leg injuries


Summary: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.

Top Publications

  1. Ekstrand J, Hägglund M, Waldén M. Epidemiology of muscle injuries in professional football (soccer). Am J Sports Med. 2011;39:1226-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Muscle injuries constitute a large percentage of all injuries in football...
  2. Zaraca F, Ponzoni A, Stringari C, Ebner J, Giovannetti R, Ebner H. Lower extremity traumatic vascular injury at a level II trauma center: an analysis of limb loss risk factors and outcomes. Minerva Chir. 2011;66:397-407 pubmed
  3. Li R, Yu B, Wang G, Chen B, Qin C, Guo G, et al. Sequential therapy of vacuum sealing drainage and free-flap transplantation for children with extensive soft-tissue defects below the knee in the extremities. Injury. 2012;43:822-8 pubmed publisher
  4. Ceroni D, Martin X, Delhumeau C, Rizzoli R, Kaelin A, Farpour Lambert N. Effects of cast-mediated immobilization on bone mineral mass at various sites in adolescents with lower-extremity fracture. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012;94:208-16 pubmed publisher
  5. Wong C, Ong Y, Wei F. The anterolateral thigh - Vastus lateralis conjoint flap for complex defects of the lower limb. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2012;65:235-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The anterolateral thigh-vastus lateralis conjoint flap provides a superior reconstructive solution for these difficult wounds...
  6. Yazar S, Lin C. Selection of recipient vessel in traumatic lower extremity. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2012;28:199-204 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will provide a general guideline for the selection of proper recipient vessels in traumatic lower extremity reconstruction and describe the possible reasons why some recipient vessels present more problems than others...
  7. Petersen J, Thorborg K, Nielsen M, Budtz Jørgensen E, Hölmich P. Preventive effect of eccentric training on acute hamstring injuries in men's soccer: a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39:2296-303 pubmed publisher
    ..The incidence of acute hamstring injuries is high in several sports, including the different forms of football...
  8. Desai P, Audige L, Suk M. Combined orthopedic and vascular lower extremity injuries: sequence of care and outcomes. Am J Orthop (Belle Mead NJ). 2012;41:182-6 pubmed
  9. Tahmasebi M, Mohammad Naghi T, Kiani K, Kambiz K, Mazlouman S, Shahriar J, et al. Musculoskeletal injuries associated with earthquake. A report of injuries of Iran's December 26, 2003 Bam earthquake casualties managed in tertiary referral centers. Injury. 2005;36:27-32 pubmed
    ..Institution of renal protective protocols from the very first hours after injury more conservative approaches to treatment of fractures in these crush trauma patients are strongly recommended...

More Information


  1. Bahr R, Holme I. Risk factors for sports injuries--a methodological approach. Br J Sports Med. 2003;37:384-92 pubmed
    ..Studies published to date on the risk factors for hamstring strains have methodological limitations, and are too small to detect small to moderate associations...
  2. Sherry M, Best T. A comparison of 2 rehabilitation programs in the treatment of acute hamstring strains. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2004;34:116-25 pubmed
    ..Prospective randomized comparison of 2 rehabilitation programs...
  3. Tham C, Tan B, Hong S, Chew W, Low C, Tan K. Salvage of the massively traumatized lower extremity with sequential free flaps. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;113:1746-50 pubmed
  4. Croisier J. Factors associated with recurrent hamstring injuries. Sports Med. 2004;34:681-95 pubmed
    ..This also implies a scientific understanding as well as specifically qualified medical doctors, physiotherapists and trainers acting in partnership...
  5. Soligard T, Myklebust G, Steffen K, Holme I, Silvers H, Bizzini M, et al. Comprehensive warm-up programme to prevent injuries in young female footballers: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008;337:a2469 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the effect of a comprehensive warm-up programme designed to reduce the risk of injuries in female youth football...
  6. Mendiguchia J, Brughelli M. A return-to-sport algorithm for acute hamstring injuries. Phys Ther Sport. 2011;12:2-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We hope that this algorithm can serve as a foundation for future evidence based research and aid in the development of new objective and quantifiable testing methods...
  7. Bosse M, MacKenzie E, Kellam J, Burgess A, Webb L, Swiontkowski M, et al. An analysis of outcomes of reconstruction or amputation after leg-threatening injuries. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:1924-31 pubmed
    ..Limb salvage for severe trauma has replaced amputation as the primary treatment in many trauma centers. However, long-term outcomes after limb reconstruction or amputation have not been fully evaluated...
