traumatic shock


Summary: Shock produced as a result of trauma.

Top Publications

  1. Peterson D, Schinco M, Kerwin A, Griffen M, Pieper P, Tepas J. Evaluation of initial base deficit as a prognosticator of outcome in the pediatric trauma population. Am Surg. 2004;70:326-8 pubmed
    ..This readily available laboratory study can identify those children most at risk of potentially preventable complications...
  2. White N, Martin E, Brophy D, Ward K. Coagulopathy and traumatic shock: characterizing hemostatic function during the critical period prior to fluid resuscitation. Resuscitation. 2010;81:111-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A combat-relevant swine model was used to investigate the development of coagulopathy during trauma by monitoring hemostatic function during increasing severity of shock...
  3. Fabiano G, Pezzolla A, Filograna M, Ferrarese F. [Traumatic shock--physiopathologic aspects]. G Chir. 2008;29:51-7 pubmed
    b>Traumatic shock is a complex phenomenon that represents the culminating element of a series of events...
  4. Botha A, Moore F, Moore E, Peterson V, Goode A. Base deficit after major trauma directly relates to neutrophil CD11b expression: a proposed mechanism of shock-induced organ injury. Intensive Care Med. 1997;23:504-9 pubmed
    To determine whether expression of neutrophil integrin receptors is related to the degree of post-traumatic shock.
  5. Tatarishvili J, Momtselidze N, McHedlishvili G. Blood rheological abnormalities in the microcirculation during experimental traumatic shock. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2004;30:407-10 pubmed
    To find whether the principal indices of blood rheological disorders related to the microcirculation undergo drastic changes during the traumatic shock.
  6. Allison C, Trunkey D. Battlefield trauma, traumatic shock and consequences: war-related advances in critical care. Crit Care Clin. 2009;25:31-45, vii pubmed publisher
    ..These improvements have occurred primarily as a result of progress in three key areas: management of wounds, treatment of shock, and systems of organization...
  7. Marcu A, Kielar N, Paccione K, Barbee R, Carter H, Ivatury R, et al. Androstenetriol improves survival in a rodent model of traumatic shock. Resuscitation. 2006;71:379-86 pubmed
    ..Such actions may be useful in improving survival from traumatic shock.
  8. Rixen D, Siegel J. Bench-to-bedside review: oxygen debt and its metabolic correlates as quantifiers of the severity of hemorrhagic and post-traumatic shock. Crit Care. 2005;9:441-53 pubmed
    ..oxygen debt and its metabolic correlates are important quantifiers of the severity of hemorrhagic and post-traumatic shock and and may serve as useful guides in the treatment of these conditions...
  9. Cohn S, Nathens A, Moore F, Rhee P, Puyana J, Moore E, et al. Tissue oxygen saturation predicts the development of organ dysfunction during traumatic shock resuscitation. J Trauma. 2007;62:44-54; discussion 54-5 pubmed
    ..Our purpose was to evaluate how well StO2 predicted outcome in high-risk torso trauma patients presenting in shock...

More Information


  1. Ding W, Wu X, Pascual J, Zhao K, Ji W, Li N, et al. Temporary intravascular shunting improves survival in a hypothermic traumatic shock swine model with superior mesenteric artery injuries. Surgery. 2010;147:79-88 pubmed publisher
  2. Mimasaka S, Hashiyada M, Nata M, Funayama M. Correlation between serum IL-6 levels and death: usefulness in diagnosis of "traumatic shock"?. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2001;193:319-24 pubmed
    ..Even though several cases had high levels of IL-6 in spite of instantaneous death, the results showed that IL-6 levels are helpful in the diagnosis of traumatic shock.
  3. Doucet D, Bonitz R, Feinman R, Colorado I, Ramanathan M, Feketeova E, et al. Estrogenic hormone modulation abrogates changes in red blood cell deformability and neutrophil activation in trauma hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma. 2010;68:35-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we examined the relative role of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and -beta in this protective response...
