Genomes and Genes
Summary: Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
- ..Recent research has identified several genes involved in xylan synthesis, some of which have already been used in engineering efforts to create plants that are better suited for biofuel production...
- Anders N, Wilkinson M, Lovegrove A, Freeman J, Tryfona T, Pellny T, et al. Glycosyl transferases in family 61 mediate arabinofuranosyl transfer onto xylan in grasses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:989-93 pubmed publisher..Thus, GT61 proteins play a key role in arabinoxylan biosynthesis and therefore in the evolutionary divergence of grass cell walls...
- Sampedro J, Gianzo C, Iglesias N, Guitián E, Revilla G, Zarra I. AtBGAL10 is the main xyloglucan ?-galactosidase in Arabidopsis, and its absence results in unusual xyloglucan subunits and growth defects. Plant Physiol. 2012;158:1146-57 pubmed publisher..Expression was high in many cell types undergoing wall extension or remodeling, such as young stems, abscission zones, or developing vasculature, showing good correlation with ?-xylosidase expression. ..
- Mattéotti C, Bauwens J, Brasseur C, Tarayre C, Thonart P, Destain J, et al. Identification and characterization of a new xylanase from Gram-positive bacteria isolated from termite gut (Reticulitermes santonensis). Protein Expr Purif. 2012;83:117-27 pubmed publisher..0 at 55 °C. Its activity was increased by reducing agents and decreased by Cu(2+), some detergents, and chelating agents. Its substrate specificity appeared limited to xylan. ..
- Lee C, Teng Q, Zhong R, Ye Z. Arabidopsis GUX proteins are glucuronyltransferases responsible for the addition of glucuronic acid side chains onto xylan. Plant Cell Physiol. 2012;53:1204-16 pubmed publisher..Together, our results provide biochemical and genetic evidence that GUX1/2/3 are GlcATs responsible for the GlcA substitution of xylan, which is essential for normal secondary wall deposition and plant development. ..
- Chebli Y, Kaneda M, Zerzour R, Geitmann A. The cell wall of the Arabidopsis pollen tube--spatial distribution, recycling, and network formation of polysaccharides. Plant Physiol. 2012;160:1940-55 pubmed publisher..A series of strategic enzymatic treatments also suggests that pectins, cellulose, and callose are highly cross linked to each other...
- Günl M, Neumetzler L, Kraemer F, de Souza A, Schultink A, Pena M, et al. AXY8 encodes an ?-fucosidase, underscoring the importance of apoplastic metabolism on the fine structure of Arabidopsis cell wall polysaccharides. Plant Cell. 2011;23:4025-40 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, without the dominant apoplastic glycosylhydrolases, the XyG structure in the wall is mainly composed of XXXG and XXFG subunits. ..
- Brown D, Wightman R, Zhang Z, Gomez L, Atanassov I, Bukowski J, et al. Arabidopsis genes IRREGULAR XYLEM (IRX15) and IRX15L encode DUF579-containing proteins that are essential for normal xylan deposition in the secondary cell wall. Plant J. 2011;66:401-13 pubmed publisher..These data are consistent with irx15 and irx15l defining a new class of genes involved in xylan biosynthesis. How these genes function during xylan biosynthesis and deposition is discussed. ..
- Hilz H, de Jong L, Kabel M, Verhoef R, Schols H, Voragen A. Bilberry xyloglucan--novel building blocks containing beta-xylose within a complex structure. Carbohydr Res. 2007;342:170-81 pubmed..This U chain was present in three building blocks described before (XUXG, XLUG and XUFG) and four novel blocks that have not been described in the literature previously: XUG, XUUG, XLUG and XXUG. ..
- Ibatullin F, Baumann M, Greffe L, Brumer H. Kinetic analyses of retaining endo-(xylo)glucanases from plant and microbial sources using new chromogenic xylogluco-oligosaccharide aryl glycosides. Biochemistry. 2008;47:7762-9 pubmed publisher..These new chromogenic substrates may thus find wide application in the discovery, screening, and detailed kinetic analysis of new xyloglucan-active enzymes. ..
- Ishimizu T, Hashimoto C, Takeda R, Fujii K, Hase S. A Novel alpha1,2-L-fucosidase acting on xyloglucan oligosaccharides is associated with endo-beta-mannosidase. J Biochem. 2007;142:721-9 pubmed..The amino acid sequence of this associated protein has no similarity to known plant alpha-L-fucosidases. These results show that EBM II is a novel alpha1,2-L-fucosidase and a protein complex containing endo-beta-mannosidase. ..
