sprains and strains

Summary

Summary: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.

Top Publications

  1. McVey E, Palmieri R, Docherty C, Zinder S, Ingersoll C. Arthrogenic muscle inhibition in the leg muscles of subjects exhibiting functional ankle instability. Foot Ankle Int. 2005;26:1055-61 pubmed
    ..Establishing and using therapeutic techniques to reverse arthrogenic muscle inhibition may reduce the incidence of functional ankle instability. ..
  2. Malliaropoulos N, Papacostas E, Kiritsi O, Papalada A, Gougoulias N, Maffulli N. Posterior thigh muscle injuries in elite track and field athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38:1813-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Posterior thigh muscle injuries in athletes are common, and prediction of recovery time would be of value...
  3. Waldén M, Hägglund M, Magnusson H, Ekstrand J. Anterior cruciate ligament injury in elite football: a prospective three-cohort study. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2011;19:11-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that future preventive research primarily should address the young female football player...
  4. Alonso J, Tscholl P, Engebretsen L, Mountjoy M, Dvorak J, Junge A. Occurrence of injuries and illnesses during the 2009 IAAF World Athletics Championships. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44:1100-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To analyse the frequency and characteristics of sports injuries and illnesses incurred during the World Athletics Championships...
  5. Kemler E, van de Port I, Backx F, van Dijk C. A systematic review on the treatment of acute ankle sprain: brace versus other functional treatment types. Sports Med. 2011;41:185-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research should focus on economic evaluation and on different types of ankle brace, to examine the strengths and weaknesses of ankle braces for the treatment of acute ankle sprains...
  6. Bleakley C, O Connor S, Tully M, Rocke L, Macauley D, Bradbury I, et al. Effect of accelerated rehabilitation on function after ankle sprain: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2010;340:c1964 pubmed publisher
    ..To compare an accelerated intervention incorporating early therapeutic exercise after acute ankle sprains with a standard protection, rest, ice, compression, and elevation intervention...
  7. Suhr A, Muckley T, Hofmann G, Spahn G. [Therapy of acute ankle sprain: one-year results of primary conservative treatment]. Sportverletz Sportschaden. 2012;26:39-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Ankle sprains (supination-eversion injury) have a high incidence. Conservative treatment is generally the method of choice. This study is intended to evaluate the 1-year results of a standardised treatment protocol...
  8. de César P, Avila E, de Abreu M. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging to physical examination for syndesmotic injury after lateral ankle sprain. Foot Ankle Int. 2011;32:1110-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This study sought to determine the sensitivity and specificity of both for syndesmotic injury secondary to lateral ankle sprain...
  9. McGuine T, Brooks A, Hetzel S. The effect of lace-up ankle braces on injury rates in high school basketball players. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39:1840-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Ankle injuries are the most common injury in basketball players. However, no prospective studies have been performed to determine if wearing lace-up ankle braces will reduce the incidence of ankle injuries in high school athletes...

More Information

Publications92

  1. Takao M, Miyamoto W, Matsui K, Sasahara J, Matsushita T. Functional treatment after surgical repair for acute lateral ligament disruption of the ankle in athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40:447-51 pubmed publisher
    ..There have been several reports showing 20% to 40% failure after nonoperative functional treatment for acute lateral ligament disruption of the ankle...
  2. Krause F, Blatter S, Waehnert D, Windolf M, Weber M. Hindfoot joint pressure in supination sprains. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40:902-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Hindfoot trauma including ankle and subtalar sprains may be followed by osteochondral lesions and persisting pain originating from posttraumatic arthritis...
  3. Junge A, Dvorak J. Injury risk of playing football in Futsal World Cups. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44:1089-92 pubmed publisher
    ..While injuries in football (soccer) have been the subject of numerous publications, little information is available about the injury risk in futsal...
  4. van den Bekerom M, Struijs P, Blankevoort L, Welling L, van Dijk C, Kerkhoffs G. What is the evidence for rest, ice, compression, and elevation therapy in the treatment of ankle sprains in adults?. J Athl Train. 2012;47:435-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The variation in treatment observed for the acutely injured lateral ankle ligament complex in the first week after the injury suggests a lack of evidence-based management strategies for this problem...
