heat stroke

Summary

Summary: A condition caused by the failure of body to dissipate heat in an excessively hot environment or during PHYSICAL EXERTION in a hot environment. Contrast to HEAT EXHAUSTION, the body temperature in heat stroke patient is dangerously high with red, hot skin accompanied by DELUSIONS; CONVULSIONS; or COMA. It can be a life-threatening emergency and is most common in infants and the elderly.

Top Publications

  1. Hagiwara S, Iwasaka H, Shingu C, Matsumoto S, Uchida T, Nishida T, et al. Danaparoid sodium attenuates the effects of heat stress. J Surg Res. 2011;171:762-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Heat stroke is a condition characterized by high body temperature that can lead to hemorrhage and necrosis in multiple organs...
  2. Sudhakar P, Al Hashimi H. Bilateral hippocampal hyperintensities: a new finding in MR imaging of heat stroke. Pediatr Radiol. 2007;37:1289-91 pubmed
    We present a child aged 2 years 3 months who suffered heat stroke after being accidentally locked in a car during summer...
  3. Roberts G, Ghebeh H, Chishti M, Al Mohanna F, El Sayed R, Al Mohanna F, et al. Microvascular injury, thrombosis, inflammation, and apoptosis in the pathogenesis of heatstroke: a study in baboon model. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:1130-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Severe heatstroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality during heat waves. The pathogenesis of tissue injury, organ failure, and death in heatstroke is not well understood...
  4. Ookura R, Shiro Y, Takai T, Okamoto M, Ogata M. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of a severe heat stroke patient complicated with severe cerebellar ataxia. Intern Med. 2009;48:1105-8 pubmed
    A 78-year-old woman was admitted for severe heat stroke with brain damage. She was unconscious on arrival at the emergency room. Her armpit temperature was 42.0 degrees C and blood pressure was 76/25 mmHg...
  5. Liu W, Chen C, Foo N, Huang H, Wang J, Chen S, et al. Human umbilical cord blood cells protect against hypothalamic apoptosis and systemic inflammation response during heatstroke in rats. Pediatr neonatol. 2009;50:208-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that HUCBC transplantation may prevent the occurrence of heatstroke by reducing hypothalamic neuronal damage and the systemic inflammatory responses. ..
  6. Niu K, Lin M, Chang C. Hyperbaric oxygen improves survival in heatstroke rats by reducing multiorgan dysfunction and brain oxidative stress. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007;569:94-102 pubmed
    ..The current results indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy may resuscitate rats that had a heatstroke by decreasing multiple organ dysfunction and brain oxidative stress. ..
  7. Broessner G, Beer R, Franz G, Lackner P, Engelhardt K, Brenneis C, et al. Case report: severe heat stroke with multiple organ dysfunction - a novel intravascular treatment approach. Crit Care. 2005;9:R498-501 pubmed
    We report the case of a patient who developed a severe post-exertional heat stroke with consecutive multiple organ dysfunction resistant to conventional antipyretic treatment, necessitating the use of a novel endovascular device to ..
  8. Cheng B, Chang C, Lin M, Lee C. Inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase causes attenuation of cerebrovascular dysfunction in experimental heatstroke. Neuropharmacology. 2007;52:297-305 pubmed
    ..The data show that reduction of nNOS-dependent NO(2)(-) with 7-NI causes attenuation of cerebrovascular dysfunction, hyperthermia, and TNF-alpha overproduction during heatstroke in the rat. ..
  9. Hsi Hsing Y, Ching Ping C, Juei Tang C, Lin M. Inhibition of acute lung inflammation and injury is a target of brain cooling after heatstroke injury. J Trauma. 2010;69:805-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These experimental data indicate that acute lung inflammation and damage is a target of brain cooling after heatstroke injury. ..

More Information

Publications83

  1. Vandentorren S, Bretin P, Zeghnoun A, Mandereau Bruno L, Croisier A, Cochet C, et al. August 2003 heat wave in France: risk factors for death of elderly people living at home. Eur J Public Health. 2006;16:583-91 pubmed
    ..In the long term, building insulation and urban planning must be adapted to provide protection from possible heat waves. ..
