC 3118, Australia
    Circulation 122:737-42. 2010
  5. doi Effect of supplemental oxygen exposure on myocardial injury in ST-elevation myocardial infarction
    Ziad Nehme
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Ambulance Victoria, Melbourne, Australia Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
    Heart 102:444-51. 2016
  6. doi Morphine and ketamine is superior to morphine alone for out-of-hospital trauma analgesia: a randomized controlled trial
    Paul A Jennings
    Ambulance Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Ann Emerg Med 59:497-503. 2012
  7. doi Challenging issues in randomised controlled trials
    A D Nichol
    Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care, Research Centre, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia
    Injury 41:S20-3. 2010
  8. doi Air Versus Oxygen in ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction
    Dion Stub
    From The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia D S, S B, J E B, A H E, A J T, D M K Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia D S, A H E, A J T, D M K Western Health, Melbourne, Australia D S Ambulance Victoria, Melbourne, Australia K S, S B, Z N, M S, B B Monash University, Melbourne, Australia K S, S B, Z N, M S, M E B, P C, I T M, D M K University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia K S and Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, Australia I T M
    Circulation 131:2143-50. 2015
  9. doi Long-term pain prevalence and health-related quality of life outcomes for patients enrolled in a ketamine versus morphine for prehospital traumatic pain randomised controlled trial
    Paul A Jennings
    Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Ambulance Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Emerg Med J 31:840-3. 2014
  10. doi A randomized controlled trial of oxygen therapy in acute myocardial infarction Air Verses Oxygen In myocarDial infarction study (AVOID Study)
    Dion Stub
    Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
    Am Heart J 163:339-345.e1. 2012

Collaborators

Detail Information

Publications49

  1. ncbi Paramedic intubation of patients with severe head injury: a review of current Australian practice and recommendations for change
    Stephen A Bernard
    Metropolitan Ambulance Service, and Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Emerg Med Australas 18:221-8. 2006
    ..For patients who are intubated, waveform capnography is essential to confirm tracheal placement and to prevent inadvertent hyperventilation...
  2. pmc New indications for the use of therapeutic hypothermia
    Stephen Bernard
    The Intensive Care Unit, Dandenong Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
    Crit Care 8:E1. 2004
    ..However, given the strong theoretical benefit and the minimal adverse side-effects, it is reasonable for clinicians to consider the use of therapeutic hypothermia in such cases...
  3. ncbi Treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with induced hypothermia
    Stephen A Bernard
    Intensive Care Unit, Dandenong Hospital, Dandenong, Australia
    N Engl J Med 346:557-63. 2002
    ..In a randomized, controlled trial, we compared the effects of moderate hypothermia and normothermia in patients who remained unconscious after resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest...
  4. doi Induction of therapeutic hypothermia by paramedics after resuscitation from out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest: a randomized controlled trial
    Stephen A Bernard
    The Intensive Care Unit, The Alfred Hospital, Commercial Rd, Prahran, VIC 3118, Australia
    Circulation 122:737-42. 2010
    ..Laboratory studies have suggested that earlier cooling may be associated with improved neurological outcomes. We hypothesized that induction of therapeutic hypothermia by paramedics before hospital arrival would improve outcome...
  5. doi Effect of supplemental oxygen exposure on myocardial injury in ST-elevation myocardial infarction
    Ziad Nehme
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Ambulance Victoria, Melbourne, Australia Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
    Heart 102:444-51. 2016
    ..Supplemental oxygen therapy may increase myocardial injury following ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of the dose and duration of oxygen exposure on myocardial injury after STEMI...
  6. doi Morphine and ketamine is superior to morphine alone for out-of-hospital trauma analgesia: a randomized controlled trial
    Paul A Jennings
    Ambulance Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Ann Emerg Med 59:497-503. 2012
    ..We assess the efficacy of intravenous ketamine compared with intravenous morphine in reducing pain in adults with significant out-of-hospital traumatic pain...