  4. Rhee P, Morris J, Durham R, Hauser C, Cipolle M, Wilson R, et al. Recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody against CD18 (rhuMAb CD18) in traumatic hemorrhagic shock: results of a phase II clinical trial. Traumatic Shock Group. J Trauma. 2000;49:611-9; discussion 619-20 pubmed
    ..This was a dose-finding phase II study to determine safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and clinical outcome parameters for additional studies...
  5. Wheatley C. A scarlet pimpernel for the resolution of inflammation? The role of supra-therapeutic doses of cobalamin, in the treatment of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic or traumatic shock. Med Hypotheses. 2006;67:124-42 pubmed
    ..Moreover, animal and human clinical data suggests that high dose cobalamin may prove a promising approach to SIRS/sepsis/septic and traumatic shock.
  6. McKinley B, Marvin R, Cocanour C, Moore F. Tissue hemoglobin O2 saturation during resuscitation of traumatic shock monitored using near infrared spectrometry. J Trauma. 2000;48:637-42 pubmed
    ..StO2 was also compared with other indices of severity of shock or adequacy of resuscitation, including arterial base deficit, lactate, gastric mucosal P(CO2) (PgCO2), and mixed venous hemoglobin O2 saturation (S(VO2))...
  7. Hardaway R. Traumatic shock. Mil Med. 2006;171:278-9 pubmed
    The association of shock with trauma has long been recognized. There are three types of shock, i.e., (1) hypovolemic or hemorrhagic shock, (2) traumatic shock, and (3) septic shock. The conditions and their treatments are described.
  8. Crookes B, Cohn S, Burton E, Nelson J, Proctor K. Noninvasive muscle oxygenation to guide fluid resuscitation after traumatic shock. Surgery. 2004;135:662-70 pubmed
  9. Balogh Z, McKinley B, Cocanour C, Kozar R, Holcomb J, Ware D, et al. Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome is an elusive early complication of traumatic shock resuscitation. Am J Surg. 2002;184:538-43; discussion 543-4 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to describe major trauma victims who developed secondary ACS during standardized shock resuscitation...
  10. Randolph L, Takacs M, Davis K. Resuscitation in the pediatric trauma population: admission base deficit remains an important prognostic indicator. J Trauma. 2002;53:838-42 pubmed
    ..We proposed that admission BD would correlate with outcomes after trauma in a pediatric population...
  11. Senthil M, Brown M, Xu D, Lu Q, Feketeova E, Deitch E. Gut-lymph hypothesis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome/multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome: validating studies in a porcine model. J Trauma. 2006;60:958-65; discussion 965-7 pubmed
    ..A porcine model was chosen because the pig and human cardiovascular and gastrointestinal physiology are similar...
  12. Armstead V, Opentanova I, Minchenko A, Lefer A. Tissue factor expression in vital organs during murine traumatic shock: role of transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kappaB. Anesthesiology. 1999;91:1844-52 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate TF expression in vital organs and to determine possible regulatory mechanisms of TF expression in the lung during traumatic shock in rats.
  13. Bao C, Hu S, Zhou G, Tian Y, Wu Y, Sheng Z. Effect of carbachol on intestinal mucosal blood flow, activity of Na+-K+-ATPase, expression of aquaporin-1, and intestinal absorption rate during enteral resuscitation of burn shock in rats. J Burn Care Res. 2010;31:200-6 pubmed publisher
    ..05). The results indicate that CAR promotes intestinal absorption rate of water and Na by improving IMBF, ATPase activity, and AQP-1 expression in gut mucosa during resuscitation with enteral GES of burn shock in rats. ..