  2. Chang C, Chang C, Liu S, Lin M. Oxidative stress and ischemic injuries in heat stroke. Prog Brain Res. 2007;162:525-46 pubmed
    ..g., 42 or 43 degrees C), hyperthermia, hypotension, and cerebral ischemia and damage occurred during heat stroke were associated with increased production of free radicals (specifically hydroxyl radicals and superoxide ..
  3. Shen K, Chang C, Lin M, Chang C. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist restores homeostatic function and limits multiorgan damage in heatstroke. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2008;103:561-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that IL-1ra therapy may restore tissue blood flow and homeostatic function, and limit multiorgan dysfunction and death in heatstroke. ..
  4. Hadad E, Rav Acha M, Heled Y, Epstein Y, Moran D. Heat stroke : a review of cooling methods. Sports Med. 2004;34:501-11 pubmed
    The prognosis of heat stroke in patients is directly related to the degree of hyperthermia and its duration. Therefore, the most important feature in the treatment of heat stroke is rapid cooling...
  5. Helwig B, Leon L. Tissue and circulating expression of IL-1 family members following heat stroke. Physiol Genomics. 2011;43:1096-104 pubmed publisher
    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is thought to have a significant role in the pathophysiology of heat stroke (HS), although little is known regarding the actions or expression patterns of the IL-1 family...
  6. Grize L, Huss A, Thommen O, Schindler C, Braun Fahrlander C. Heat wave 2003 and mortality in Switzerland. Swiss Med Wkly. 2005;135:200-5 pubmed
  7. Lin X, Mei G, Liu J, Li Y, Zuo D, Liu S, et al. Therapeutic effects of melatonin on heatstroke-induced multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in rats. J Pineal Res. 2011;50:436-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, melatonin could be a novel agent for the treatment of heatstroke animals or patients in the early stage...
  8. Whiticar R, Laba D, Smith S. Exertional heat stroke in a young man with a documented rise in troponin I. Emerg Med J. 2008;25:283-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Heat stroke is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention to prevent multiorgan dysfunction...
  9. Bernard S, McGeehin M. Municipal heat wave response plans. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:1520-2 pubmed
    ..In a review of plans from 18 cities at risk for heat-related mortality, we found that many cities had inadequate or no heat response plans. This is an important area for further investigation and government attention...
  10. Yang H, Chang C, Cheng R, Lin M. Attenuation of acute lung inflammation and injury by whole body cooling in a rat heatstroke model. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2009;2009:768086 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we identified heat-induced acute lung inflammation and injury and electrolyte imbalance could be ameliorated by whole body cooling. ..
  11. Guard A, Gallagher S. Heat related deaths to young children in parked cars: an analysis of 171 fatalities in the United States, 1995-2002. Inj Prev. 2005;11:33-7 pubmed
    ..News sources can be useful for obtaining detailed information not otherwise identifiable through standard sources of fatality data. ..
  12. Patz J, Campbell Lendrum D, Holloway T, Foley J. Impact of regional climate change on human health. Nature. 2005;438:310-7 pubmed
  13. Hagiwara S, Iwasaka H, Goto K, Ochi Y, Mizunaga S, Saikawa T, et al. Recombinant thrombomodulin prevents heatstroke by inhibition of high-mobility group box 1 protein in sera of rats. Shock. 2010;34:402-6 pubmed publisher
    ..As TM exhibited a strong anti-inflammatory effect in a rat model of acute inflammation induced by heat stress, TM represents a potential therapeutic for heatstroke prevention or management in patients. ..
  14. Leon L, Gordon C, Helwig B, Rufolo D, Blaha M. Thermoregulatory, behavioral, and metabolic responses to heatstroke in a conscious mouse model. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;299:R241-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, T(c) responses of mild and severe HS mice suggest a need for reinterpretation of the mechanisms of thermoregulatory control during recovery. ..