  7. doi Challenging issues in randomised controlled trials
    A D Nichol
    Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care, Research Centre, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3004, Australia
    Injury 41:S20-3. 2010
    ..TIPS FOR RESEARCHERS: The RCTs most likely to be funded and/or be of high quality always address these issues...
  8. doi Air Versus Oxygen in ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction
    Dion Stub
    From The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia D S, S B, J E B, A H E, A J T, D M K Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia D S, A H E, A J T, D M K Western Health, Melbourne, Australia D S Ambulance Victoria, Melbourne, Australia K S, S B, Z N, M S, B B Monash University, Melbourne, Australia K S, S B, Z N, M S, M E B, P C, I T M, D M K University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia K S and Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, Australia I T M
    Circulation 131:2143-50. 2015
    ..Oxygen is commonly administered to patients with ST-elevation-myocardial infarction despite previous studies suggesting a possible increase in myocardial injury as a result of coronary vasoconstriction and heightened oxidative stress...
  9. doi Long-term pain prevalence and health-related quality of life outcomes for patients enrolled in a ketamine versus morphine for prehospital traumatic pain randomised controlled trial
    Paul A Jennings
    Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Ambulance Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Emerg Med J 31:840-3. 2014
    ..In this follow-up study, we sought to determine the prevalence of persistent pain and whether there were differences in patients who received ketamine or morphine...
  10. doi A randomized controlled trial of oxygen therapy in acute myocardial infarction Air Verses Oxygen In myocarDial infarction study (AVOID Study)
    Dion Stub
    Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia
    Am Heart J 163:339-345.e1. 2012
    ..The few clinical trials examining the role of oxygen in AMI were performed prior to the modern approach of emergent reperfusion and advanced medical management...
  11. doi Can we improve neurological outcomes in severe traumatic brain injury? Something old (early prophylactic hypothermia) and something new (erythropoietin)
    Alistair D Nichol
    Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Alfred Hospital Campus, Commercial Road, Melbourne, Australia
    Injury 40:471-8. 2009
    ..Nevertheless the high morbidity and mortality associated with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) demands that we investigate the safety and efficacy of these promising potential therapies as a matter of urgency...
  12. doi Paramedic resuscitation competency: A survey of Australian and New Zealand emergency medical services
    Kylie Dyson
    School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Emerg Med Australas . 2017
    ..We aimed to identify the current practices within emergency medical services (EMS) for developing and maintaining paramedic resuscitation competency...
  13. doi CPR-induced consciousness: A cross-sectional study of healthcare practitioners' experience
    Alexander Olaussen
    Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Australia Emergency and Trauma Centre, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia National Trauma Research Institute, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia Trauma Service, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia Electronic address
    Australas Emerg Nurs J 19:186-190. 2016
    ..Reported cases in the medical literature appear scant compared to anecdotal reports. The aim of this study was to evaluate health care providers' experience with consciousness during cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR)...
  14. pmc Are sociodemographic characteristics associated with spatial variation in the incidence of OHCA and bystander CPR rates? A population-based observational study in Victoria, Australia
    Lahn D Straney
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    BMJ Open 6:e012434. 2016
    ..We examined the extent to which this variation could be explained by the sociodemographic and population health characteristics of the region...
  15. pmc Regions of High Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Incidence and Low Bystander CPR Rates in Victoria, Australia
    Lahn D Straney
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    PLoS ONE 10:e0139776. 2015
    ..The aim of this study is to identify census areas with high incidence of OHCA and low rates of bystander CPR in Victoria, Australia...
  16. doi Using a cardiac arrest registry to measure the quality of emergency medical service care: decade of findings from the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry
    Ziad Nehme
    From the Department of Research and Evaluation, Ambulance Victoria, Melbourne, Australia Z N, S B, M L, K S Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventative Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia Z N, S B, P C, J E B, M L, K S Intensive Care Department, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia S B Department of Cardiology, MonashHeart, Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, Australia I T M and Discipline of Emergency Medicine, School of Primary, Aboriginal and Rural Health Care, University of Western Australia, Western Australia, Australia K S
    Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 8:56-66. 2015
    ..We report the methodology and findings of a statewide emergency medical service surveillance initiative, which is used to measure the quality of systems of care for patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest...