  14. Patel M, Earle S, Majetschak M. Dynamics of tissue ubiquitin pools and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway component activities during the systemic response to traumatic shock. Physiol Res. 2007;56:547-57 pubmed
    ..role during sepsis, burns and ischemia-reperfusion injury, we hypothesized that the systemic response to traumatic shock (TS) is accompanied by tissue-specific UPP alterations...
  15. Blackburn K. Recalling war trauma of the Pacific War and the Japanese occupation in the oral history of Malaysia and Singapore. Oral Hist Rev. 2009;36:231-52 pubmed
    ..The self -- identity of many older people who lived through the Pacific War and the Japanese Occupation is inextricably bound up with their ethnicity. Oral history on war trauma strongly reflects these identities. ..
  16. Edelman D, White M, Tyburski J, Wilson R. Factors affecting prognosis in patients with gastric trauma. Am Surg. 2007;73:48-53 pubmed
    ..Isolated gastric injury is rare, but is associated with low morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of injury, location of injury, and type of repair used all affect patient outcomes with gastric injury. ..
  17. Kuhne C, Ruchholtz S, Sauerland S, Waydhas C, Nast Kolb D. [Personnel and structural requirements for the shock trauma room management of multiple trauma. A systematic review of the literature]. Unfallchirurg. 2004;107:851-61 pubmed
    ..A CT scanner should be positioned nearby.Adequate management of severely injured patients requires optimal personal and structural conditions. High costs and additional personnel are justified by improved quality of treatment. ..
  18. Christensen T, Rupard S. After the fall: why fall protection isn't always enough. Occup Health Saf. 2006;75:48-9 pubmed
  19. Cancio L, Kuwa T, Matsui K, Drew G, Galvez E, Sandoval L, et al. Intestinal and gastric tonometry during experimental burn shock. Burns. 2007;33:879-84 pubmed
    ..Changes in ileal PrCO(2) were of greater magnitude and demonstrated decreased variability than those in gastric PrCO(2). In this model, ileal tonometry outperformed gastric tonometry during burn shock and resuscitation. ..
  20. Liu L, Hu D, Chen H, Hu P. The effect of different volumes of fluid resuscitation on traumatic-hemorrhagic shock at high altitude in the unacclimated rat. Shock. 2004;21:93-6 pubmed
    ..In series I, 36 rats were equally divided into six groups: sham-operated, untreated (traumatic shock without fluid infusion), and with lactated Ringer's resuscitation (LR) of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 or 3...
  21. Yang L, Wang J, Zhou Y. [Successful management of severely burned patients: report of 6 cases]. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao. 2003;23:1230 pubmed
  22. Kozhevnikova L, Avdonin P, Sukhanova I, Avdonin P. Inversion of the response to serotonin in rats with traumatic shock. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2008;145:298-301 pubmed
    Normally serotonin reduced blood pressure. It was shown that in rats with traumatic shock its hypotensive effect was transformed into hypertensive one...
  23. Aggarwal R. Management of traumatic shock. Indian J Pediatr. 1998;65:495-501 pubmed
    ..The outcome of traumatic children has a direct correlation to resuscitation. In order to manage traumatic shock there are four basic principles: (a) control of active hemorrhage, (b) assessment of circulatory status, (c) ..
  24. Rozanski E, Rondeau M. Choosing fluids in traumatic hypovolemic shock: the role of crystalloids, colloids, and hypertonic saline. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2002;38:499-501 pubmed
  25. Oda J, Kasai K, Noborio M, Aoki Y, Yamashita K, Inoue T, et al. Effect of intravenous atrial natriuretic peptide on pulmonary dysfunction and renal function following burn shock. J Trauma. 2009;66:1281-5 pubmed publisher
  26. John T, Ertel W. [Pelvic injuries in the polytraumatized patient]. Orthopade. 2005;34:917-30 pubmed
    ..The time point and the techniques of definitive pelvic ring stabilization may be different in the patient with multiple injuries compared to isolated pelvic ring injuries. ..
