foreign body reaction


Summary: Chronic inflammation and granuloma formation around irritating foreign bodies.

Top Publications

  1. Anderson J, Rodriguez A, Chang D. Foreign body reaction to biomaterials. Semin Immunol. 2008;20:86-100 pubmed
    The foreign body reaction composed of macrophages and foreign body giant cells is the end-stage response of the inflammatory and wound healing responses following implantation of a medical device, prosthesis, or biomaterial...
  2. Luttikhuizen D, van Amerongen M, de Feijter P, Petersen A, Harmsen M, van Luyn M. The correlation between difference in foreign body reaction between implant locations and cytokine and MMP expression. Biomaterials. 2006;27:5763-70 pubmed
    The foreign body reaction (FBR) differs between subcutaneously and supra-epicardially implanted materials. We hypothesize that this is a result of differences in cytokine, chemokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) dynamics...
  3. Giuffrida A, Gyuricza C, Perino G, Weiland A. Foreign body reaction to artelon spacer: case report. J Hand Surg Am. 2009;34:1388-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients should be made aware of the potential of the Artelon spacer to cause a foreign body reaction that may necessitate reoperation for removal of the implant.
  4. Chatelain D, Brevet M, Manaouil D, Yzet T, Regimbeau J, Sevestre H. Rectal stenosis caused by foreign body reaction to sodium polystyrene sulfonate crystals (Kayexalate). Ann Diagn Pathol. 2007;11:217-9 pubmed
    ..This is the first case report of rectal stenosis caused by foreign body reaction to SPS crystals after ischemic colitis.
  5. Eser O, Cosar M, Aslan A, Sahin O. Bone wax as a cause of foreign body reaction after lumbar disc surgery: a case report. Adv Ther. 2007;24:594-7 pubmed
    ..Bone wax use should be limited in spinal surgery because of the potential for compression and chronic inflammation...
  6. Lim C, Goldin R, Darzi A, Hanna G. Characterization of materials eliciting foreign body reaction in stapled human gastrointestinal anastomoses. Br J Surg. 2008;95:1044-50 pubmed publisher
    Staples are made of titanium, which elicits minimal tissue reaction. The authors have encountered foreign body reaction associated with stapled human gastrointestinal anastomoses, although the literature has no reports of this...
  7. Thiele A, Bilkenroth U, Bloching M, Knipping S. [Foreign body reaction to materials implanted as biocompatible for internal fixation]. HNO. 2008;56:545-8 pubmed
    ..patients had a midfacial fracture, which we fixed using a resorbable system based on PLLA-PGA (82%-18%); a foreign body reaction developed after 22 months...
  8. Jones J, McNally A, Chang D, Qin L, Meyerson H, Colton E, et al. Matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in the foreign body reaction on biomaterials. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2008;84:158-66 pubmed
    ..e., adhesion and migration) and subsequent pathological responses (i.e., the foreign body reaction and wound healing)...
  9. Cao H, McHugh K, Chew S, Anderson J. The topographical effect of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds on the in vivo and in vitro foreign body reaction. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010;93:1151-9 pubmed publisher scaffold architecture and topographical effect of nanofibrous scaffolds on the in vivo and in vitro foreign body reaction. Random and aligned polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers were fabricated by electrospinning technique, with ..