  17. doi Functional outcomes and quality of life of young adults who survive out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
    Conor Deasy
    Research and Strategy, Ambulance Victoria, Melbourne, Australia
    Emerg Med J 30:532-7. 2013
    ..The aim of this study was to assess their functional and quality of life outcomes...
  18. ncbi Trends in intensive care unit cardiac arrest admissions and mortality in Australia and New Zealand
    Lahn D Straney
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
    Crit Care Resusc 16:104-11. 2014
    ....
  19. ncbi Effect of diabetes and pre-hospital blood glucose level on survival and recovery after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
    Ziad Nehme
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Ambulance Victoria, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
    Crit Care Resusc 18:69-77. 2016
    ..We evaluated the effect of diabetes and pre-hospital BGL on survival to hospital discharge and on 12-month functional recovery after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA)...
  20. doi Paramedic Exposure to Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Resuscitation Is Associated With Patient Survival
    Kylie Dyson
    From the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia K D, J E B, K S, S B, L S, J F Clinical and Community Services, Ambulance Victoria, Melbourne, Australia K D, S B Department of Research and Evaluation, Ambulance Victoria, Melbourne, Australia K S Discipline of Emergency Medicine, School of Primary, Aboriginal and Rural Health Care, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia K S, J F Emergency and Trauma Centre, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia J E B Intensive Care Department, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia S B Prehospital, Resuscitation and Emergency Care Research Unit, School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Curtin University, Perth, Australia J E B, J F
    Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 9:154-60. 2016
    ..In this study, we examined whether previous paramedic exposure to OHCA resuscitation is associated with patient survival...
  21. ncbi Hyperoxia in the intensive care unit and outcome after out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest
    Joshua F Ihle
    The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
    Crit Care Resusc 15:186-90. 2013
    ....
  22. doi Determinants of clinically important pain severity reduction in the prehospital setting
    Paul A Jennings
    Ambulance Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Emerg Med J 29:333-4. 2012
    ..These included age, time criticality of the patient, pain aetiology, initial pain severity, analgesic agent or combination administered to the patient and prehospital time...
  23. doi Hypothermia after cardiac arrest: expanding the therapeutic scope
    Stephen Bernard
    Intensive Care Unit, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Crit Care Med 37:S227-33. 2009
    ....
  24. ncbi Association between clinically abnormal observations and subsequent in-hospital mortality: a prospective study
    Michael Buist
    Department of Intensive Care, Dandenong Hospital, P O Box 478, Dandenong, VIC 3175, Australia
    Resuscitation 62:137-41. 2004
    ..The aim of this study was to determine the predictive value of selected abnormal clinical observations in a ward population for subsequent in-hospital mortality...
  25. ncbi Induced hypothermia using large volume, ice-cold intravenous fluid in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a preliminary report
    Stephen Bernard
    The Intensive Care Unit, Dandenong Hospital, David St, Victoria 3175, Dandenong, Australia
    Resuscitation 56:9-13. 2003
    ....
  26. doi Comparison of health-related quality of life and functional recovery measurement tools in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors
    Emily Andrew
    Department of Research and Evaluation, Ambulance Victoria, Melbourne, Australia Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia Electronic address
    Resuscitation 107:57-64. 2016
    ..We sought to compare the responses of 12-month OHCA survivors to three HR-QOL and functional recovery instruments, and assess instrument validity...
  27. doi Early Decompression following Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: Examining the Process of Care from Accident Scene to Surgery
    Camila R Battistuzzo
    1 Department of Medicine Royal Melbourne Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
    J Neurotrauma 33:1161-9. 2016
    ..Direct surgical hospital admission, rapid organization of theater, and where possible, use of closed reduction, are likely to be effective strategies to reduce the time to decompression. ..