  15. Wang N, Chang C, Liou Y, Lin C, Lin M. Shengmai San, a Chinese herbal medicine protects against rat heat stroke by reducing inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide formation. J Pharmacol Sci. 2005;98:1-7 pubmed
    ..nitric oxide (NO) in the brain and inflammatory cytokines in the peripheral blood exhibited during heat stroke can be reduced by prior administration of Shengmai San, a Chinese herbal medicine...
  16. Gasparrini A, Armstrong B. The impact of heat waves on mortality. Epidemiology. 2011;22:68-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Heat waves have been linked with an increase in mortality, but the associated risk has been only partly characterized...
  17. Tsai H, Gao C, Li W, Lin M, Niu K. Resuscitation from experimental heatstroke by hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Crit Care Med. 2005;33:813-8 pubmed
    ..Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been shown to reduce brain ischemia and behavioral dysfunction during cerebral artery occlusion. The efficacy of HBO therapy for resuscitation from heatstroke remains to be determined in the laboratory...
  18. Chen G, Xu H, Gao L, Lu J, Wang W, Chen J. Effects of continuous haemofiltration on serum enzyme concentrations, endotoxemia, homeostasis and survival in dogs with severe heat stroke. Resuscitation. 2012;83:657-62 pubmed publisher
    To examine the effectiveness of continuous haemofiltration as a treatment for severe heat stroke in dogs.
  19. Chen Y, Chen S, Chou W, Lo Y, Hung C, Lin M. Exercise pretraining protects against cerebral ischaemia induced by heat stroke in rats. Br J Sports Med. 2007;41:597-602 pubmed
    ..In the rat brain, heat-stroke-induced damage to cerebral neurons is attenuated through heat-shock-induced overexpression of heat-shock protein 72 (HSP72)...
  20. Hausfater P, Doumenc B, Chopin S, Le Manach Y, Santin A, Dautheville S, et al. Elevation of cardiac troponin I during non-exertional heat-related illnesses in the context of a heatwave. Crit Care. 2010;14:R99 pubmed publisher
    ..The prognostic value of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in patients having a heat-related illness during a heat wave has been poorly documented...
  21. Chang C, Chang C, Chiu W, Lin M. Prevention and repair of circulatory shock and cerebral ischemia/injury by various agents in experimental heatstroke. Curr Med Chem. 2006;13:3145-54 pubmed
  22. Niu K, Chang C, Lin M, Huang K. A hyperbaric oxygen therapy approach to heat stroke with multiple organ dysfunction. Chin J Physiol. 2009;52:169-72 pubmed
    Here in we report the case of a patient who displayed a classic heat stroke with multiple organ dysfunction and hypercoagulable state resistant to conventional whole body cooling and antipyretic therapy, and necessitating the use of ..
  23. Bouchama A, Ollivier V, Roberts G, Al Mohanna F, de Prost D, Eldali A, et al. Experimental heatstroke in baboon: analysis of the systemic inflammatory response. Shock. 2005;24:332-5 pubmed
    ..Further definition of this ambivalent response is needed before identification of target of successful modulation may become possible...
  24. Kondo M, Honda Y, Ono M. Growing concern about heatstroke this summer in Japan after Fukushima nuclear disaster. Environ Health Prev Med. 2011;16:279-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Heat stroke management will be a major challenge following the Fukushima nuclear plant accident that occurred due to the Great East Japan Earthquake. In this article, a number of actions to meet this challenge are proposed.
  25. Rav Acha M, Hadad E, Epstein Y, Heled Y, Moran D. Fatal exertional heat stroke: a case series. Am J Med Sci. 2004;328:84-7 pubmed
    Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is one of the most serious conditions that occur when excess heat, generated by muscular exercise, exceeds the body's heat-dissipation rate...
  26. Chen Y, Tong H, Zhang X, Tang L, Pan Z, Liu Z, et al. Xuebijing injection alleviates liver injury by inhibiting secretory function of Kupffer cells in heat stroke rats. J Tradit Chin Med. 2013;33:243-9 pubmed
    To evaluate the effects of Xuebijing (XBJ) injection in heat stroke (HS) rats and to investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects.
