lung injury


Summary: Damage to any compartment of the lung caused by physical, chemical, or biological agents which characteristically elicit inflammatory reaction. These inflammatory reactions can either be acute and dominated by NEUTROPHILS, or chronic and dominated by LYMPHOCYTES and MACROPHAGES.

Top Publications

  1. Brower R, Matthay M, Morris A, Schoenfeld D, Thompson B, Wheeler A. Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2000;342:1301-8 pubmed
    ..ventilation use tidal volumes of 10 to 15 ml per kilogram of body weight and may cause stretch-induced lung injury in patients with acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome...
  2. Neumann P, Berglund J, Fernandez Mondejar E, Magnusson A, Hedenstierna G. Dynamics of lung collapse and recruitment during prolonged breathing in porcine lung injury. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1998;85:1533-43 pubmed
    ..acid (OA) injection, lung lavage, and endotoxin infusion are three commonly used methods to induce experimental lung injury. The dynamics of lung collapse and recruitment in these models have not been studied, although knowledge of ..
  3. Morris Z, Coz A, Starosta D. An isolated reduction of the FEV3/FVC ratio is an indicator of mild lung injury. Chest. 2013;144:1117-1123 pubmed publisher
    ..The FEV3/FVC ratio should be routinely reported on spirometry. An isolated reduction may indicate an early injury pattern of hyperinflation, air trapping, and loss of Dlco. ..
  4. Zannin E, Dellaca R, Kostic P, Pompilio P, Larsson A, Pedotti A, et al. Optimizing positive end-expiratory pressure by oscillatory mechanics minimizes tidal recruitment and distension: an experimental study in a lavage model of lung injury. Crit Care. 2012;16:R217 pubmed publisher
    ..minimize cyclic lung recruitment/derecruitment and cyclic mechanical stress in an experimental model of acute lung injury. We studied six pigs in which lung injury was induced by bronchoalveolar lavage...
  5. Ohkawara T, Takeda H, Nishihira J. Protective effect of chlorogenic acid on the inflammatory damage of pancreas and lung in mice with l-arginine-induced pancreatitis. Life Sci. 2017;190:91-96 pubmed publisher
    ..of 40mg/kg of CGA decreased the histological severity of pancreatitis and pancreatitis-associated lung injury. Moreover, administration of CGA inhibited the levels of pancreatic enzyme activity...
  6. Zepp J, Zacharias W, Frank D, Cavanaugh C, Zhou S, Morley M, et al. Distinct Mesenchymal Lineages and Niches Promote Epithelial Self-Renewal and Myofibrogenesis in the Lung. Cell. 2017;170:1134-1148.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies define the cellular and molecular framework of lung mesenchymal niches and reveal the functional importance of developmental pathways in promoting self-renewal versus a pathological response to tissue injury. ..
  7. Caraher E, Kwon S, Haider S, Crowley G, Lee A, Ebrahim M, et al. Receptor for advanced glycation end-products and World Trade Center particulate induced lung function loss: A case-cohort study and murine model of acute particulate exposure. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184331 pubmed publisher
    World Trade Center-particulate matter(WTC-PM) exposure and metabolic-risk are associated with WTC-Lung Injury(WTC-LI)...
  8. Pirrone F, Pastore C, Mazzola S, Albertini M. In vivo study of the behaviour of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2, MMP-9) in mechanical, hypoxic and septic-induced acute lung injury. Vet Res Commun. 2009;33 Suppl 1:121-4 pubmed publisher
  9. Shetty S, Tiwari N, Marudamuthu A, Puthusseri B, Bhandary Y, Fu J, et al. p53 and miR-34a Feedback Promotes Lung Epithelial Injury and Pulmonary Fibrosis. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:1016-1034 pubmed publisher AECs from the lungs of IPF patients, and in mice with bleomycin, cigarette smoke, silica, or sepsis-induced lung injury. Treatment with the caveolin-1 scaffolding domain peptide (CSP) reversed these effects...

More Information


  1. Pan S, Fei A, Jing L, Zhang X, Gao C. Increased Circulating Endothelial Microparticles Associated with PAK4 Play a Key Role in Ventilation-Induced Lung Injury Process. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:4902084 pubmed publisher
    Inappropriate mechanical ventilation (MV) can result in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Probing mechanisms of VILI and searching for effective methods are current areas of research focus on VILI...