  5. Cloak R, Nevill A, Clarke F, Day S, Wyon M. Vibration training improves balance in unstable ankles. Int J Sports Med. 2010;31:894-900 pubmed publisher
    ..915) in either group. WBVT improved static balance and SEBT scores amongst dancers exhibiting ankle instability but did not affect peroneus longus muscle fatigue...
  6. van Rijn R, van Ochten J, Luijsterburg P, van Middelkoop M, Koes B, Bierma Zeinstra S. Effectiveness of additional supervised exercises compared with conventional treatment alone in patients with acute lateral ankle sprains: systematic review. BMJ. 2010;341:c5688 pubmed publisher
    ..To summarise the effectiveness of adding supervised exercises to conventional treatment compared with conventional treatment alone in patients with acute lateral ankle sprains...
  7. Opar D, Williams M, Shield A. Hamstring strain injuries: factors that lead to injury and re-injury. Sports Med. 2012;42:209-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This remains an area for future research and practitioners need to remain aware of the multifactoral nature of HSIs if injury rates are to decline...
  8. Sultan M, McKeown A, McLaughlin I, Kurdy N, McCollum C. Elastic stockings or Tubigrip for ankle sprain: a randomised clinical trial. Injury. 2012;43:1079-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Ankle sprains are common and generally believed to be benign and self-limiting. However, a significant proportion of patients with ankle sprains have persistent symptoms for months or even years...
  9. Alonso J, Edouard P, Fischetto G, Adams B, Depiesse F, Mountjoy M. Determination of future prevention strategies in elite track and field: analysis of Daegu 2011 IAAF Championships injuries and illnesses surveillance. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46:505-14 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses during international Athletics Championships, by improving the medical surveillance coverage, in order to determine future prevention strategies...
  10. Lardenoye S, Theunissen E, Cleffken B, Brink P, de Bie R, Poeze M. The effect of taping versus semi-rigid bracing on patient outcome and satisfaction in ankle sprains: a prospective, randomized controlled trial. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012;13:81 pubmed publisher
    ..A meta-analysis comparing the different functional treatment options could not make definitive conclusions regarding the effectiveness, and until now, little was known about patient satisfaction in relation to the outcome...
  11. Verhagen E, van Tulder M, van der Beek A, Bouter L, Van Mechelen W. An economic evaluation of a proprioceptive balance board training programme for the prevention of ankle sprains in volleyball. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39:111-5 pubmed
    ..Positive effects of the balance board programme could only be achieved at certain costs. However, if broadly implemented, costs associated with the balance board programme would probably be lower. ..
  12. Boyce S, Quigley M, Campbell S. Management of ankle sprains: a randomised controlled trial of the treatment of inversion injuries using an elastic support bandage or an Aircast ankle brace. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39:91-6 pubmed
    ..Lateral ligament ankle sprains are the single most common sports injury...
  13. Koo S, Lim K, Chung K, Ju H, Chung J. Electroacupuncture-induced analgesia in a rat model of ankle sprain pain is mediated by spinal alpha-adrenoceptors. Pain. 2008;135:11-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the analgesic effect of EA in ankle sprain pain is, at least in part, mediated by spinal alpha(2)-adrenoceptor mechanisms. ..
  14. Denegar C, Hertel J, Fonseca J. The effect of lateral ankle sprain on dorsiflexion range of motion, posterior talar glide, and joint laxity. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2002;32:166-73 pubmed
    ..Although restoration of physiological range of motion was achieved, residual joint dysfunction persisted. Further research is warranted to elucidate the role of altered arthrokinematics after lateral ankle sprain. ..
  15. Whitman J, Cleland J, Mintken P, Keirns M, Bieniek M, Albin S, et al. Predicting short-term response to thrust and nonthrust manipulation and exercise in patients post inversion ankle sprain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39:188-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Prognosis, level 2b. ..