  27. Dhainaut J, Claessens Y, Ginsburg C, Riou B. Unprecedented heat-related deaths during the 2003 heat wave in Paris: consequences on emergency departments. Crit Care. 2004;8:1-2 pubmed
    ..Indeed, simple preventice measures before hospital admissions are only able to reduce mortality which mostly occurred at home and in nursing homes...
  28. Atar S, Rozner E, Rosenfeld T. Transient cardiac dysfunction and pulmonary edema in exertional heat stroke. Mil Med. 2003;168:671-3 pubmed
    Exertional heat stroke is a medical emergency that uncommonly results in severe cardiac dysfunction. The military physician diagnosed a 19-year-old military recruit from an elite unit to have exertional heat stroke...
  29. Pease S, Bouadma L, Kermarrec N, Schortgen F, Regnier B, Wolff M. Early organ dysfunction course, cooling time and outcome in classic heatstroke. Intensive Care Med. 2009;35:1454-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the course of early organ dysfunction in a cohort of patients admitted in ICU suffering classic heatstroke...
  30. Lu K, Wang J, Lin S, Chu P, Lin Y. Role of circulating cytokines and chemokines in exertional heatstroke. Crit Care Med. 2004;32:399-403 pubmed
    ..The interplay between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, as well as chemokines, has not been well explored in exertional heatstroke...
  31. Epstein Y, Roberts W. The pathopysiology of heat stroke: an integrative view of the final common pathway. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011;21:742-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Heat stroke is defined as a condition in which body temperature is elevated to such a level that it becomes a noxious agent causing body tissue dysfunction and damage with a characteristic multi-organ clinical and pathological syndrome...
  32. Leon L. Heat stroke and cytokines. Prog Brain Res. 2007;162:481-524 pubmed
    b>Heat stroke is a life-threatening illness that affects all segments of society, including the young, aged, sick, and healthy...
  33. Vandentorren S, Suzan F, Medina S, Pascal M, Maulpoix A, Cohen J, et al. Mortality in 13 French cities during the August 2003 heat wave. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:1518-20 pubmed
    ..The conjunction of a maximum temperature of 35 degrees C and a minimum temperature of 20 degrees C was exceptional in 7 cities. An excess mortality rate was observed in the 13 towns, with disparities from +4% (Lille) to +142% (Paris)...
  34. Chen C, Hou C, Cheng K, Tian R, Chang C, Lin M. Activated protein C therapy in a rat heat stroke model. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:1960-6 pubmed
    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of activated protein C in an animal model of heat stroke.
  35. Chatterjee S, Premachandran S, Sharma D, Bagewadikar R, Poduval T. Therapeutic treatment with L-arginine rescues mice from heat stroke-induced death: physiological and molecular mechanisms. Shock. 2005;24:341-7 pubmed
    b>Heat stroke-induced death is a major killer worldwide. Mice were subjected to acute heat stress by exposing them to whole-body hyperthermia (WBH) treatment and were used as a model to study heat stroke...
  36. Chatterjee S, Premachandran S, Bagewadikar R, Bhattacharya S, Chattopadhyay S, Poduval T. Arginine metabolic pathways determine its therapeutic benefit in experimental heatstroke: role of Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. Nitric Oxide. 2006;15:408-16 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that therapeutic administration of L-arg at appropriate concentration and time attenuates the acute inflammatory response, leading to the rescue of mice from heatstroke...
  37. Stafoggia M, Forastiere F, Agostini D, Biggeri A, Bisanti L, Cadum E, et al. Vulnerability to heat-related mortality: a multicity, population-based, case-crossover analysis. Epidemiology. 2006;17:315-23 pubmed
  38. Bouchama A, Kwaasi A, Dehbi M, Al Mohanna F, Eldali A, El Sayed R, et al. Glucocorticoids do not protect against the lethal effects of experimental heatstroke in baboons. Shock. 2007;27:578-83 pubmed
    ..These results do not support clinical testing of corticosteroids as beneficial in preventive or therapeutic strategies for the treatment of heatstroke in humans...