  27. Davidson M, Deitch E, Lu Q, Hasko G, Abungu B, Németh Z, et al. Trauma-hemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph induces endothelial apoptosis that involves both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent mechanisms. Ann Surg. 2004;240:123-31 pubmed
    ..Gut-derived factors in T/HS, but not T/SS, mesenteric lymph cause endothelial cell death via an apoptotic mechanism that involves both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. ..
  28. Lubner M, Demertzis J, Lee J, Appleton C, Bhalla S, Menias C. CT evaluation of shock viscera: a pictorial review. Emerg Radiol. 2008;15:1-11 pubmed
    ..In addition, it is important to discern this collection of findings from direct injury to the viscera to aid in appropriate triage and management of the patients' injuries...
  29. Baumgartner F, Bongard F, Klein S. Inadequate bicarbonate resuscitation in trauma patients requiring crossclamping of the aorta. Resuscitation. 1990;20:17-23 pubmed
    ..Within minutes of aortic declamping, all became hypotensive and two went into refractory ventricular fibrillation and died. Arguments supporting the role of adequate bicarbonate resuscitation in this setting are discussed. ..
  30. Hauswald M, Greene E. Regional blood flow after pneumatic anti-shock garment inflation. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2003;7:225-8 pubmed
    ..This provides support for the use of PASG to decrease otherwise uncontrollable hemorrhage from the iliac, pelvic, and leg vessels, but not for injuries above them. ..
  31. Di Quirico R, Di Tano V, Cornacchia R, Orfanelli R, Leonio L, Bindi F. [Major burn: proposal of synthetic prehospital and hospital protocols]. G Chir. 2008;29:177-9 pubmed
    ..The Authors describe the utility of comprehensive protocols for the treatment of major burns and the adoption of these for the initial and correct management of burns by prehospital and hospital emergency staff. ..
  32. Sidel nikov V, Batkin A, Paramonov B, Matveenko A, Klimov A, Tarasenko M, et al. [Modern principles of the pathogenetic therapy of the burn shock]. Voen Med Zh. 2003;324:34-9, 96 pubmed
    ..The modern schemes of anti-shock therapy approved at the department of thermal injuries were used in the treatment of casualties with combined burns after the armed conflict in the territory of Chechnia (1999-2001). ..
  33. Sun G, Huang Z, Sun Y, Yang W. Intervention with nitric oxide synthase inhibitors for traumatic shock in rats. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao. 2003;23:306-9 pubmed
    ..and a non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME) on traumatic shock in rats...
  34. Christ F, Lackner C. [Pre-clinical management of shock patients]. Internist (Berl). 2004;45:267-76 pubmed
    ..Of utmost importance in the pre-clinical management of patients in shock is the optimal selection of the centre that the patient is referred to in order to establish the fastest and best possible definite treatment for the patient. ..
  35. Holm C, Melcer B, Hörbrand F, Wörl H, von Donnersmarck G, Muhlbauer W. Intrathoracic blood volume as an end point in resuscitation of the severely burned: an observational study of 24 patients. J Trauma. 2000;48:728-34 pubmed
    ..The effects of burn resuscitation to fixed end points on survival and multiple organ failure should be evaluated in future randomly assigned trials. ..
  36. Kozhevnikova L, Avdonin P. Disturbances in hormonal regulation of vascular tone during traumatic shock. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2006;141:574-7 pubmed
    Changes in hormonal regulation of the vascular tone in Wistar rats were studied on Cannon model of traumatic shock. The pressor response to angiotensin II decreased by 30-40% 3 h after the incidence of trauma...
  37. Wassermann D. [Evaluation and first aid of burned patients]. Rev Prat. 2002;52:2228-33 pubmed
    ..Pain must be controlled using preferentially morphine or related products. Transport to the specialized unit, in case of severe injury, will be performed assuring thermal comfort, wound protection and vital function monitoring. ..