  2. Lyu Y, Fu L, Qian Y, Jiang M, He L, Ouyang A, et al. [Mechanism of heart and lung injury induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in both young and old mice]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2017;33:800-806 pubmed
    Objective To study the mechanism of heart and lung injury after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in mice...
  3. Henríquez A, House J, Miller D, Snow S, Fisher A, Ren H, et al. Adrenal-derived stress hormones modulate ozone-induced lung injury and inflammation. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;329:249-258 pubmed publisher
    ..To understand the influence of adrenal-derived stress hormones in mediating ozone-induced lung injury/inflammation, we assessed global gene expression (mRNA sequencing) and selected proteins in lung tissues from ..
  4. Puthusseri B, Marudamuthu A, Tiwari N, Fu J, Idell S, Shetty S. Regulation of p53-mediated changes in the uPA-fibrinolytic system and in lung injury by loss of surfactant protein C expression in alveolar epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017;312:L783-L796 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of uPA, PAI-1, and p53 in the regulation of AEC apoptosis after injury was also determined in knockout mice. ..
  5. Neto A, Hemmes S, Pelosi P, de Abreu M, Schultz M. Role of shear stress in ventilator-induced lung injury - Authors' reply. Lancet Respir Med. 2016;4:e43 pubmed publisher
  6. Alamo I, Kannan K, Loftus T, Ramos H, Efron P, Mohr A. Severe trauma and chronic stress activates extramedullary erythropoiesis. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017;83:144-150 pubmed publisher
    ..Splenic EPOr expression was significantly decreased after LCHS/CS. Extramedullary erythropoiesis may play a key role in identifying new therapies to aid the recovery from acute anemia after severe trauma and chronic stress. ..
  7. Loftus T, Thomson A, Kannan K, Alamo I, Millar J, Plazas J, et al. Clonidine restores vascular endothelial growth factor expression and improves tissue repair following severe trauma. Am J Surg. 2017;214:610-615 pubmed publisher
    ..On day seven, lung VEGF, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2, and HMGB1 were assessed by PCR. Lung injury was assessed by light microscopy (*p < 0.05)...
  8. Schmitt L, Schumann T, LOser C, Dippel E. Vemurafenib-induced pulmonary injury. Onkologie. 2013;36:685-6 pubmed publisher
  9. Stiegel M, Pleil J, Sobus J, Stevens T, Madden M. Linking physiological parameters to perturbations in the human exposome: Environmental exposures modify blood pressure and lung function via inflammatory cytokine pathway. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2017;80:485-501 pubmed publisher intervention grouping strategies. Ultimately, it may become possible to predict a physiological (systemic) response based upon cellular-level (in vitro) observations. ..
  10. García de la Asunción J, Bruno L, Perez Griera J, Galan G, Morcillo A, Wins R, et al. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Decreases Oxidative Lung Damage After Pulmonary Lobectomy: A Single-Center Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial. Anesth Analg. 2017;125:499-506 pubmed publisher
    ..Limb RIPC decreased EBC 8-isoprostane levels and other oxidative lung injury markers during lung lobectomy. RIPC also improved postoperative gas exchange as measured by PaO2/FiO2 ratio.
  11. Hocke A, Becher A, Knepper J, Peter A, Holland G, Tönnies M, et al. Emerging human middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus causes widespread infection and alveolar damage in human lungs. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2013;188:882-6 pubmed publisher
  12. Shimoda L, Semenza G. HIF and the lung: role of hypoxia-inducible factors in pulmonary development and disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183:152-6 pubmed publisher
  13. Mellem H, Emhjellen S, Horgen O. Pulmonary barotrauma and arterial gas embolism caused by an emphysematous bulla in a SCUBA diver. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1990;61:559-62 pubmed
    ..The case reported illustrates the need for a consensus on the procedures necessary for the medical screening of diving candidates...
  14. Carlile P, Lowery D, Gray B. Effect of PEEP and type of injury on thermal-dye estimation of pulmonary edema. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1986;60:22-31 pubmed
    ..94). We conclude that PEEP produces a reversible increase in ETV in some models of lung injury by allowing for distribution of thermal indicator through a larger fraction of the lung water and that this ..