  16. Askling C, Tengvar M, Saartok T, Thorstensson A. Acute first-time hamstring strains during high-speed running: a longitudinal study including clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35:197-206 pubmed
  17. Askling C, Tengvar M, Saartok T, Thorstensson A. Proximal hamstring strains of stretching type in different sports: injury situations, clinical and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, and return to sport. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36:1799-804 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of the prolonged recovery time associated with this type of injury, correct diagnosis, based on history and palpation, and adequate information to the subject are essential. ..
  18. Han K, Ricard M, Fellingham G. Effects of a 4-week exercise program on balance using elastic tubing as a perturbation force for individuals with a history of ankle sprains. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2009;39:246-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Balance was improved after 4 weeks of elastic resistance exercise in subjects with and without a history of lateral ankle sprains. Balance improvements persisted 4 weeks following the treatment cessation. ..
  19. McKeon P, Hertel J. Spatiotemporal postural control deficits are present in those with chronic ankle instability. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2008;9:76 pubmed publisher
    ..These deficits may be indicative of a diminished ability to respond effectively to changes in postural control demands in those with CAI. ..
  20. Woods C, Hawkins R, Maltby S, Hulse M, Thomas A, Hodson A. The Football Association Medical Research Programme: an audit of injuries in professional football--analysis of hamstring injuries. Br J Sports Med. 2004;38:36-41 pubmed
    ..If injury does occur, the importance of differential diagnosis followed by the management of all causes of posterior thigh pain is emphasised. Clinical reasoning with treatment based on best available evidence is recommended. ..
  21. Petrella R, Ekman E, Schuller R, Fort J. Efficacy of celecoxib, a COX-2-specific inhibitor, and naproxen in the management of acute ankle sprain: results of a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Clin J Sport Med. 2004;14:225-31 pubmed
    ..The incidence of dyspepsia was 3% for celecoxib compared with 12% for naproxen (P = 0.032). Celecoxib is as effective as naproxen in treating acute first-degree or second-degree ankle sprains but causes significantly less dyspepsia. ..
  22. de Noronha M, Refshauge K, Herbert R, Kilbreath S, Hertel J. Do voluntary strength, proprioception, range of motion, or postural sway predict occurrence of lateral ankle sprain?. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40:824-8; discussion 828 pubmed
    ..Postural sway and possibly proprioception were also predictors. Therefore the preliminary evidence suggests that people with reduced ankle dorsiflexion range may be at increased risk of ankle sprain. ..
  23. Bassett S, Prapavessis H. Home-based physical therapy intervention with adherence-enhancing strategies versus clinic-based management for patients with ankle sprains. Phys Ther. 2007;87:1132-43 pubmed
    ..Home-based physical therapy intervention appears to be a viable option for patients with sprained ankles. ..
  24. Santos M, Liu W. Possible factors related to functional ankle instability. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2008;38:150-7 pubmed
    ..Alterations in the afferent processes, represented in this study by ankle proprioception, may effect the evertors' strength or vice versa. More importantly, individuals with FAI might exhibit high variability in ankle deficits. ..
  25. Orchard J, Farhart P, Leopold C. Lumbar spine region pathology and hamstring and calf injuries in athletes: is there a connection?. Br J Sports Med. 2004;38:502-4; discussion 502-4 pubmed
  26. Palmieri Smith R, Hopkins J, Brown T. Peroneal activation deficits in persons with functional ankle instability. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37:982-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Dynamic peroneal activity is impaired in functionally unstable ankles, which may contribute to recurrent joint instability and may leave the ankle vulnerable to injurious loads. ..
  27. Tyler T, McHugh M, Mirabella M, Mullaney M, Nicholas S. Risk factors for noncontact ankle sprains in high school football players: the role of previous ankle sprains and body mass index. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34:471-5 pubmed
    ..Ankle sprain prevention strategies should be targeted at football players with a high body mass index and a history of previous ankle sprains. ..
  28. McGuine T, Keene J. The effect of a balance training program on the risk of ankle sprains in high school athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34:1103-11 pubmed
    ..3% in the intervention group and 7.7% in the control group, but this difference was not significant (P = .059). A balance training program will significantly reduce the risk of ankle sprains in high school soccer and basketball players. ..
  29. Mehallo C, Drezner J, Bytomski J. Practical management: nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) use in athletic injuries. Clin J Sport Med. 2006;16:170-4 pubmed
    ..However, length of treatment should always be kept as short as possible, with consideration of the specific type of injury, level of dysfunction, and pain. ..