  8. Jones B, Thacker S, Gilchrist J, Kimsey C, Sosin D. Prevention of lower extremity stress fractures in athletes and soldiers: a systematic review. Epidemiol Rev. 2002;24:228-47 pubmed
  9. Delgado G, Chung C, Lektrakul N, Azocar P, Botte M, Coria D, et al. Tennis leg: clinical US study of 141 patients and anatomic investigation of four cadavers with MR imaging and US. Radiology. 2002;224:112-9 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the ultrasonographic (US) findings in patients with a referring diagnosis of tennis leg and to explore the relative importance of the plantaris tendon and gastrocnemius muscle in the pathogenesis of this condition...
  10. Kim J, Kim C, Kim Y. T-anastomosis in microsurgical free flap reconstruction: an overview of clinical applications. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2008;61:1157-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In perforator flaps, the concentrated flow through a narrow perforator pedicle with a small diameter can be dispersed until the autoregulation of new flow distribution in the flap is stabilised...
  11. Petersen J, Holmich P. Evidence based prevention of hamstring injuries in sport. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39:319-23 pubmed
    ..As the injuries are common in football and other sports involving sprinting and jumping, there is a need for further research preferably in the form of randomised controlled trials...
  12. Huynh T, Pham M, Griffin L, Villa M, Przybyla J, Torres R, et al. Management of distal femoral and popliteal arterial injuries: an update. Am J Surg. 2006;192:773-8 pubmed
    ..In this study, we review the contemporary management and outcome of patients treated for acute traumatic distal femoropopliteal arterial injuries...
  13. Arnason A, Andersen T, Holme I, Engebretsen L, Bahr R. Prevention of hamstring strains in elite soccer: an intervention study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2008;18:40-8 pubmed
    ..These results should be verified in randomized clinical trials...
  14. Pasanen K, Parkkari J, Pasanen M, Hiilloskorpi H, Mäkinen T, Järvinen M, et al. Neuromuscular training and the risk of leg injuries in female floorball players: cluster randomised controlled study. BMJ. 2008;337:a295 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether a neuromuscular training programme is effective in preventing non-contact leg injuries in female floorball players.
  15. Schmikli S, de Vries W, Inklaar H, Backx F. Injury prevention target groups in soccer: injury characteristics and incidence rates in male junior and senior players. J Sci Med Sport. 2011;14:199-203 pubmed publisher
    ..6; 3-5 h: OR=1.8; 5+ h: OR=1.9). Ankle, knee and upper leg injuries were most common (59.9%). Contusions, strains and sprains dominated (78.1%)...
  16. Gibbs N, Cross T, Cameron M, Houang M. The accuracy of MRI in predicting recovery and recurrence of acute grade one hamstring muscle strains within the same season in Australian Rules football players. J Sci Med Sport. 2004;7:248-58 pubmed
    ..However the size of the initial strain or the RI do not seem to be reliable indicators in predicting those strains that might recur...
  17. Demirkiran O, Dikmen Y, Utku T, Urkmez S. Crush syndrome patients after the Marmara earthquake. Emerg Med J. 2003;20:247-50 pubmed
    ..To assess the treatment and outcome of patients with crush injury sustained in the Marmara earthquake...
  18. Allison K, Wong M, Bolland B, Peart F, Porter K. The management of compound leg injuries in the West Midlands (UK): are we meeting current guidelines?. Br J Plast Surg. 2005;58:640-5 pubmed
    ..The initial surgery/fixation is often sub-optimal and soft tissue reconstruction has to be considered at the least advantageous time period for the patient, leading to an increased hospital stay and complications...
  19. Ishimaru D, Ogawa H, Sumi H, Sumi Y, Shimizu K. Lower extremity injuries in snowboarding. J Trauma. 2011;70:E48-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Lower extremity injuries in snowboarding differ considerably from well-known upper extremity injuries in terms of injury types and mechanisms. The incidence of lower extremity injuries is high and deserves further attention. ..