  28. ncbi Protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial of early and sustained prophylactic hypothermia in the management of traumatic brain injury
    Alistair Nichol
    Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Research Centre, Monash University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
    Crit Care Resusc 17:92-100. 2015
    ..We describe our study protocol and the challenges in conducting prophylactic hypothermia research in TBI...
  29. doi Epidemiology of prehospital pain: an opportunity for improvement
    Paul Andrew Jennings
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Emerg Med J 28:530-1. 2011
    ..Those with the most severe pain had pain reduction that was clinically significant. Further research is needed to provide optimal pain relief in the prehospital setting...
  30. ncbi Could bystander first-aid prevent trauma deaths at the scene of injury?
    Amer Ashour
    Emergency and Trauma Centre, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Emerg Med Australas 19:163-8. 2007
    ..To identify potentially preventable prehospital deaths following traumatic cardiac arrest...
  31. doi Ethanol exposure and isolated traumatic brain injury
    James H Brennan
    Emergency and Trauma Centre, The Alfred Hospital, Commercial Road, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, The Alfred Centre, Melbourne, Vic, Australia Electronic address
    J Clin Neurosci 22:1928-32. 2015
    ..Any neuroprotection or harm from ethanol exposure was not conclusive, requiring further prospective trials. ..
  32. ncbi "After-hours" staffing of trauma centres and outcomes among patients presenting with acute traumatic coagulopathy
    Biswadev Mitra
    The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
    Med J Aust 201:588-91. 2014
    ..To examine the effect of the "after-hours" (18:00-07:00) model of trauma care on a high-risk subgroup - patients presenting with acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC)...
  33. doi Tranexamic acid for trauma: filling the 'GAP' in evidence
    Biswadev Mitra
    National Trauma Research Institute, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Emergency and Trauma Centre, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Emerg Med Australas 26:194-7. 2014
    ..This and further trials involving appropriate sample populations are required before evidence based guidelines on TxA use during trauma resuscitation can be developed. ..
  34. doi Traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in Melbourne, Australia
    Conor Deasy
    Ambulance Victoria, Australia
    Resuscitation 83:465-70. 2012
    ..Many consider attempted resuscitation for traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) futile. This study aims to describe the characteristics and profile of adult traumatic OHCA...
  35. ncbi Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest
    Stephen Bernard
    Intensive Care Unit, Dandenong Hospital, David Street, Dandenong, Victoria 3175, Australia
    Neurol Clin 24:61-71. 2006
    ..Hypothermia (33 degrees C) should be maintained for 24 hours, followed by rewarming over 12 hours. Particular attention must be paid to potassium and glucose levels during hypothermia...
  36. ncbi Early Rapid Neurological Assessment for Acute Spinal Cord Injury Trials
    Camila R Battistuzzo
    1 Department of Medicine Royal Melbourne Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
    J Neurotrauma 33:1936-1945. 2016
    ..A neurological assessment that can be performed rapidly after injury is important for clinical trials of early therapy and to identify patients most likely to benefit from intervention...
  37. doi Quality of life and functional outcomes 12 months after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
    Karen Smith
    From Ambulance Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia K S, E A, M L, Z N, S B Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia K S, E A, M L, Z N, S B School of Primary, Aboriginal, and Rural Health Care, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia K S and Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia S B
    Circulation 131:174-81. 2015
    ..However, concern remains that survivors have a poor quality of life. This study describes the quality of life of OHCA survivors at 1-year postarrest in Victoria, Australia...
  38. doi Usefulness of cooling and coronary catheterization to improve survival in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
    Dion Stub
    Alfred Hospital Heart Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Am J Cardiol 107:522-7. 2011
    ..In conclusion, modern management of OHCA, including therapeutic hypothermia and early coronary angiography is associated with significant improvement in survival to hospital discharge and neurologic recovery...