  38. Roudsari B, Nathens A, Koepsell T, Mock C, Rivara F. Analysis of clustered data in multicentre trauma studies. Injury. 2006;37:614-21 pubmed
    ..Therefore, investigators should be aware of the influence that these ICCs might have on sample size and power of their studies. ..
  39. Zong Z, Lam K. Biodynamic response of shipboard sitting subject to ship shock motion. J Biomech. 2002;35:35-43 pubmed
    ..Both damping and stiffness have important influences on the pelvis, but have much less influences on other parts. Injury criteria in the literature are also summarized to facilitate injury assessment. ..
  40. Lee T, Lee W. Blunt chest injury with traumatic dissection of right coronary artery. J Trauma. 2002;53:617 pubmed
  41. Sucher J, Moore F, Sailors R, Gonzalez E, McKinley B. Performance of a computerized protocol for trauma shock resuscitation. World J Surg. 2010;34:216-22 pubmed publisher
  42. Kuwa T, Jordan B, Cancio L. Use of power Doppler ultrasound to monitor renal perfusion during burn shock. Burns. 2006;32:706-13 pubmed
    ..252). PDUS in this study was superior to the urine output in assessing renal cortical microvascular blood flow during shock and resuscitation, and may be useful in the care of injured patients. ..
  43. Wang P, Wang J, Zhang W, Li Y, Li J. Effect of the combination of fibrin glue and growth hormone on intestinal anastomoses in a pig model of traumatic shock associated with peritonitis. World J Surg. 2009;33:567-76 pubmed publisher
    ..recombinant human growth hormone (GH) can improve intestinal primary anastomotic healing in a pig model of traumatic shock associated with peritonitis...
  44. Helm M, Kulla M, Birkenmaier H, Lefering R, Lampl L. [Trauma management under military conditions. A German field hospital in Afghanistan in comparison with the National Trauma Registry]. Chirurg. 2007;78:1130-6, 1138 pubmed
    ..In a military setting, medical treatment of major trauma victims is influenced by multiple adverse factors significantly affecting the quality of trauma management. ..
  45. Moore F, Cocanour C, McKinley B, Kozar R, DeSoignie R, Von Maszewski M, et al. Migrating motility complexes persist after severe traumatic shock in patients who tolerate enteral nutrition. J Trauma. 2001;51:1075-82 pubmed
    ..quot; This, however, was not associated with later tolerance to EN. EN is feasible following severe traumatic shock. Surprisingly, half of the patients had fasting MMCs...
  46. Ashmwe M, Penzenstadler C, Bahrami A, Klotz A, Jafarmadar M, Banerjee A, et al. Secretome Conveys the Protective Effects of ASCs: Therapeutic Potential Following Hemorrhagic Shock?. Shock. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..whether resuscitation supplemented with a) rat adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) or b) secretome (conditioned media) of ASCs can ameliorate inflammation, cell/organ injury, and/or improve outcome after Hemorrhagic traumatic shock (HTS).
  47. Frith D, Brohi K. The acute coagulopathy of trauma shock: clinical relevance. Surgeon. 2010;8:159-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Delineation of this entity, with directed management protocols should lead to a reduction in avoidable deaths from haemorrhage after trauma. ..
  48. Terashita Z, Stahl G, Lefer A. Protective effects of a platelet activating factor (PAF) antagonist and its combined treatment with prostaglandin (PG) E1 in traumatic shock. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1988;12:505-11 pubmed
    We have investigated the role of platelet activating factor (PAF) in the pathogenesis of a murine model of traumatic shock using CV-6209, a specific antagonist of PAF. CV-6209, at a dose of 1 mg/kg (i.v...
  49. Dubick M, Williams C, Elgjo G, Kramer G. High-dose vitamin C infusion reduces fluid requirements in the resuscitation of burn-injured sheep. Shock. 2005;24:139-44 pubmed
    ..In this sheep burn model, continuous high-dose VC infusion reduced net fluid balance, reduced indices of plasma lipid peroxidation, and maintained overall antioxidant status in comparison with standard-of-care LR treatment...