  15. Suffredini D, Xu W, Sun J, Barea Mendoza J, Solomon S, Brashears S, et al. Parenteral irons versus transfused red blood cells for treatment of anemia during canine experimental bacterial pneumonia. Transfusion. 2017;57:2338-2347 pubmed publisher
    ..bacterial pneumonia, treatment of mild anemia with IV iron significantly increased free iron levels, shock, lung injury, and mortality compared to transfusion of fresh RBCs...
  16. Hasan F, Beller T, Sobonya R, Heller N, Brown G. Effect of positive end-expiratory pressure and body position in unilateral lung injury. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol. 1982;52:147-54 pubmed
    Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), by increasing lung volume in acute lung injury, may recruit terminal air spaces in the involved regions, but may also distend noninvolved regions increasing extravascular lung water and worsening ..
  17. Amato M, Barbas C, Medeiros D, Magaldi R, Schettino G, Lorenzi Filho G, et al. Effect of a protective-ventilation strategy on mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:347-54 pubmed
    ..Protective ventilation was not associated with a higher rate of survival to hospital discharge. ..
  18. Agee R, Long J, Hunt J, Petroff P, Lull R, Mason A, et al. Use of 133xenon in early diagnosis of inhalation injury. J Trauma. 1976;16:218-24 pubmed
    ..The group of patients whose expected mortality lay between 40 and 59% were most notably affected. One hundred per cent (five of five) of those with inhalation injury died; only one of eight without inhalation injury died. ..
  19. Milling L, Leth P, Astrup B. Life-Threatening and Suspicious Lesions Caused by Mechanical Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2017;38:219-221 pubmed publisher
    ..Larger studies, prospective or retrospective, may be able to qualify the possible risks of automatic compression decompression CPR even further. ..
  20. Eddy W, Gong K, Bell B, Parks W, Ziegler S, MANICONE A. Stat5 Is Required for CD103+ Dendritic Cell and Alveolar Macrophage Development and Protection from Lung Injury. J Immunol. 2017;198:4813-4822 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate the critical importance of Stat5 signaling in maintaining lung homeostasis, and underscore the importance of resident macrophages in moderating tissue damage and excess inflammation. ..
  21. Chun L, Moazed F, Calfee C, Matthay M, Gotts J. Pulmonary toxicity of e-cigarettes. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017;313:L193-L206 pubmed publisher
    ..We highlight the major gaps in our current understanding, emphasize the challenges confronting the scientific and regulatory communities, and identify areas that require more research in this important and rapidly evolving field. ..
  22. Leitch D, Green R. Pulmonary barotrauma in divers and the treatment of cerebral arterial gas embolism. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1986;57:931-8 pubmed
    ..0 bar (165 fsw) before returning to 2.8 bar (60 fsw) to complete the therapy...
  23. Itagaki K, Riça I, Zhang J, Gallo D, DePrato M, Otterbein L, et al. Intratracheal instillation of neutrophils rescues bacterial overgrowth initiated by trauma damage-associated molecular patterns. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017;82:853-860 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, PMN instillation (i.t.) may represent a unique means of preventing or treating pneumonia after serious injury that is completely independent of the need for antibiotic use. ..
  24. Lambert J, Carlisle M, Lam A, Aggarwal S, Doran S, Ren C, et al. Mechanisms and Treatment of Halogen Inhalation-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Injuries in Pregnant Mice. Hypertension. 2017;70:390-400 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that pregnant women exposed to bromine may require particular attention and monitoring for signs of preeclampsia-like symptoms. ..
  25. Zelter M. The return of FEV3. Chest. 2013;144:1089-1091 pubmed publisher
  26. Holguin F, Moss I, Brown L, Guidot D. Chronic ethanol ingestion impairs alveolar type II cell glutathione homeostasis and function and predisposes to endotoxin-mediated acute edematous lung injury in rats. J Clin Invest. 1998;101:761-8 pubmed
    ..To examine a potential mechanism, we hypothesized that ethanol ingestion predisposes to sepsis-mediated acute lung injury by decreasing alveolar type II cell glutathione homeostasis and function...
  27. Xie F, Zhang X, Xie L. Prognostic value of serum zinc levels in patients with acute HC/zinc chloride smoke inhalation. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8156 pubmed publisher
    Hexachloroethane (HC)/zinc chloride (ZnCl, smoke bomb) exposure in the military setting results in lung injury which is uncommon and has been rarely described in previous studies...