  20. Szlezak A, Georgilopoulos P, Bullock Saxton J, Steele M. The immediate effect of unilateral lumbar Z-joint mobilisation on posterior chain neurodynamics: a randomised controlled study. Man Ther. 2011;16:609-13 pubmed publisher
    ..001), and suggests that unilateral lumbar spine zygopophyseal joint mobilisation can immediately restore posterior chain neurodynamics. ..
  21. Arthur D, Khan M, Barclay L. Thermographic investigation of osseous stress pathology. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011;2011:6250-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The apparent 'normal' thermal profile of the anterior aspect of the asymptomatic lower leg is topographically defined and validated against current thermophysiological theory [8] via cadaveric dissection. ..
  22. Ali A, Noyes D, Cogswell L. Management of open fractures of the lower limb. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2013;74:577-80 pubmed
  23. Douglas F, Petrie K, Cundy T, Horne A, Gamble G, Grey A. Differing perceptions of intervention thresholds for fracture risk: a survey of patients and doctors. Osteoporos Int. 2012;23:2135-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients require that drug treatments confer substantial fracture risk reductions in order to consider long-term therapy. ..
  24. Meek R, Tong R. Venous thromboembolism in emergency department patients with rigid immobilization for lower leg injury: Incidence and risk factors. Emerg Med Australas. 2012;24:277-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Prospective research to more accurately determine incidence, severity and risk stratification is required before firm recommendations on the likely risk versus benefit profile of thromboprophylaxis can be made for this population. ..
  25. Graham G, Helmer S, Haan J, Khandelwal A. The use of Integra® Dermal Regeneration Template in the reconstruction of traumatic degloving injuries. J Burn Care Res. 2013;34:261-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Placement of a dermal regeneration template followed by a split-thickness autograft is a viable alternative to traditional methods of repair. ..
  26. Jeffery S. Case 16: further success as an instillation solution with NPWT. J Wound Care. 2016;25:S25 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined use of NPWT and octenilin Wound Irrigation Solution as the instillation fluid proved successful, with a reduction in pain and sufficient healing for the wound to be closed in theatre. ..
  27. Karsidag S, Akcal A, Turgut G, Ugurlu K, Bas L. Lower extremity soft tissue reconstruction with free flap based on subscapular artery. Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc. 2011;45:100-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These flaps are a safe and effective alternative in lower extremity reconstruction. On the other hand, in the absence of appropriate recipient vessels, single or combined cross-leg free flaps may provide successful repair. ..
  28. Douis H, Gillett M, James S. Imaging in the diagnosis, prognostication, and management of lower limb muscle injury. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2011;15:27-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews the biomechanical and imaging features of common acute muscle injuries of the lower extremity and evaluates the role of imaging in the prognosis of these sport injuries. ..
  29. McCormick F, Nwachukwu B, Provencher M. Stress fractures in runners. Clin Sports Med. 2012;31:291-306 pubmed publisher
    ..Runners may benefit from orthotics, cushioned sneakers, interval training, and vitamin/calcium supplementation as a means of stress fracture prevention. ..
  30. Hides J, Brown C, Penfold L, Stanton W. Screening the lumbopelvic muscles for a relationship to injury of the quadriceps, hamstrings, and adductor muscles among elite Australian Football League players. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2011;41:767-75 pubmed publisher
    ..This result needs to be replicated in a larger sample before resources are committed to intervention efforts. ..
  31. Gros T, Viel E, Ripart J, Delire V, Eledjam J, Sebbane M. [Prehospital analgesia with femoral nerve block following lower extremity injury. A 107 cases survey]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2012;31:846-9 pubmed publisher
    ..No complication was observed. Prehospital FNB appeared to be efficacious in routine practice. Teaching FNB to non-anesthesiologist physicians is challenging. ..
  32. Viswanathan V, Kumpatla S. Pattern and causes of amputation in diabetic patients--a multicentric study from India. J Assoc Physicians India. 2011;59:148-51 pubmed
    ..Below knee, toes and rays amputations were the most common type of amputations. Diabetic patients should be educated on foot care and importance of proper foot wear. ..
  33. Fritz J, Efron D, Fishman E. State-of-the-art 3DCT angiography assessment of lower extremity trauma: typical findings, pearls, and pitfalls. Emerg Radiol. 2013;20:175-84 pubmed publisher
  34. Mathur S, Vohra R, Germain S, Forbes S, Bryant N, Vandenborne K, et al. Changes in muscle T2 and tissue damage after downhill running in mdx mice. Muscle Nerve. 2011;43:878-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Downhill running provides a stimulus for inducing acute changes in muscle T(2) in mdx mice. MRI is a non-invasive approach for examining acute muscle damage and recovery in multiple muscle groups simultaneously. ..