  50. Yokoyama Y, Toth B, Kitchens W, Schwacha M, Rue L, Bland K, et al. Estradiol's effect on portal response to endothelin-1 after trauma-hemorrhage. J Surg Res. 2004;121:25-30 pubmed
    ..We hypothesized that the salutary effects of E(2) are mediated, at least in part, by the attenuation of portal response to ET-1 following trauma-hemorrhage...
  51. Ward K, Ivatury R, Barbee R, Terner J, Pittman R, Filho I, et al. Near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of the trauma patient: a technology review. Resuscitation. 2006;68:27-44 pubmed
    ..The ultimate goal of such techniques is to prevent misassessment of patients and inadequate resuscitation, which are believed to be major initiators in the development of multisystem organ failure and death...
  52. Aoki N, Johnson G, Siegfried M, Lefer A. Protective effects of a combination thromboxane synthesis inhibitor-receptor antagonist, R-68070, during murine traumatic shock. Eicosanoids. 1989;2:169-74 pubmed
    The effects of R-68070 were studied in a well-characterized model of drum-induced traumatic shock in rats. R-68070 is a combination thromboxane A2 (TxA2) synthetase inhibitor-TxA2 receptor antagonist...
  53. Whitfield C. Gelatin colloids in the resuscitation of trauma. J R Army Med Corps. 2006;152:197-201 pubmed
    ..Their role beyond a basic resuscitation tool is now uncertain...
  54. Kaiser V, Sifri Z, Dikdan G, Berezina T, Zaets S, Lu Q, et al. Trauma-hemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph from rat contains a modified form of albumin that is implicated in endothelial cell toxicity. Shock. 2005;23:417-25 pubmed
    ..Further investigations are needed to determine the type of RSA modification and the identity of the lipid factors and their role in MODS...
  55. Haas N, Lindner T, Bail H. [Developments in polytrauma management. Priority-based strategy]. Chirurg. 2007;78:894-901 pubmed
    ..Conceptual damage control surgery is distinguished from early total care. Damage control surgery should be performed only in patients meeting certain instability and risk criteria to avoid additionally burdening their condition...
  56. Hauser C. Preclinical models of traumatic, hemorrhagic shock. Shock. 2005;24 Suppl 1:24-32 pubmed
  57. Laun R, Schröder O, Schoppnies M, Röher H, Ekkernkamp A, Schulte K. Transforming growth factor-beta1 and major trauma: time-dependent association with hepatic and renal insufficiency. Shock. 2003;19:16-23 pubmed
    ..Higher TGF-beta1 levels 6 h after ICU admission increase the risk of sepsis. TGF-beta1 seems to be an early onset reactant and not a second-line responsive cytokine...
  58. Zhang M, Li C, Ma C. [Fluid management and cause of death during shock period in patients with severe burns or burns complicated by inhalation injury]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2003;41:842-4 pubmed
    ..To explore fluid management and cause of death during shock period in severe burns or burns with inhalation injury...
  59. Dunham C, Belzberg H, Lyles R, Weireter L, Skurdal D, Sullivan G, et al. The rapid infusion system: a superior method for the resuscitation of hypovolemic trauma patients. Resuscitation. 1991;21:207-27 pubmed
  60. Lebedev V, Kozlov V, Gavrilin S. [Immunopathogenesis of severe wounds and traumas: possibilities of immune correction]. Vestn Khir Im I I Grek. 2002;161:85-90 pubmed
    ..The administration of this immunocorrector in complex schemes of intensive therapy of the victims was shown to prevent the development of severe pyo-septic pathology and perfectly change the course of the traumatic disease...
  61. Funk D, Parrillo J, Kumar A. Sepsis and septic shock: a history. Crit Care Clin. 2009;25:83-101, viii pubmed publisher
    ..The early descriptions and theories about the etiology (microbial pathogens), pathogenesis (toxins and mediators), and treatment of sepsis-associated disease are also discussed...