  39. Lowe D, Ebi K, Forsberg B. Heatwave early warning systems and adaptation advice to reduce human health consequences of heatwaves. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011;8:4623-48 pubmed publisher
    ..HEWS are designed to reduce the avoidable human health consequences of heatwaves through timely notification of prevention measures to vulnerable populations...
  40. Martínez Navarro F, Simón Soria F, Lopez Abente G. [Evaluation of the impact of the heat wave in the summer of 2003 on mortality]. Gac Sanit. 2004;18 Suppl 1:250-8 pubmed
    ..Alert and response systems based on monitoring of climate related risks, emergency rooms activity and mortality and the strengthening of social and health services response capacity should be considered...
  41. Hagiwara S, Iwasaka H, Shingu C, Matsumoto S, Uchida T, Noguchi T. High-dose antithrombin III prevents heat stroke by attenuating systemic inflammation in rats. Inflamm Res. 2010;59:511-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, as heat stroke is a severe inflammatory response disease, we hypothesized that AT III would inhibit inflammation and prevent ..
  42. Takahashi K, Chin K, Ogawa K, Kasahara M, Sakaguchi T, Hasegawa S, et al. Living donor liver transplantation with noninvasive ventilation for exertional heat stroke and severe rhabdomyolysis. Liver Transpl. 2005;11:570-2 pubmed
    A 16-year-old male with exertional heat stroke (EHS) had extensive hepatocellular damage, severe rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, and coma...
  43. García Pina R, Tobías Garcés A, Sanz Navarro J, Navarro Sánchez C, García Fulgueiras A. [Effect of weather temperature on hospital emergencies in the Region of Murcia, Spain, throughout the 2000-2005 and its use in epidemiological surveillance]. Rev Esp Salud Publica. 2008;82:153-66 pubmed
    ..In Murcia, the number of daily emergencies and the cases of heat stroke for which care is provided at the hospitals in this Region have been studied.
  44. Misset B, De Jonghe B, Bastuji Garin S, Gattolliat O, Boughrara E, Annane D, et al. Mortality of patients with heatstroke admitted to intensive care units during the 2003 heat wave in France: a national multiple-center risk-factor study. Crit Care Med. 2006;34:1087-92 pubmed
    ..We examined the prognosis and risk factors for hospital mortality in patients with heatstroke admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) during the heat wave in France in August 2003...
  45. Lee W, Wen H, Chang C, Chen M, Lin M. Heat shock protein 72 overexpression protects against hyperthermia, circulatory shock, and cerebral ischemia during heatstroke. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006;100:2073-82 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the overexpression of HSP72 in multiple organs improves survival during heatstroke by reducing hyperthermia, circulatory shock, and cerebral ischemia and damage in mice...
  46. Protasi F, Paolini C, Dainese M. Calsequestrin-1: a new candidate gene for malignant hyperthermia and exertional/environmental heat stroke. J Physiol. 2009;587:3095-100 pubmed publisher
    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) and exertional/environmental heat stroke (EHS) in humans present as similar life threatening crises triggered by volatile anaesthetics and strenuous exercise and/or high temperature, respectively...
  47. Makranz C, Heled Y, Moran D. Hypothermia following exertional heat stroke treatment. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011;111:2359-62 pubmed publisher
    Exertional heat stroke (EHS) is a life-threatening condition, which deteriorates rapidly. Immediate cooling treatment can, therefore, be life saving...
  48. Singleton K, Wischmeyer P. Oral glutamine enhances heat shock protein expression and improves survival following hyperthermia. Shock. 2006;25:295-9 pubmed
    ..Enhanced expression of HSP-70 may be an important mechanism leading to enhanced survival via GLN. These data indicate that oral GLN may useful in prevention of mortality from heatstroke in at risk populations...
  49. Bouchama A, Roberts G, Al Mohanna F, El Sayed R, Lach B, Chollet Martin S, et al. Inflammatory, hemostatic, and clinical changes in a baboon experimental model for heatstroke. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2005;98:697-705 pubmed
    ..Heat stress elicited distinct patterns of inflammatory and hemostatic responses associated with outcome. The baboon model of heatstroke appears suitable for testing whether immunomodulation of the host's responses can improve outcome...