  30. Hägglund M, Walden M, Ekstrand J. UEFA injury study--an injury audit of European Championships 2006 to 2008. Br J Sports Med. 2009;43:483-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Training injury incidence was relatively low, but training injuries were responsible for a quarter of all match unavailability and may thus have a profound impact on team performance and should be the object of preventive measures. ..
  31. Malliaropoulos N, Ntessalen M, Papacostas E, Longo U, Maffulli N. Reinjury after acute lateral ankle sprains in elite track and field athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37:1755-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Athletes with a grade I or II lateral ankle sprain are at higher risk of experiencing a reinjury. Low-grade acute lateral ankle sprains result in a higher risk of reinjury than high-grade acute lateral ankle sprains. ..
  32. Petersen J, Holmich P. Evidence based prevention of hamstring injuries in sport. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39:319-23 pubmed
    ..As the injuries are common in football and other sports involving sprinting and jumping, there is a need for further research preferably in the form of randomised controlled trials...
  33. Cooke M, Lamb S, Marsh J, Dale J. A survey of current consultant practice of treatment of severe ankle sprains in emergency departments in the United Kingdom. Emerg Med J. 2003;20:505-7 pubmed
  34. Kofotolis N, Kellis E, Vlachopoulos S. Ankle sprain injuries and risk factors in amateur soccer players during a 2-year period. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35:458-66 pubmed
    ..It appears that more injuries occur in players with previous ankle injury. Injury rates are higher toward the end of a game and chiefly occur during the first 2 months of the season. ..
  35. Ekman E, Fiechtner J, Levy S, Fort J. Efficacy of celecoxib versus ibuprofen in the treatment of acute pain: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized controlled trial in acute ankle sprain. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2002;31:445-51 pubmed
    ..Celecoxib, a cyclo-oxygenase-2-specific inhibitor with platelet-function-sparing properties, may be useful as a multimodal adjuvant in the treatment of ankle sprain. ..
  36. van Dijk C. Management of the sprained ankle. Br J Sports Med. 2002;36:83-4 pubmed
  37. Beynnon B, Renstrom P, Haugh L, Uh B, Barker H. A prospective, randomized clinical investigation of the treatment of first-time ankle sprains. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34:1401-12 pubmed
  38. Westlin N, Vogler H, Albertsson M, Arvidsson T, Montgomery F. Treatment of lateral ankle instability with transfer of the extensor digitorum brevis muscle. J Foot Ankle Surg. 2003;42:183-92 pubmed
    ..Thus, the extensor digitorum brevis muscle transfer seems to be a useful alternative method of long-term ankle stabilization in these difficult chronic case; the results correlate well with a few other studies using this method. ..
  39. van Rijn R, van Os A, Kleinrensink G, Bernsen R, Verhaar J, Koes B, et al. Supervised exercises for adults with acute lateral ankle sprain: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Gen Pract. 2007;57:793-800 pubmed
    ..During the recovery period after acute ankle sprain, it is unclear whether conventional treatment should be supported by supervised exercise...
  40. Eils E, Rosenbaum D. A multi-station proprioceptive exercise program in patients with ankle instability. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33:1991-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a 6-wk multi-station proprioceptive exercise program that is easy to integrate in normal training programs...
  41. Fong D, Hong Y, Chan L, Yung P, Chan K. A systematic review on ankle injury and ankle sprain in sports. Sports Med. 2007;37:73-94 pubmed
    ..The incidence of ankle injury and ankle sprain was high in court games and team sports, such as rugby, soccer, volleyball, handball and basketball. This systematic review provides a summary of the epidemiology of ankle injury in sports...
  42. Malliaropoulos N, Papalexandris S, Papalada A, Papacostas E. The role of stretching in rehabilitation of hamstring injuries: 80 athletes follow-up. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36:756-9 pubmed
    ..The increased joint range of motion (ROM), indicating the degree of muscle flexibility, has a benefit of stretching proven for healthy tissues...