  62. Balogh Z, Moore F, Moore E, Biffl W. Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome: a potential threat for all trauma clinicians. Injury. 2007;38:272-9 pubmed
    ..With a reliable, predictive model and new monitoring techniques, trauma clinicians should be able to identify the high-risk patient and attenuate the impact of this syndrome...
  63. Wagner C, Kondella K, Bernschneider T, Heppert V, Wentzensen A, Hänsch G. Post-traumatic osteomyelitis: analysis of inflammatory cells recruited into the site of infection. Shock. 2003;20:503-10 pubmed
  64. Chu R, Browne G, Lam L. Are children with femoral fracture haemodynamically unstable?. Emerg Med (Fremantle). 2003;15:453-8 pubmed
    ..To assess the occurrence of hypovolaemic shock in children who have sustained traumatic femoral fracture...
  65. Mutschler W, Kanz K. [Interdisciplinary shock room management: responsibilities of the radiologist from the trauma surgery viewpoint]. Radiologe. 2002;42:506-14 pubmed
    ..Based on the pathophysiology of polytrauma and the structure of German trauma system, current concepts and proven clinical algorithms with special regard to the radiologist and his duties and tasks will are presented...
  66. Oda J, Ueyama M, Yamashita K, Inoue T, Noborio M, Ode Y, et al. Hypertonic lactated saline resuscitation reduces the risk of abdominal compartment syndrome in severely burned patients. J Trauma. 2006;60:64-71 pubmed
    ..Hypertonic lactated saline (HLS) infusion reduces early fluid requirements in burn shock, but the effects of HLS on intraabdominal pressure have not been clarified...
  67. Pang W, Guo Z, Shuai X, Lu Y, Sun D, Yang L. [Effects of escharectomy during burn shock stage on the mRNA expression of IFN-gamma and IL-4 in spleen T lymphocytes in rats after thermal injury]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2004;42:1142-5 pubmed
    ..To determine the serum level and mRNA expression of type-1/type-2 cytokines of T lymphocytes in spleens of rats after thermal injury and to investigate the effects of escharectomy during burn shock stage on IFN-gamma and IL-4...
  68. Döhnert J, Auerbach B, Wyrwich W, Heyde C. [The preclinical care of polytraumatized patients]. Orthopade. 2005;34:837-51 pubmed
    ..Rescue of the polytraumatized patient, organization and announcement of transfer and the protection of the rescue team have to be taken into account...
  69. Stahel P, Heyde C, Wyrwich W, Ertel W. [Current concepts of polytrauma management: from ATLS to "damage control"]. Orthopade. 2005;34:823-36 pubmed
    ..The present paper provides an overview of the current state of management algorithms for polytrauma patients, with a focus on the standard concepts of ATLS and "damage control"...
  70. Witkowski Z, Lasek J, Kopiszka K, Stasiak M. [Shotgun injuries--epidemiological and clinical aspects]. Wiad Lek. 2006;59:341-5 pubmed
    ..Patient's life is potentially in a real danger and necessitates precise diagnostic and therapeutic management in the early stages following shotgun trauma, in the operating room and in the postoperative phase...
  71. Healey M, Samphire J, Hoyt D, Liu F, Davis R, Loomis W. Irreversible shock is not irreversible: a new model of massive hemorrhage and resuscitation. J Trauma. 2001;50:826-34 pubmed
    ..Such patients often die from irreversible shock. This model simulates the clinical scenario of massive hemorrhage and resuscitation (MHR) to determine if irreversible shock can be reversed...
  72. Czermak C, Hartmann B, Scheele S, Germann G, Küntscher M. [Burn shock fluid resuscitation and hemodynamic monitoring]. Chirurg. 2004;75:599-604 pubmed
    ..The Swan-Ganz catheter or less invasive transcardiopulmonary indicator dilution methods can be utilized to assess hemodynamic data...