  39. ncbi The use of rapid sequence intubation by ambulance paramedics for patients with severe head injury
    Stephen Bernard
    Air Ambulance Victoria, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    Emerg Med (Fremantle) 14:406-11. 2002
    ..To determine the effects of rapid sequence intubation in patients with severe head injury performed by paramedics on a helicopter emergency medical service...
  40. ncbi Paramedic identification of stroke: community validation of the melbourne ambulance stroke screen
    Janet E Bray
    Eastern Melbourne Neurosciences, Melbourne, Australia
    Cerebrovasc Dis 20:28-33. 2005
    ....
  41. ncbi Induced hypothermia in critical care medicine: a review
    Stephen A Bernard
    Intensive Care Unit, Dandenong Hospital, Victoria, Australia
    Crit Care Med 31:2041-51. 2003
    ..Clinical trials of induced hypothermia have suggested that this treatment may be beneficial in selected patients with neurologic injury...
  42. ncbi Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest
    Stephen A Bernard
    Med J Aust 181:468-9. 2004
    ..Hypothermia is now standard care for some types of cardiac arrest...
  43. ncbi Hypothermia for neuroprotection after cardiac arrest: systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis
    Michael Holzer
    Department of Emergency Medicine, General Hospital Vienna, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
    Crit Care Med 33:414-8. 2005
    ..Only a few patients survive cardiac arrest with favorable neurologic recovery. Our objective was to assess whether induced hypothermia improves neurologic recovery in survivors of primary cardiac arrest...
  44. ncbi Therapeutic hypothermia induced during cardiopulmonary resuscitation using large-volume, ice-cold intravenous fluid
    Stephen A Bernard
    The Intensive Care Unit, Knox Private Hospital, 262 Mountain Highway, Wantirna South, Victoria 3154, Australia
    Resuscitation 76:311-3. 2008
    ..We report a case where therapeutic hypothermia was induced during cardiopulmonary resuscitation using large-volume (40 mL/kg), ice-cold (4 degrees C) intravenous fluid...
  45. doi Gender differences in outcome in patients with hypotension and severe traumatic brain injury
    Jennie L Ponsford
    Monash Epworth Rehabilitation Research Centre, Epworth Hospital, Australia
    Injury 39:67-76. 2008
    ..Progesterone and oestrogen are thought to afford protection in the immediate post-injury period, suggesting females have an advantage, although there has been limited evidence of this in human outcome studies...
  46. ncbi Cardiopulmonary resuscitation after traumatic cardiac arrest is not always futile
    Cameron D Willis
    Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Vic, Australia
    Injury 37:448-54. 2006
    ..This study aimed to describe the outcomes for victims of penetrating and blunt trauma who received prehospital CPR...
  47. pmc Effects of a medical emergency team on reduction of incidence of and mortality from unexpected cardiac arrests in hospital: preliminary study
    Michael D Buist
    Department of Intensive Care, Dandenong Hospital, Dandenong, VIC 3175, Australia
    BMJ 324:387-90. 2002
    ..To determine whether earlier clinical intervention by a medical emergency team prompted by clinical instability in a patient could reduce the incidence of and mortality from unexpected cardiac arrest in hospital...
  48. doi Prehospital prediction of the severity of blunt anatomic injury
    Stephen A Mulholland
    Victoria Trauma Foundation Centre for Trauma Research and Practice, The Alfred Hospital, Melborne, Australia
    J Trauma 64:754-60. 2008
    ..To assess whether paramedic prediction of severity of injury to individual body regions is accurate and could add to overall paramedic prediction of injury severity...
  49. doi Prehospital noninvasive ventilation: a viable treatment option in the urban setting
    David McD Taylor
    Emergency Medicine Research, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Victoria Australia
    Prehosp Emerg Care 12:42-5. 2008
    ..To determine the viability of prehospital noninvasive ventilation (NIV) as a prelude to a definitive clinical trial...