  43. Koll R, Buhr M, Dieter R, Pabst H, Predel H, Petrowicz O, et al. Efficacy and tolerance of a comfrey root extract (Extr. Rad. Symphyti) in the treatment of ankle distorsions: results of a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Phytomedicine. 2004;11:470-7 pubmed
    ..The good local and global tolerance of the trial medication could also be confirmed. The study results are consistent with the known pre-clinical and clinical data concerning comfrey...
  44. Verhagen E, van der Beek A, Bouter L, Bahr R, Van Mechelen W. A one season prospective cohort study of volleyball injuries. Br J Sports Med. 2004;38:477-81 pubmed
    ..To estimate the overall incidence of acute and overuse volleyball injuries, and to describe factors associated with ankle sprains...
  45. Ferran N, Maffulli N. Epidemiology of sprains of the lateral ankle ligament complex. Foot Ankle Clin. 2006;11:659-62 pubmed
    ..In the UK, an estimated 302,000 ankle sprains are seen each year in Accident and Emergency Departments...
  46. Sherry M, Best T. A comparison of 2 rehabilitation programs in the treatment of acute hamstring strains. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2004;34:116-25 pubmed
    ..Prospective randomized comparison of 2 rehabilitation programs...
  47. Mitchell A, Dyson R, Hale T, Abraham C. Biomechanics of ankle instability. Part 2: Postural sway-reaction time relationship. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40:1522-8 pubmed publisher
  48. Høiness P, Glott T, Ingjer F. High-intensity training with a bi-directional bicycle pedal improves performance in mechanically unstable ankles--a prospective randomized study of 19 subjects. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2003;13:266-71 pubmed
    ..018), but otherwise no significant effects were found. This study indicates that short-term high-intensity training with a bi-directional pedal improves ankle performance and may be an option in the treatment of recurrent ankle sprains...
  49. Verrall G, Slavotinek J, Barnes P, Fon G, Spriggins A. Clinical risk factors for hamstring muscle strain injury: a prospective study with correlation of injury by magnetic resonance imaging. Br J Sports Med. 2001;35:435-9; discussion 440 pubmed
    ..To prospectively establish risk factors for hamstring muscle strain injury using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to define the diagnosis of posterior thigh injury...
  50. van Os A, Bierma Zeinstra S, Verhagen A, de Bie R, Luijsterburg P, Koes B. Comparison of conventional treatment and supervised rehabilitation for treatment of acute lateral ankle sprains: a systematic review of the literature. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2005;35:95-105 pubmed
    ..Systematic literature review...
  51. Whitman J, Childs J, Walker V. The use of manipulation in a patient with an ankle sprain injury not responding to conventional management: a case report. Man Ther. 2005;10:224-31 pubmed
  52. Brooks J, Fuller C, Kemp S, Reddin D. Incidence, risk, and prevention of hamstring muscle injuries in professional rugby union. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34:1297-306 pubmed
    ..The incidence of hamstring muscle injuries in professional rugby union is high, but evidence-based information on risk factors and injury-prevention strategies in this sport is limited...
  53. Armfield D, Kim D, Towers J, Bradley J, Robertson D. Sports-related muscle injury in the lower extremity. Clin Sports Med. 2006;25:803-42 pubmed
  54. Ivins D. Acute ankle sprain: an update. Am Fam Physician. 2006;74:1714-20 pubmed
    ..Ankle disk or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercise regimens also may be helpful, although the literature supporting this is limited...
  55. Hubbard T, Kramer L, Denegar C, Hertel J. Contributing factors to chronic ankle instability. Foot Ankle Int. 2007;28:343-54 pubmed
    ..There is no clear indication of which measures are most important in discriminating between individuals with and without CAI...
  56. Cross K, Worrell T, Leslie J, Van Veld K. The relationship between self-reported and clinical measures and the number of days to return to sport following acute lateral ankle sprains. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2002;32:16-23 pubmed
    ..This is a prospective observational study...
  57. McKeon P, Hertel J. Systematic review of postural control and lateral ankle instability, part II: is balance training clinically effective?. J Athl Train. 2008;43:305-15 pubmed publisher
    ..ankle sprain? (2) Can balance and coordination training improve treatment outcomes associated with acute ankle sprains? (3) Can balance and coordination training improve treatment outcomes in patients with chronic ankle instability?..