  73. Zang Y, Dolan S, Ni Choileain N, Kriynovich S, Murphy T, Sayles P, et al. Burn injury initiates a shift in superantigen-induced T cell responses and host survival. J Immunol. 2004;172:4883-92 pubmed
    ..Although prior studies link this counterinflammatory-type response to lowered resistance to infection, the present results suggest it may sometimes benefit the injured host...
  74. Cottingham C. Resuscitation of traumatic shock: a hemodynamic review. AACN Adv Crit Care. 2006;17:317-26 pubmed
    ..This article presents an overview of these compensatory mechanisms and resuscitation strategies from the vantage point of routine hemodynamic monitoring...
  75. Fu W, Teng Q, Li T, Zhou B. [Fluid resuscitation in traumatic shock]. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2003;15:739-41 pubmed
    To investigate fluid resuscitation affecting the result of treatment of patients with traumatic shock.
  76. Li J, Wang H, Huang Z, Xiao X, Zhou M. [Effect of methylene blue on traumatic shock in rabbits]. Zhongguo Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2006;18:558-61 pubmed
    To observe the effect of methylene blue (MB) on the changes in plasma nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and visceral pathologic changes in rabbits with traumatic shock.
  77. Mayberry J, Welker K, Goldman R, Mullins R. Mechanism of acute ascites formation after trauma resuscitation. Arch Surg. 2003;138:773-6 pubmed
    ..Severely injured patients have been observed to acutely develop ascites; however, the pathogenesis of this rare phenomenon is poorly understood...
  78. Sheng Z. The development of burn surgery in China--a retrospective overview. Chin Med Sci J. 2002;17:57-62 pubmed
  79. Hardaway R, Williams C. A new treatment for traumatic shock and ARDS. Resuscitation. 1990;19:61-76 pubmed
    Trauma causes more years of lost life than any other cause of death. Traumatic shock and sepsis are the most common late causes of death following trauma. Traumatic shock and sepsis cause multiple organ failure...
  80. Kamolz L, Andel H, Schramm W, Meissl G, Herndon D, Frey M. Lactate: early predictor of morbidity and mortality in patients with severe burns. Burns. 2005;31:986-90 pubmed
    ..In summary, we believe that measuring lactate and lactate clearance may help to detect critically injured patients either for adequacy of treatment, or selection of other therapeutic options...
  81. Pascual J, Khwaja K, Chaudhury P, Christou N. Hypertonic saline and the microcirculation. J Trauma. 2003;54:S133-40 pubmed
    ..Better characterization of microcirculatory effects by hypertonic saline may provide mechanisms for improved morbidity and mortality associated with hypertonic resuscitation...
  82. Morrell B, Vinden C, Singh R, Kornecki A, Fraser D. Secondary abdominal compartment syndrome in a case of pediatric trauma shock resuscitation. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2007;8:67-70 pubmed
    ..To report a rare case of secondary abdominal compartment syndrome during shock resuscitation in a pediatric trauma patient...
  83. Huang Z, Lin H, Li Z, Feng H, Sun Y, Zhang Q. [L-arginine decreases P-selectin expression in traumatic shock]. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao. 2003;23:777-80 pubmed
    To investigate the changes of P-selectin distribution in the vital organs and plasma during traumatic shock and explore the significance of these changes.
  84. Ramakers B, Riksen N, Van Der Hoeven J, Smits P, Pickkers P. Protective effects of adenosine A2A agonist during hemorrhagic shock: a simple intervention may result in a complex response. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:3059; author reply 3059-60 pubmed
  85. Balogh Z, McKinley B, Cocanour C, Kozar R, Cox C, Moore F. Patients with impending abdominal compartment syndrome do not respond to early volume loading. Am J Surg. 2003;186:602-7; discussion 607-8 pubmed
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