  35. Song S, Choi S, Kim Y, Lee S, Choi Y, Oh S. The composite anterolateral thigh flap for knee extensor and skin reconstruction. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2013;133:1517-20 pubmed publisher
    ..He could stand on his right leg and walk without assistance. The composite ALT flap is a valuable option in knee reconstruction after a total patellectomy. ..
  36. Dominguese D, Seegmiller J, Krause B. Alterations in peak ground-reaction force during 60-cm drop landings caused by a single session of repeated Wingate anaerobic tests. J Sport Rehabil. 2012;21:306-12 pubmed
    ..Muscle fatigue consequently alters landing kinetics, potentially increasing the risk of injury. ..
  37. Pruyn E, Watsford M, Murphy A, Pine M, Spurrs R, Cameron M, et al. Seasonal variation of leg stiffness in professional Australian rules footballers. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27:1775-9 pubmed publisher
  38. Newell N, Masouros S, Pullen A, Bull A. The comparative behaviour of two combat boots under impact. Inj Prev. 2012;18:109-12 pubmed publisher
  39. Jaiswal A, Habib M, Tanwar Y. Neglected foreign body in contralateral limb in a traumatic transfemoral amputee---radiographs can be misleading. Chin J Traumatol. 2013;16:61-4 pubmed
    ..Thus in the cases of retained foreign bodies, in addition to thorough clinical examination and radiography, ultrasonograpy should be supplemented. And if required, use of CT scan as well as MRI should be also considered. ..
  40. Padua D, Boling M, DiStefano L, Onate J, Beutler A, Marshall S. Reliability of the landing error scoring system-real time, a clinical assessment tool of jump-landing biomechanics. J Sport Rehabil. 2011;20:145-56 pubmed
    ..One limitation of this tool is that it cannot be assessed in real time and requires the use of video cameras...
  41. Hou W, Liang H, Sheu C, Hsieh C, Chuang H. Return to work and quality of life in workers with traumatic limb injuries: a 2-year repeated-measurements study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013;94:703-10 pubmed publisher
    ..RTW showed a positive and independent influence on HRQOL in workers with limb injury. In addition, the activity/participation domains and the elapsed time since injury largely explained the association between RTW and HRQOL. ..
  42. Westin R, Vaughan A, de Passillé A, Devries T, Pajor E, Pellerin D, et al. Cow- and farm-level risk factors for lameness on dairy farms with automated milking systems. J Dairy Sci. 2016;99:3732-3743 pubmed publisher
    ..Cows were scored for lameness, leg injuries, body condition (BCS), and body size (hip width and rump height; n=1,378; 25-40 cows/farm)...
  43. Hou W, Liang H, Hsieh C, Sheu C, Hwang J, Chuang H. Integrating health-related quality of life with sickness leave days for return-to-work assessment in traumatic limb injuries. Qual Life Res. 2013;22:2307-14 pubmed publisher
  44. Ibnoulkhatib A, Lacroix J, Moine A, Archambaud M, Bonnet E, Laffosse J. Post-traumatic bone and/or joint limb infections due to Clostridium spp. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2012;98:696-705 pubmed publisher
    ..IV (retrospective cohort study). ..
  45. Song Q, Xu K, Yu B, Zhang C, Sun W, Mao D. Could Insoles Offload Pressure? An Evaluation of the Effects of Arch-supported Functional Insoles on Plantar Pressure Distribution during Race Walking. Res Sports Med. 2015;23:278-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The first ground reaction force peak also decreased. This result suggested that functional insoles reduce the risks of foot and leg injuries.
  46. Masoodi Z, Ahmad I, Haq A. Motorcycle muffler-induced "pillion burns" of distal leg: a persistent problem of increasing proportions in Indian settings. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2013;12:212-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Prompt treatment can circumvent much of the dreaded complications. Preemptive efforts in designing of motorcycles and following traffic regulations at the individual level remain the key to prevention. ..