  58. Sekir U, Yildiz Y, Hazneci B, Ors F, Aydin T. Effect of isokinetic training on strength, functionality and proprioception in athletes with functional ankle instability. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2007;15:654-64 pubmed
    ..These results substantiate the deficits of strength, proprioception, balance and functionality in recreational athletes with FAI. The isokinetic exercise program used in this study had a positive effect on these parameters...
  59. Mitchell A, Dyson R, Hale T, Abraham C. Biomechanics of ankle instability. Part 1: Reaction time to simulated ankle sprain. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40:1515-21 pubmed
    ..To test the hypothesis that ankles with functional instability will demonstrate slower muscular reaction times than their contralateral stable ankle (SA) and stable healthy controls to a simulated nonpathological ankle sprain mechanism...
  60. Munn J, Beard D, Refshauge K, Lee R. Eccentric muscle strength in functional ankle instability. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35:245-50 pubmed
    ..To investigate muscle strength in subjects with unilateral functional ankle instability, with the specific aim of determining whether eccentric strength deficits exist...
  61. Wikstrom E, Tillman M, Chmielewski T, Cauraugh J, Naugle K, Borsa P. Dynamic postural control but not mechanical stability differs among those with and without chronic ankle instability. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20:e137-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanical stability alterations are speculated to result from the initial ankle trauma...
  62. Solignac M. [Assessment of a topical NSAIDs in the treatment of pain and inflammation. The example of Flector Plaster, a local bioadhesive plaster containing diclofenac epolamine]. Presse Med. 2004;33:3S10-3 pubmed
    ..VARIOUS CLINICAL TRIALS: Have shown that the Flector Plaster is well tolerated and effective in the treatment of epicondylitis, sprained ankles, minor sport-induced trauma and osteo-arthrosis of the knee...
  63. Koo S, Park Y, Lim K, Chung K, Chung J. Acupuncture analgesia in a new rat model of ankle sprain pain. Pain. 2002;99:423-31 pubmed
    ..The present study provides a powerful experimental animal model that can be used for investigating the unique physiological mechanisms involved in acupuncture analgesia...
  64. Song H, Nakazato K, Nakajima H. Effect of increased excursion of the ankle on the severity of acute eccentric contraction-induced strain injury in the gastrocnemius: an in vivo rat study. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32:1263-9 pubmed
    ..In this study, a minimally invasive model of acute strain injury was produced with a single eccentric contraction...
  65. Orchard J, Seward H. Epidemiology of injuries in the Australian Football League, seasons 1997-2000. Br J Sports Med. 2002;36:39-44 pubmed
    ..To describe the epidemiology of injuries in the Australian Football League (AFL) over four seasons...
  66. van Rijn R, van Heest J, van der Wees P, Koes B, Bierma Zeinstra S. Some benefit from physiotherapy intervention in the subgroup of patients with severe ankle sprain as determined by the ankle function score: a randomised trial. Aust J Physiother. 2009;55:107-13 pubmed
    ..a mild injury (score > 40)? Does physiotherapy intervention have more effect on patients with a severe injury compared with a mild injury in the short- or long-term? Is self-reported recovery related to ankle function score over time?..
  67. Lamb S, Nakash R, Withers E, Clark M, Marsh J, Wilson S, et al. Clinical and cost effectiveness of mechanical support for severe ankle sprains: design of a randomised controlled trial in the emergency department [ISRCTN 37807450]. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2005;6:1 pubmed
  68. Valderrabano V, Hintermann B, Horisberger M, Fung T. Ligamentous posttraumatic ankle osteoarthritis. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34:612-20 pubmed
    ..Ankle sprains are the most common injuries in sports and recreational activities...
  69. van der Wees P, Lenssen A, Hendriks E, Stomp D, Dekker J, de Bie R. Effectiveness of exercise therapy and manual mobilisation in ankle sprain and functional instability: a systematic review. Aust J Physiother. 2006;52:27-37 pubmed
    ..Manual mobilisation has an (initial) effect on dorsiflexion range of motion, but the clinical relevance of these findings for physiotherapy practice may be limited...