- Li J, Kisara K, Danielsson S, Lindström M, Gellerstedt G. An improved methodology for the quantification of uronic acid units in xylans and other polysaccharides. Carbohydr Res. 2007;342:1442-9 pubmed..By combining the two methods, a complete quantification of all individual types of uronic acids present in a sample can be achieved. ..
- Vardakou M, Nueno Palop C, Gasson M, Narbad A, Christakopoulos P. In vitro three-stage continuous fermentation of wheat arabinoxylan fractions and induction of hydrolase activity by the gut microflora. Int J Biol Macromol. 2007;41:584-9 pubmed
- Lafond M, Tauzin A, Desseaux V, Bonnin E, Ajandouz E, Giardina T. GH10 xylanase D from Penicillium funiculosum: biochemical studies and xylooligosaccharide production. Microb Cell Fact. 2011;10:20 pubmed publisher..Moreover, XOS hydrolysis suggested that XynD possess four catalytic subsites with a high energy of interaction with the substrate and a fifth subsite with a small energy of interaction, according to the GH10 xylanase literature data. ..
- Vardakou M, Palop C, Christakopoulos P, Faulds C, Gasson M, Narbad A. Evaluation of the prebiotic properties of wheat arabinoxylan fractions and induction of hydrolase activity in gut microflora. Int J Food Microbiol. 2008;123:166-70 pubmed publisher..Addition of the WU-AX substrates to the batch cultures produced several fold increases of bacterial synthesis of both enzymes, and these increases were greater when the WU-AX substrate was pretreated with xylanase. ..
- Gloster T, Ibatullin F, Macauley K, Ekl f J, Roberts S, Turkenburg J, et al. Characterization and three-dimensional structures of two distinct bacterial xyloglucanases from families GH5 and GH12. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:19177-89 pubmed publisher..The differential strategies for the accommodation of the side chains of xyloglucan presumably facilitate the action of these microbial hydrolases in milieus where diverse and differently substituted substrates may be encountered...
- Cloetens L, Broekaert W, Delaedt Y, Ollevier F, Courtin C, Delcour J, et al. Tolerance of arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides and their prebiotic activity in healthy subjects: a randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Br J Nutr. 2010;103:703-13 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, AXOS are a well-tolerated prebiotic at the dose of 10 g/d. AXOS intake increases faecal bifidobacteria and reduces urinary p-cresol excretion. ..
- Chassard C, Delmas E, Lawson P, Bernalier Donadille A. Bacteroides xylanisolvens sp. nov., a xylan-degrading bacterium isolated from human faeces. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2008;58:1008-13 pubmed publisher..nov. is proposed. The type strain is XB1AT (=DSM 18836T =CCUG 53782T). ..
- Keppler B, Showalter A. IRX14 and IRX14-LIKE, two glycosyl transferases involved in glucuronoxylan biosynthesis and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. Mol Plant. 2010;3:834-41 pubmed publisher..IRX14L likely functions redundantly with IRX14 in glucuronoxylan biosynthesis, with IRX14 having a more important role in the process. ..
- Lee C, Teng Q, Huang W, Zhong R, Ye Z. The F8H glycosyltransferase is a functional paralog of FRA8 involved in glucuronoxylan biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2009;50:812-27 pubmed publisher..Together, our findings suggest that F8H and FRA8 are functional paralogs and that they function redundantly in GX biosynthesis during secondary wall formation in the xylem. ..
- Sampedro J, Pardo B, Gianzo C, Guitián E, Revilla G, Zarra I. Lack of ?-xylosidase activity in Arabidopsis alters xyloglucan composition and results in growth defects. Plant Physiol. 2010;154:1105-15 pubmed publisher..The promoter of AtXYL1 was shown to direct expression to many different organs and cell types undergoing cell wall modifications, including trichomes, vasculature, stomata, and elongating anther filaments. ..
- Herve C, Rogowski A, Blake A, Marcus S, Gilbert H, Knox J. Carbohydrate-binding modules promote the enzymatic deconstruction of intact plant cell walls by targeting and proximity effects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15293-8 pubmed publisher..The targeting actions of CBMs therefore have strong proximity effects within cell wall structures, explaining why cellulose-directed CBMs are appended to many noncellulase cell wall hydrolases. ..