  47. Simon D. Case 5: non-healing traumatic wound colonised with MRSA. J Wound Care. 2016;25:S13 pubmed publisher
    ..Following the combined use of octenilin Wound Gel and octenilin Wound Irrigation Solution, the MRSA was removed in 4 weeks, the necrotic tissue was debrided and the wound started healing. ..
  48. Hallock G. Evidence-based medicine: lower extremity acute trauma. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013;132:1733-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Preferences by both physicians and patients tend to favor the course to limb salvage, but it must be appreciated by the caregiver that it is always the patient who has to live with the residua of an altered limb and lifestyle. ..
  49. Ebid A, Omar M, Abd El Baky A. Effect of 12-week isokinetic training on muscle strength in adult with healed thermal burn. Burns. 2012;38:61-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Participation in isokinetic training resulted in a greater improvement in extensor and flexor muscle strength in adults with held thermal burn compared to base line values. ..
  50. Gescheit D, Cormack S, Duffield R, Kovalchik S, Wood T, Omizzolo M, et al. Injury epidemiology of tennis players at the 2011-2016 Australian Open Grand Slam. Br J Sports Med. 2017;51:1289-1294 pubmed publisher
    ..There was an increasing rate of in-event treatments of upper limb and torso injuries as well as stress fractures during the observation period. ..
  51. Gehmert S, Geis S, Lamby P, Roll C, Braumandl U, Hidayat M, et al. Evaluation of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for free flaps using planar optical oxygen sensors. Preliminary results. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2011;48:75-9 pubmed publisher
    ..45 ± 13.80 Torr) compared with values prior to HBOT (p < 0.006). The findings of this study demonstrated an increase of oxygen supply over the entire flap after hyperbaric oxygen therapy. ..
  52. Borrero Esteban M, Begines Begines R, Rodríguez Llamas S, Díaz Campos T. [Managing complications in severe traumatic injury with VAC therapy with instillation]. Rev Enferm. 2013;36:42-7 pubmed
    ..We describe the application of the VAC therapy in a clinical case with complex injury, showing its efficacy, added the benefit of the instillation therapy. ..
  53. Friend J, Rao S, Sieunarine K, Woodroof P. Vascular trauma in Western Australia: a comparison of two study periods over 15 years. ANZ J Surg. 2016;86:173-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study is to identify changes in vascular trauma patterns over the two study periods and compare these changes with international literature...
  54. Hammarlund C, Carlström M, Melchior R, Persson B. Prevalence of back pain, its effect on functional ability and health-related quality of life in lower limb amputees secondary to trauma or tumour: a comparison across three levels of amputation. Prosthet Orthot Int. 2011;35:97-105 pubmed publisher
    ..The prevalence of back pain and its effect on function and health-related quality of life across three levels of lower limb amputation secondary to trauma or tumour was studied...
  55. Drake F, Quiroga E, Kariuki H, Shisanya K, Hotchkiss M, Monroe Wise A, et al. Traumatic near amputation secondary to hippopotamus attack: lessons for surgeons. J Surg Res. 2014;188:58-63 pubmed publisher
  56. Geis S, Gehmert S, Lamby P, Zellner J, Pfeifer C, Prantl L, et al. Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and time intensity curve (TIC) analysis in compartment syndrome: first results. Clin Hemorheol Microcirc. 2012;50:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Purpose of this study was to monitor changes of microcirculation in acute compartment syndrome using contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and to assess the modified perfusion with a special quantification software...
  57. Norcross M, Johnson S, Bovbjerg V, Koester M, Hoffman M. Factors influencing high school coaches' adoption of injury prevention programs. J Sci Med Sport. 2016;19:299-304 pubmed publisher
    ..To improve the rate of IPP adoption and implementation fidelity, coach education should directly address issues related to relative advantage, compatibility, and complexity. ..
  58. Cortes N, Greska E, Kollock R, Ambegaonkar J, Onate J. Changes in lower extremity biomechanics due to a short-term fatigue protocol. J Athl Train. 2013;48:306-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Few researchers have focused on progressive changes in lower extremity biomechanics that occur throughout fatiguing...
  59. Kinchington M, Ball K, Naughton G. Development of a novel rating system to assess lower-limb comfort. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2011;101:371-84 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument for measuring lower-limb comfort, which will extend previous work in the field of injury awareness...