  50. Ostro B, Rauch S, Green R, Malig B, Basu R. The effects of temperature and use of air conditioning on hospitalizations. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172:1053-61 pubmed publisher
    ..cardiovascular disease, ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, respiratory disease, pneumonia, dehydration, heat stroke, diabetes, and acute renal failure, with a 10°F increase in same-day apparent temperature...
  51. Leon L, Helwig B. Heat stroke: role of the systemic inflammatory response. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010;109:1980-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Heat stroke is a life-threatening illness that is characterized clinically by central nervous system dysfunction, including delirium, seizures, or coma and severe hyperthermia...
  52. Hsu S, Niu K, Lin C, Lin M. Brain cooling causes attenuation of cerebral oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, activated coagulation, and tissue ischemia/injury during heatstroke. Shock. 2006;26:210-20 pubmed
  53. Bouchama A, Dehbi M, Mohamed G, Matthies F, Shoukri M, Menne B. Prognostic factors in heat wave related deaths: a meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:2170-6 pubmed
    ..We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies on risk and protective factors in heat wave-related deaths...
  54. Weigand K, Riediger C, Stremmel W, Flechtenmacher C, Encke J. Are heat stroke and physical exhaustion underestimated causes of acute hepatic failure?. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:306-9 pubmed
    ..cardiopulmonary symptoms are common in patients undergoing classical or, due to physical exercise, exertional heat stroke, the failure of other organs is a rarely described phenomenon...
  55. Ferron C, Trewick D, Le Conte P, Batard E, Girard L, Potel G. [Heat stroke in hospital patients during the summer 2003 heat wave: a nosocomial disease]. Presse Med. 2006;35:196-9 pubmed
    We investigated patients who died in our institution during the August 2003 heat wave, to determine whether some in hospital patients actually died of heat stroke.
  56. Chen Z, Wu W, Lin M, Hsu C. Protective effect of transgenic expression of porcine heat shock protein 70 on hypothalamic ischemic and oxidative damage in a mouse model of heatstroke. BMC Neurosci. 2009;10:111 pubmed publisher
  57. Bouchama A, Kunzelmann C, Dehbi M, Kwaasi A, Eldali A, Zobairi F, et al. Recombinant activated protein C attenuates endothelial injury and inhibits procoagulant microparticles release in baboon heatstroke. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:1318-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypothesis that the antithrombotic and cytoprotective effects of recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) protect baboons against the lethal effects of heatstroke...
  58. Durham W, Aracena Parks P, Long C, Rossi A, Goonasekera S, Boncompagni S, et al. RyR1 S-nitrosylation underlies environmental heat stroke and sudden death in Y522S RyR1 knockin mice. Cell. 2008;133:53-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a feed-forward cyclic mechanism that increases the temperature sensitivity of RyR1 activation and underlies heat stroke and sudden death. The cycle eventually produces a myopathy with damaged mitochondria.
  59. Wu W, Chou M, Chao C, Chang C, Lin M, Chang C. Melatonin reduces acute lung inflammation, edema, and hemorrhage in heatstroke rats. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2012;33:775-82 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the therapeutic effect of melatonin on heat-induced acute lung inflammation and injury in rats...
  60. Prasun P, Karmarkar S, Agarwal A, Stockton D. Unusual physical features and heat stroke presentation for hypohydrotic ectodermal dysplasia. Clin Dysmorphol. 2012;21:24-6 pubmed publisher
    ..2009). Here, we report an infant with HED who presented with a heat stroke-like condition in the extreme winter months of Michigan.
  61. Yeh C, Chen Z, Hsu C, Lin M, Chen C. Protection in rats with heatstroke: hyperbaric oxygen vs activated protein C therapy. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;635:103-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate consequently, combined activated protein C and hyperbaric oxygen therapy heightens benefit in combating heatstroke reactions...