- Fukuda M, Watanabe S, Yoshida S, Itoh H, Itoh Y, Kamio Y, et al. Cell surface xylanases of the glycoside hydrolase family 10 are essential for xylan utilization by Paenibacillus sp. W-61 as generators of xylo-oligosaccharide inducers for the xylanase genes. J Bacteriol. 2010;192:2210-9 pubmed publisher
- Steen E, Kang Y, Bokinsky G, Hu Z, Schirmer A, McClure A, et al. Microbial production of fatty-acid-derived fuels and chemicals from plant biomass. Nature. 2010;463:559-62 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, we show engineering of the biodiesel-producing cells to express hemicellulases, a step towards producing these compounds directly from hemicellulose, a major component of plant-derived biomass...
- Gullfot F, Ibatullin F, Sundqvist G, Davies G, Brumer H. Functional characterization of xyloglucan glycosynthases from GH7, GH12, and GH16 scaffolds. Biomacromolecules. 2009;10:1782-8 pubmed publisher..Such compounds enable in vitro experimental studies regarding the role of particular structural elements for xyloglucan properties and its interaction with cellulose. ..
- Powlowski J, Mahajan S, Schapira M, Master E. Substrate recognition and hydrolysis by a fungal xyloglucan-specific family 12 hydrolase. Carbohydr Res. 2009;344:1175-9 pubmed publisher..AnXEG12A did not hydrolyze XXXXXXXG, consistent with other data that demonstrate the requirement for an unbranched glucose residue for hydrolysis by this enzyme. ..
- Leonard R, Pabst M, Bondili J, Chambat G, Veit C, Strasser R, et al. Identification of an Arabidopsis gene encoding a GH95 alpha1,2-fucosidase active on xyloglucan oligo- and polysaccharides. Phytochemistry. 2008;69:1983-8 pubmed publisher..5mM and a specific activity of 36 mU/mg. It is proposed that the AtFuc95A gene has a role in xyloglucan metabolism. ..
- Lee C, O Neill M, Tsumuraya Y, Darvill A, Ye Z. The irregular xylem9 mutant is deficient in xylan xylosyltransferase activity. Plant Cell Physiol. 2007;48:1624-34 pubmed..Our results provide biochemical evidence that the irx9 mutation results in a deficiency in xylan XylT activity, thus leading to a defect in the elongation of the xylan backbone. ..
- Zhao Y, Luo H, Meng K, Shi P, Wang G, Yang P, et al. A xylanase gene directly cloned from the genomic DNA of alkaline wastewater sludge showing application potential in the paper industry. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2011;165:35-46 pubmed publisher..These properties make AWS-2x a potential candidate for application in the pulp and paper industry. ..
- Peña M, Zhong R, Zhou G, Richardson E, O Neill M, Darvill A, et al. Arabidopsis irregular xylem8 and irregular xylem9: implications for the complexity of glucuronoxylan biosynthesis. Plant Cell. 2007;19:549-63 pubmed..Our results suggest that IRX9 is required for normal GX elongation and indicate roles for IRX8 and FRA8 in the synthesis of the glycosyl sequence at the GX reducing end. ..
- Eeckhaut V, Van Immerseel F, Dewulf J, Pasmans F, Haesebrouck F, Ducatelle R, et al. Arabinoxylooligosaccharides from wheat bran inhibit Salmonella colonization in broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 2008;87:2329-34 pubmed publisher..2% AXOS-9-0.25. It was concluded that dietary addition of AXOS provides dose-dependent protection against oral infections with Salmonella Enteritidis in poultry. ..
- Bernal A, Jensen J, Harholt J, Sørensen S, Moller I, Blaukopf C, et al. Disruption of ATCSLD5 results in reduced growth, reduced xylan and homogalacturonan synthase activity and altered xylan occurrence in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2007;52:791-802 pubmed..The work presented provides a comprehensive analysis of the effects of disrupting ATCSLD5 in planta, and the possible role(s) of this gene and other ATCSLDs in cell wall biosynthesis are discussed. ..
- Sørensen H, Pedersen S, Jørgensen C, Meyer A. Enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat arabinoxylan by a recombinant "minimal" enzyme cocktail containing beta-xylosidase and novel endo-1,4-beta-xylanase and alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase activities. Biotechnol Prog. 2007;23:100-7 pubmed..5 L, two commercially available enzyme preparations produced by H. insolens and T. reesei. ..