  60. Sarac M, Marjanovic I, Jevtic M, Misovic S, Zoranovic U, Rusovic S. Endovascular repair of posttraumatic multiple femoral-femoral and popliteal-popliteal arteriovenous fistula with Viabahn and excluder stent graft. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2011;68:616-20 pubmed
  61. Sugi M, Davidovitch R, Montero N, Nobel T, Egol K. Treatment of lower-extremity long-bone fractures in active, nonambulatory, wheelchair-bound patients. Orthopedics. 2012;35:e1376-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This study's findings demonstrate that operative treatment in active, wheelchair-bound patients can provide an improved quality of life postinjury and a rapid return to activities...
  62. Bright J, Fields K, Draper R. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Calf Injuries. Sports Health. 2017;9:352-355 pubmed publisher
    ..The utilization of musculoskeletal ultrasound (sonography) has augmented the diagnosis of these injuries by providing dynamic, real-time confirmation...
  63. Grogan B, Hsu J. Volumetric muscle loss. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2011;19 Suppl 1:S35-7 pubmed
    ..Advances in powered bracing and regenerative medicine may one day provide additional therapeutic options. Further research on VML is warranted...
  64. Weber D, Shoham D, Luke A, Reed R, Luchette F. Racial odds for amputation ratio in traumatic lower extremity fractures. J Trauma. 2011;71:1732-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of race on the management (salvage vs. amputation) of traumatic lower extremity open fractures...
  65. Kanakaris N, Gudipati S, Tosounidis T, Harwood P, Britten S, Giannoudis P. The treatment of intramedullary osteomyelitis of the femur and tibia using the Reamer-Irrigator-Aspirator system and antibiotic cement rods. Bone Joint J. 2014;96-B:783-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The combination of RIA reaming, the administration of systemic pathogen-specific antibiotics and local delivery using impregnated cement rods proved to be a safe and efficient form of treatment in these patients...
  66. Timmins R, Bourne M, Shield A, Williams M, Lorenzen C, Opar D. Biceps Femoris Architecture and Strength in Athletes with a Previous Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016;48:337-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have implications for ACL rehabilitation and hamstring injury prevention practices, which should consider altered architectural characteristics. ..
  67. Farrell C, Rubin D, Downes K, Dormans J, Christian C. Symptoms and time to medical care in children with accidental extremity fractures. Pediatrics. 2012;129:e128-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe patient and injury characteristics that influence the time from injury to medical care...
  68. Febrer A, Vigo M, Rodriguez N, Medina J, Colomer J, Nascimento A. [Fractures in spinal muscular atrophy]. Rev Neurol. 2013;57:207-11 pubmed
    ..To determine the frequency of fractures in patients with spinal muscular atrophy, their mechanism of production, age at appearance and functional repercussions...
  69. Sims J, Cosby N, Saliba E, Hertel J, Saliba S. Exergaming and static postural control in individuals with a history of lower limb injury. J Athl Train. 2013;48:314-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapeutic exercise programs that incorporate real-time feedback have been reported to enhance outcomes in patients with lower extremity joint injuries. The Wii Fit has been purported to improve balance, strength, flexibility, and fitness...
  70. Slayton S, Williams D, Newman G. Physical therapy services utilization and length of stay for obese patients following traumatic leg fracture. N C Med J. 2012;73:24-8 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the present study was to determine whether obesity is a factor in the utilization of inpatient physical therapy services and length of stay following a traumatic lower leg fracture...
  71. Kraus T, Kirchhoff C, Martetschläger F, Braun K, Siebenlist S, Ganslmeier A, et al. [Fractures of the lower extremity in the emergency room. Analysis of a new immobilization and x-ray splint]. Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed. 2013;108:139-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Fractures of the lower extremity are a common reason for presentation to an emergency room. The aim of this study was to evaluate a new immobilization and x-ray splint (Andante®, ForMed) in the emergency room...
  72. McCormick F, Nwachukwu B, Kim J, Martin S. Autologous hamstring tendon used for revision of quadiceps tendon tears. Orthopedics. 2013;36:e529-32 pubmed publisher
    ..This surgical technique is suitable for revision quadriceps tendon repairs of large tendon gap defects, repairs desiring tendon-to-bone in-growth, and repairs requiring large-force transmission across the repair...