  28. dos Santos C, Slutsky A. Invited review: mechanisms of ventilator-induced lung injury: a perspective. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000;89:1645-55 pubmed
    Despite advances in critical care, the mortality rate in patients with acute lung injury remains high. Furthermore, most patients who die do so from multisystem organ failure...
  29. Gernez Y, Tirouvanziam R, Chanez P. Neutrophils in chronic inflammatory airway diseases: can we target them and how?. Eur Respir J. 2010;35:467-9 pubmed publisher
  30. Millar J, Kannan K, Loftus T, Alamo I, Plazas J, Efron P, et al. Persistent injury-associated anemia: the role of the bone marrow microenvironment. J Surg Res. 2017;214:240-246 pubmed publisher
    ..Modulation of the bone marrow microenvironment may represent a therapeutic strategy following severe trauma to alleviate persistent injury-associated anemia. ..
  31. Oktar G, Kirisci M, Dursun A, Zor M, Iriz E, Erer D, et al. Antioxidative effects of adrenomedullin and vascular endothelial growth factor on lung injury induced by skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2013;114:625-8 pubmed was to investigate the effects of adrenomedullin (AM) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on lung injury as a remote organ following skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion injury in a rat model...
  32. Ware L, Koyama T, Zhao Z, Janz D, Wickersham N, Bernard G, et al. Biomarkers of lung epithelial injury and inflammation distinguish severe sepsis patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care. 2013;17:R253 pubmed publisher
  33. Oskolkova O, Gawlak G, Tian Y, Ke Y, Sarich N, Son S, et al. Prostaglandin E receptor-4 receptor mediates endothelial barrier-enhancing and anti-inflammatory effects of oxidized phospholipids. FASEB J. 2017;31:4187-4202 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor in mice attenuated the protective effect of intravenous OxPAPC administration in the model of acute lung injury caused by intratracheal injection of LPS...
  34. Ke Y, Oskolkova O, Sarich N, Tian Y, Sitikov A, Tulapurkar M, et al. Effects of prostaglandin lipid mediators on agonist-induced lung endothelial permeability and inflammation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017;313:L710-L721 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, PGD2 exhibited a protective effect in the in vivo model of LPS-induced lung injury. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of barrier-protective and anti-inflammatory effects of different ..
  35. Aksoy M, Kim V, Cornwell W, Rogers T, Kosmider B, Bahmed K, et al. Secretion of the endoplasmic reticulum stress protein, GRP78, into the BALF is increased in cigarette smokers. Respir Res. 2017;18:78 pubmed publisher
    ..Enhanced secretion of GRP78 by lung cells makes it a potential biomarker of cigarette smoke-induced lung injury.
  36. Sharma P, Sharma A, Srivastava M. In vivo neutralization of ?4 and ?7 integrins inhibits eosinophil trafficking and prevents lung injury during tropical pulmonary eosinophilia in mice. Eur J Immunol. 2017;47:1501-1512 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, neutralization of ?4+ ?7 integrins impairs the transmigration, activation and survival of eosinophils and reduces TPE induced pathology in mice lungs...
  37. Mehaffey J, Charles E, Sharma A, Salmon M, Money D, Schubert S, et al. Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion Rehabilitates Sepsis-Induced Lung Injury. Ann Thorac Surg. 2017;103:1723-1729 pubmed publisher
    Sepsis is the number one cause of lung injury in adults. Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is gaining clinical acceptance for donor lung evaluation and rehabilitation and may expand the use of marginal organs for transplantation...
  38. Huleihel L, Sellares J, Cárdenes N, Alvarez D, Faner R, Sakamoto K, et al. Modified mesenchymal stem cells using miRNA transduction alter lung injury in a bleomycin model. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017;313:L92-L103 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results establish the use of miRNA-modified mesenchymal stem cells as a potential future research in lung fibrosis. ..
  39. Ali A, Suhail M, Mathew S, Shah M, Harakeh S, Ahmad S, et al. Nanomaterial Induced Immune Responses and Cytotoxicity. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2016;16:40-57 pubmed
    ..It recommends the development of suitable animal models to study the toxicity and bio-clearance of nanomaterials and propose safety guidelines. ..