  70. Lamb S, Marsh J, Hutton J, Nakash R, Cooke M. Mechanical supports for acute, severe ankle sprain: a pragmatic, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2009;373:575-81 pubmed publisher
  71. Bleakley C, McDonough S, MacAuley D, Bjordal J. Cryotherapy for acute ankle sprains: a randomised controlled study of two different icing protocols. Br J Sports Med. 2006;40:700-5; discussion 705 pubmed
    ..Preliminary evidence suggests that intermittent cryotherapy applications are most effective at reducing tissue temperature to optimal therapeutic levels. However, its efficacy in treating injured human subjects is not yet known...
  72. Ross S, Guskiewicz K. Examination of static and dynamic postural stability in individuals with functionally stable and unstable ankles. Clin J Sport Med. 2004;14:332-8 pubmed
    ..To determine static and dynamic postural stability differences between functional ankle instability and stable ankle groups...
  73. Anandacoomarasamy A, Barnsley L. Long term outcomes of inversion ankle injuries. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39:e14; discussion e14 pubmed
    ..Ankle sprains are common sporting injuries generally believed to be benign and self limiting. However, some studies report a significant proportion of patients with ankle sprains having persistent symptoms for months or even years...
  74. Nakazato K, Ochi E, Waga T. Dietary apple polyphenols have preventive effects against lengthening contraction-induced muscle injuries. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010;54:364-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The APP group had significantly higher glutathione-S-transferase alpha1 mRNA levels than the CON group. Therefore, we conclude that dietary APPs have protective effects against lengthening contraction-induced muscle injury...
  75. Amaral De Noronha M, Borges N. Lateral ankle sprain: isokinetic test reliability and comparison between invertors and evertors. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2004;19:868-71 pubmed
    ..Evaluate reliability of isokinetic tests for inversion and eversion in individuals with recurrent lateral ankle sprain and compare inversion to eversion muscle performance in the same ankles...
  76. Dadebo B, White J, George K. A survey of flexibility training protocols and hamstring strains in professional football clubs in England. Br J Sports Med. 2004;38:388-94 pubmed
    ..To investigate the relation between current flexibility training protocols, including stretching, and hamstring strain rates (HSRs) in English professional football clubs...
  77. Bridgman S, Clement D, Downing A, Walley G, Phair I, Maffulli N. Population based epidemiology of ankle sprains attending accident and emergency units in the West Midlands of England, and a survey of UK practice for severe ankle sprains. Emerg Med J. 2003;20:508-10 pubmed
    ..To estimate the incidence of ankle sprains and severe ankle sprains attending accident and emergency (A&E) units; to describe current practice for severe ankle sprains in A&E units in the United Kingdom...
  78. Docherty C, Valovich McLeod T, Shultz S. Postural control deficits in participants with functional ankle instability as measured by the balance error scoring system. Clin J Sport Med. 2006;16:203-8 pubmed
    ..To determine if postural control deficits are present in participants with functional ankle instability (FAI) as measured by the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS)...
  79. Hale S, Hertel J, Olmsted Kramer L. The effect of a 4-week comprehensive rehabilitation program on postural control and lower extremity function in individuals with chronic ankle instability. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2007;37:303-11 pubmed
    ..Prospective, randomized controlled trial...
  80. Akbari M, Karimi H, Farahini H, Faghihzadeh S. Balance problems after unilateral lateral ankle sprains. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2006;43:819-24 pubmed
    ..We can conclude that balance problems occur after acute ankle sprains because of proprioception deficits and that the unconscious (reflexive) aspect of proprioception is more severely affected than the conscious (voluntary) aspect...
  81. Arnason A, Andersen T, Holme I, Engebretsen L, Bahr R. Prevention of hamstring strains in elite soccer: an intervention study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2008;18:40-8 pubmed
    ..These results should be verified in randomized clinical trials...
  82. Newell M, Grant S, Henry A, Newell J. Incidence of injury in elite Gaelic footballers. Ir Med J. 2006;99:269-71 pubmed
    ..The high incidence of injury especially hamstrings injuries in the latter stages of training and games warrants further investigation...