  62. Chen S, Chang F, Tsai Y, Huang K, Lin M. Resuscitation from experimental heatstroke by transplantation of human umbilical cord blood cells. Crit Care Med. 2005;33:1377-83 pubmed
    ..In the study described herein, we administered HUCBCs into the femoral vein or directly into the cerebral ventricular system and assessed their effects on circulatory shock, cerebral ischemia, and damage during heatstroke...
  63. Shen K, Lin C, Chang H, Chen W, Chen S. Premarin can act via estrogen receptors to rescue mice from heatstroke-induced lethality. Shock. 2008;30:668-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicate that Premarin may act via ERs to rescue mice form HS-induced lethality...
  64. Lin X, Li Y, Mei G, Zou F, He D, Liu X, et al. Activated protein C can be used as a prophylactic as well as a therapeutic agent for heat stroke in rodents. Shock. 2009;32:524-9 pubmed publisher
    ..therapeutic effect of human recombinant activated protein C (APC; drotrecogin-alpha, activated) in experimental heat stroke. Anesthetized rats were divided into two groups and given vehicle solution 1 h before the start or immediately ..
  65. Kovats R, Kristie L. Heatwaves and public health in Europe. Eur J Public Health. 2006;16:592-9 pubmed
    ..Including evaluation criteria in the design of heatwave early warning systems will help ensure effective and efficient system operation...
  66. Chen S, Niu K, Lin M. Cerebrovascular dysfunction is an attractive target for therapy in heat stroke. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2006;33:663-72 pubmed
    ..of animal models that advance the knowledge of the attenuation of cerebrovascular dysfunction in the setting of heat stroke. It is a narrative review of selected published literature from Medline over the period 1959-2005. 2...
  67. Bazille C, Megarbane B, Bensimhon D, Lavergne Slove A, Baglin A, Loirat P, et al. Brain damage after heat stroke. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2005;64:970-5 pubmed
    ..We studied 3 patients (a 74-year-old woman, a 63-year-old man, and an 80-year-old man) who had heat stroke during heat waves in France. One patient had generalized seizures and died 28 hours after admission...
  68. Leonardi G, Hajat S, Kovats R, Smith G, Cooper D, Gerard E. Syndromic surveillance use to detect the early effects of heat-waves: an analysis of NHS direct data in England. Soz Praventivmed. 2006;51:194-201 pubmed
    ..To investigate the effects of high ambient temperatures, including the summer 2003 heat-episode, on NHS Direct usage and its suitability as a surveillance tool in heat health warning systems...
  69. Casa D, Armstrong L, Kenny G, O Connor F, Huggins R. Exertional heat stroke: new concepts regarding cause and care. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2012;11:115-23 pubmed publisher
    When athletes, warfighters, and laborers perform intense exercise in the heat, the risk of exertional heat stroke (EHS) is ever present...
  70. Lim C, Mackinnon L. The roles of exercise-induced immune system disturbances in the pathology of heat stroke : the dual pathway model of heat stroke. Sports Med. 2006;36:39-64 pubmed
    b>Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition that can be fatal if not appropriately managed...
  71. Chang C, Lee C, Chen S, Lin M. Aminoguanidine protects against intracranial hypertension and cerebral ischemic injury in experimental heatstroke. J Pharmacol Sci. 2004;95:56-64 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that aminoguanidine protects against heatstroke-induced intracranial hypertension and cerebral ischemic injury by inhibition of cerebral iNOS-dependent NO production...
  72. Leon L, Helwig B. Role of endotoxin and cytokines in the systemic inflammatory response to heat injury. Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2010;2:916-38 pubmed
    Environmental heat exposure represents one of the most deadly natural hazards in the United States. Heat stroke is a life-threatening illness that affects all segments of society with few effective treatment strategies to mitigate the ..
  73. Varghese G, John G, Thomas K, Abraham O, Mathai D. Predictors of multi-organ dysfunction in heatstroke. Emerg Med J. 2005;22:185-7 pubmed
    ..It carries a high mortality rate, and in survivors, a risk of permanent neurological damage...
  74. Jardine D. Heat illness and heat stroke. Pediatr Rev. 2007;28:249-58 pubmed