  40. Krebs J, Tsagogiorgas C, Pelosi P, Rocco P, Hottenrott M, Sticht C, et al. Open lung approach with low tidal volume mechanical ventilation attenuates lung injury in rats with massive brain damage. Crit Care. 2014;18:R59 pubmed publisher
    ..LV(T)/OLPEEP compared to HV(T)/LPEEP improved overall survival. In BD, LV(T)/OLPEEP minimizes lung morpho-functional changes and inflammation compared to HV(T)/LPEEP. ..
  41. Gillman L, Alkadi A, Kirkpatrick A. The "pseudo-lung point" sign: all focal respiratory coupled alternating pleural patterns are not diagnostic of a pneumothorax. J Trauma. 2009;67:672-3 pubmed publisher
  42. Hopper K, Yakes W. The posterior intercostal approach for percutaneous renal procedures: risk of puncturing the lung, spleen, and liver as determined by CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1990;154:115-7 pubmed
    ..The risks from a posterior 10th-11th rib intercostal approach appear prohibitive. ..
  43. Sadiku P, Willson J, Dickinson R, Murphy F, Harris A, Lewis A, et al. Prolyl hydroxylase 2 inactivation enhances glycogen storage and promotes excessive neutrophilic responses. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:3407-3420 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of targeting metabolic pathways in the treatment of inflammatory disease. ..
  44. Bouch S, O Reilly M, de Haan J, Harding R, Sozo F. Does lack of glutathione peroxidase 1 gene expression exacerbate lung injury induced by neonatal hyperoxia in mice?. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017;313:L115-L125 pubmed publisher
    Supplemental oxygen (O2) increases the risk of lung injury in preterm infants, owing to an immature antioxidant system...
  45. Banuelos J, Cao Y, Shin S, Bochner B, Avila P, Li S, et al. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor blockade enables dexamethasone to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced murine lung neutrophils. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177884 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute murine lung injury model, we determined the role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in mouse lung neutrophil numbers ..
  46. Loftus T, Thomson A, Kannan K, Alamo I, Ramos H, Whitley E, et al. Effects of trauma, hemorrhagic shock, and chronic stress on lung vascular endothelial growth factor. J Surg Res. 2017;210:15-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Expressions of lung VEGF, VEGFR-1, and VEGFR-2 were determined by polymerase chain reaction. Lung Injury Score (LIS) was graded on light microscopy by inflammatory cell counts, interstitial edema, pulmonary edema, ..
  47. Ordija C, Chiou T, Yang Z, DeLoid G, de Oliveira Valdo M, Wang Z, et al. Free actin impairs macrophage bacterial defenses via scavenger receptor MARCO interaction with reversal by plasma gelsolin. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017;312:L1018-L1028 pubmed publisher
    b>Lung injury can release intracellular actin into the alveolar milieu and is also associated with increased susceptibility to secondary infections...
  48. Baird J. Pernicious and threatening Plasmodium vivax as reality. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;91:1-2 pubmed publisher
  49. Hotchkiss J, Blanch L, Murias G, Adams A, Olson D, Wangensteen O, et al. Effects of decreased respiratory frequency on ventilator-induced lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;161:463-8 pubmed
    ..05). We conclude that decreasing respiratory frequency can improve these indices of lung damage, and that limitation of peak pulmonary artery pressure and flow may diminish lung damage for a given ventilatory pattern. ..
  50. Li Z, Wu Y, Xu X, Zhou J, Wang Y, Shen H, et al. Autophagy as a double-edged sword in pulmonary epithelial injury: a review and perspective. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2017;313:L207-L217 pubmed publisher
  51. Yim E, Horn E, Hegedus A, Tibbles C. Cough and hemoptysis in athletes of an ice hockey team. J Emerg Med. 2012;43:107-10 pubmed publisher
  52. Reissig A, Gorg C, Mathis G. Transthoracic sonography in the diagnosis of pulmonary diseases: a systematic approach. Ultraschall Med. 2009;30:438-54; quiz 455-6 pubmed publisher
  53. Cordioli R, Costa E, Azevedo L, Gomes S, Amato M, Park M. Physiologic effects of alveolar recruitment and inspiratory pauses during moderately-high-frequency ventilation delivered by a conventional ventilator in a severe lung injury model. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185769 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective experimental laboratory study with eight pigs. Induction of acute lung injury with sequential pulmonary lavages and injurious ventilation was initially performed...