- Maris A, Kaewthai N, Eklöf J, Miller J, Brumer H, Fry S, et al. Differences in enzymic properties of five recombinant xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:261-71 pubmed publisher..Isoforms differed in optimum pH (5.0-7.5), in temperature dependence and in acceptor substrate preferences. ..
- Mortimer J, Miles G, Brown D, Zhang Z, Segura M, Weimar T, et al. Absence of branches from xylan in Arabidopsis gux mutants reveals potential for simplification of lignocellulosic biomass. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:17409-14 pubmed publisher..The results also demonstrate the potential for manipulating and simplifying the structure of xylan to improve the properties of lignocellulose for bioenergy and other uses. ..
- de Alcântara P, Martim L, Silva C, Dietrich S, Buckeridge M. Purification of a beta-galactosidase from cotyledons of Hymenaea courbaril L. (Leguminosae). Enzyme properties and biological function. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2006;44:619-27 pubmed..A possible relationship with functional stability of the wall during cell death as cotyledons undergo senescence is discussed. ..
- Zhong R, Demura T, Ye Z. SND1, a NAC domain transcription factor, is a key regulator of secondary wall synthesis in fibers of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2006;18:3158-70 pubmed..Together, our results reveal that SND1 is a key transcriptional activator involved in secondary wall biosynthesis in fibers. ..
- Yang S, Kataeva I, Hamilton Brehm S, Engle N, Tschaplinski T, Doeppke C, et al. Efficient degradation of lignocellulosic plant biomass, without pretreatment, by the thermophilic anaerobe "Anaerocellum thermophilum" DSM 6725. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:4762-9 pubmed publisher..thermophilum DSM 6725, grew well on switchgrass but not on poplar, indicating a significant difference in the biomass-degrading abilities of these two otherwise very similar organisms. ..
- Lee C, Teng Q, Huang W, Zhong R, Ye Z. The poplar GT8E and GT8F glycosyltransferases are functional orthologs of Arabidopsis PARVUS involved in glucuronoxylan biosynthesis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2009;50:1982-7 pubmed publisher..These findings suggest that PoGT8E and PoGT8F are involved in glucuronoxylan biosynthesis during wood formation in poplar. ..
- Mamo G, Hatti Kaul R, Mattiasson B. Fusion of carbohydrate binding modules from Thermotoga neapolitana with a family 10 xylanase from Bacillus halodurans S7. Extremophiles. 2007;11:169-77 pubmed..The fusion of the CBM structures enhanced the hydrolytic efficiency of the xylanase against insoluble xylan, but decreased the stability of the enzyme. The optimum temperature and pH for the activity of the xylanase did not change...
- de O Buanafina M. Feruloylation in grasses: current and future perspectives. Mol Plant. 2009;2:861-72 pubmed publisher..I also argue that the nature of arabinoxylan feruloylation remains uncertain. ..
- Yang C, Yang S, Liu W. Production of xylooligosaccharides from xylans by extracellular xylanases from Thermobifida fusca. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:3955-9 pubmed..0, for 10 h. The xylooligosaccharides that accumulated in the broth were about 23.7%. After the purification process by activated charcoal chromatography, the purity of xylooligosaccharides was 71.4%. ..
- Chassard C, Goumy V, Leclerc M, Del homme C, Bernalier Donadille A. Characterization of the xylan-degrading microbial community from human faeces. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2007;61:121-31 pubmed..Our results provide new insights to the diversity and activity of the human gut xylanolytic community. Four new xylan-degrading Bacteroides species were identified and the xylanolytic capacity of R. intestinalis was further shown. ..
- Rakotoarivonina H, Hermant B, Chabbert B, Touzel J, Remond C. A thermostable feruloyl-esterase from the hemicellulolytic bacterium Thermobacillus xylanilyticus releases phenolic acids from non-pretreated plant cell walls. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011;90:541-52 pubmed publisher..Our results showed that Tx-Est1 is a thermostable feruloyl-esterase which could be useful to hydrolyze arabinoxylans from graminaceous plant cell walls as the enzyme is able to release phenolic acids from a lignocellulose biomass. ..
- Oikawa A, Joshi H, Rennie E, Ebert B, Manisseri C, Heazlewood J, et al. An integrative approach to the identification of Arabidopsis and rice genes involved in xylan and secondary wall development. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15481 pubmed publisherb>Xylans constitute the major non-cellulosic component of plant biomass...