  73. Chang N, Waughlock N, Kao D, Lin C, Lin C, Hsu C. Efficient design of split anterolateral thigh flap in extremity reconstruction. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;128:1242-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Such a strategy emphasizes harvesting an elliptical anterolateral thigh flap with a narrower width to allow for primary closure in most cases. This avoids the need for skin grafting and reduces donor-site morbidity...
  74. Porter E. Common injuries and medical problems in singles figure skaters. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2013;12:318-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews the most common injuries and medical problems in singles figure skaters. ..
  75. Lukaski H, Moore M. Bioelectrical impedance assessment of wound healing. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2012;6:209-12 pubmed
    ..This promising method may afford clinicians a novel technique for routine monitoring of interventions and surveillance of wounds...
  76. Ramakrishnaiah R, Shah C, Parnell Beasley D, Greenberg B. Motorized dirt bike injuries in children. J Emerg Med. 2013;44:806-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of dirt bike injuries in children in the United States is increasing and poses a public health problem...
  77. Mills C, Scurr J, Wood L. A protocol for monitoring soft tissue motion under compression garments during drop landings. J Biomech. 2011;44:1821-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, markers placed under or over the garment demonstrate low variance in movement, and the protocol reports good reliability in marker re-application...
  78. Beerekamp M, Sulkers G, Ubbink D, Maas M, Schep N, Goslings J. Accuracy and consequences of 3D-fluoroscopy in upper and lower extremity fracture treatment: a systematic review. Eur J Radiol. 2012;81:4019-28 pubmed publisher
  79. Gao S, Feng S, Chen C, Jiao C, Sun L, Zhang W. A new recipient artery for reconstruction of soft-tissue defects in the lower limb with a free anterolateral thigh flap: the reversed descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex artery. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2012;130:1059-65 pubmed publisher
    ..An operative solution is yet to be found. The descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery of the injured leg was used as the recipient artery in a reverse-flow fashion in these difficult wounds...
  80. Ertl C, Royal D, Arzoiey H, Shefa A, Sultani S, Mosafa M, et al. A Retrospective Case Series of Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) Placement at the Afghan National Police Hospital, Kabul, Afghanistan. Mil Med. 2016;181:21-6 pubmed publisher
    ..While it remains to be seen if the SIGN Online Surgical Database will facilitate more comprehensive outcome studies, our results provide support for the efficacy of SIGN nails in treating long-bone fractures from war injuries...
  81. Kragh J, Cooper A, Aden J, Dubick M, Baer D, Wade C, et al. Survey of trauma registry data on tourniquet use in pediatric war casualties. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012;28:1361-5 pubmed publisher
  82. Hameed S, Ehtesham ul haq R, Ahmed R, Majid A, Waqas M, Aslam A, et al. Use of vascularised free fibula in limb reconstruction (for non-malignant defects). J Pak Med Assoc. 2013;63:1549-54 pubmed
    ..5 cm length discrepancy in one patient. The results proved that a microvascular free fibular flap heals rapidly, causes early functional recovery and it can be raised as an osteocutaneous flap...
  83. Momoh A, Chung K. Measuring outcomes in lower limb surgery. Clin Plast Surg. 2013;40:323-9 pubmed publisher
    ..quot;Are there injury-related factors that have an impact on patient-reported outcomes?" "How satisfied are patients postoperatively?" and "What are the financial implications of these treatment strategies?"..
  84. Jianbing T, Biao C, Jiangting Z, Qin L, Bin Z. A topical negative-pressure technique with skin flap transplantation to repair lower-limb wounds with bone exposure. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2012;11:299-303 pubmed publisher
  85. Chairerg P, Tantavisut S, Tanavalee A, Tuangjaruwinai W, Panchaprateep R, Asawanonda P. Cast application of four weeks' duration significantly affects hair length, diameter and density. J Dermatolog Treat. 2014;25:178-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Localized hypertrichosis following cast application has been recorded, yet no studies characterized these changes systematically...
  86. Mohammadi A, Johari H, Eskandari S. Effect of amniotic membrane on graft take in extremity burns. Burns. 2013;39:1137-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This study evaluates the effect of amniotic membrane on graft take in split-thickness skin graft of extremity burns...
  87. Parmaksizoglu F, Unal M, Cansü E, Koprulu A, Ince Y, Yurga E. Functional results of limb salvage in below-knee type III C open fractures or traumatic amputations. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2012;28:607-13 pubmed publisher