More Information


  1. Sankar V, McGuff H. Foreign body reaction to calcium hydroxylapatite after lip augmentation. J Am Dent Assoc. 2007;138:1093-6 pubmed
    ..Common side effects detected on clinical examination may include edema, bruising and noninflammatory lip nodules...
  2. Wolfram D, Tzankov A, Piza Katzer H. Surgery for foreign body reactions due to injectable fillers. Dermatology. 2006;213:300-4 pubmed
    ..Depending on bioavailability, chemical composition and degradation, fillers can be classified as temporary or permanent, organic or inorganic and autologous or heterologous...
  3. Gosau M, Draenert F, Ihrler S. Facial augmentation with porous polyethylene (Medpor)--histological evidence of intense foreign body reaction. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2008;87:83-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Medpor implants as augmentation material in the facial skeleton, we examined cases with unexpected intense foreign body reaction and focal disintegration of the implant material...
  4. Ozeren M. eComment: Foreign body reaction to polytetrafluoroethylene. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2008;7:276-7 pubmed publisher
  5. Rodriguez A, Macewan S, Meyerson H, Kirk J, Anderson J. The foreign body reaction in T-cell-deficient mice. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2009;90:106-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We have shown that there are pathways that do not require thymus-matured T lymphocytes, which lead to a normal foreign body response to biomaterials in a murine model...
  6. Luttikhuizen D, Harmsen M, van Luyn M. Cellular and molecular dynamics in the foreign body reaction. Tissue Eng. 2006;12:1955-70 pubmed
    ..This inflammatory reaction to implanted materials is known as the foreign body reaction (FBR) and is characterized by 3 distinct phases: onset, progression, and resolution...
  7. Bannister S, Powell C. Foreign body reaction to anorganic bovine bone and autogenous bone with platelet-rich plasma in guided bone regeneration. J Periodontol. 2008;79:1116-20 pubmed
    ..Although many materials may be used for these procedures, the outcome is usually predictable. In this report, we present an unusual reaction to a frequently used commercially available xenograft material...
  8. Liu L, Chen G, Chao T, Ratner B, Sage E, Jiang S. Reduced foreign body reaction to implanted biomaterials by surface treatment with oriented osteopontin. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2008;19:821-35 pubmed publisher
    The foreign body reaction (FBR), which leads to the encapsulation of implanted biomaterials, has been implicated in the failure of many medical devices...
  9. Dragu A, Unglaub F, Schwarz S, Beier J, Kneser U, Bach A, et al. Foreign body reaction after usage of tissue adhesives for skin closure: a case report and review of the literature. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2009;129:167-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, so far the risks and possible complications after using 2-octyl cyanoacrylate are not sufficiently published and discussed...
  10. van Putten S, Wubben M, Hennink W, van Luyn M, Harmsen M. The downmodulation of the foreign body reaction by cytomegalovirus encoded interleukin-10. Biomaterials. 2009;30:730-5 pubmed publisher
    The foreign body reaction (FBR) is of great importance for the function and turnover of biomaterial scaffolds...
  11. Vranken I, De Visscher G, Lebacq A, Verbeken E, Flameng W. The recruitment of primitive Lin(-) Sca-1(+), CD34(+), c-kit(+) and CD271(+) cells during the early intraperitoneal foreign body reaction. Biomaterials. 2008;29:797-808 pubmed
    ..materials, such as medical devices, provoke the body to initiate an inflammatory reaction, known as the foreign body reaction (FBR), which causes several complications for example in hip prostheses, silicone implants, peritoneal ..
  12. Fernández Cossío S, Castaño Oreja M. Biocompatibility of two novel dermal fillers: histological evaluation of implants of a hyaluronic acid filler and a polyacrylamide filler. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;117:1789-96 pubmed
    ..Recently, hyaluronic acid and polyacrylamide gel products have been introduced as dermal fillers. Both types of product are widely considered to be biocompatible...
  13. Parada M, Michalany N, Hassun K, Bagatin E, Talarico S. A histologic study of adverse effects of different cosmetic skin fillers. Skinmed. 2005;4:345-9 pubmed
    ..This study was designed to describe the histologic aspects of the cutaneous and mucosal adverse reactions to fillers used for cosmetic purposes...
  14. Kim Y, Dawes Higgs E, Zagarella S. Foreign body reaction involving a Mantoux test site. Australas J Dermatol. 2005;46:169-71 pubmed
    ..We postulate that the reaction in our patient may have been secondary to the implantation of epidermal keratin or the entrapment of hair into the dermis during the intradermal injection of tuberculin purified protein derivative...
  15. Aide N, Deux J, Peretti I, Mabille L, Mandet J, Callard P, et al. Persistent foreign body reaction around inguinal mesh prostheses: a potential pitfall of FDG PET. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2005;184:1172-7 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study is to describe three oncology patients with persistent FDG up-take around inguinal mesh prostheses that occurred up to 10 years after the surgical repair of inguinal hernias and led to false-positive results...
  16. van Amerongen M, Molema G, Plantinga J, Moorlag H, van Luyn M. Neovascularization and vascular markers in a foreign body reaction to subcutaneously implanted degradable biomaterial in mice. Angiogenesis. 2002;5:173-80 pubmed
    To study the spatiotemporal processes of angiogenesis during a foreign body reaction (FBR), biodegradable bovine collagen type-1 (COL-I) discs were implanted in mice for a period up to 28 days...
  17. Ibrahim M, Aps C, Young C. A foreign body reaction to Surgicel mimicking an abscess following cardiac surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2002;22:489-90; author reply 490 pubmed
  18. Qin Z, Kim H, Hemme J, Blankenstein T. Inhibition of methylcholanthrene-induced carcinogenesis by an interferon gamma receptor-dependent foreign body reaction. J Exp Med. 2002;195:1479-90 pubmed
    The foreign body reaction is one of the oldest host defense mechanisms against tissue damage which involves inflammation, scarring, and encapsulation...
  19. Puolakkainen P, Bradshaw A, Kyriakides T, Reed M, Brekken R, Wight T, et al. Compromised production of extracellular matrix in mice lacking secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) leads to a reduced foreign body reaction to implanted biomaterials. Am J Pathol. 2003;162:627-35 pubmed
    ..Herein we asked whether SPARC might influence the foreign body reaction to biomaterial implants...
  20. Pihlajamaki H, Böstman O, Tynninen O, Laitinen O. Long-term tissue response to bioabsorbable poly-L-lactide and metallic screws: an experimental study. Bone. 2006;39:932-7 pubmed
    ..The results of this study showed no significant differences between the bioabsorbable PLLA screws and the metallic screws in biocompatibility, and no signs of inflammatory foreign-body reactions occurred during the follow-up...
  21. Toy B, Frank P. Outbreak of Mycobacterium abscessus infection after soft tissue augmentation. Dermatol Surg. 2003;29:971-3 pubmed
    ..Illicit soft-tissue augmentation performed in New York City resulted in an outbreak of Mycobacterium abscessus infection in 2002...
  22. Sasaki M, Miyazaki Y, Takahashi T. Hylan G-F 20 induces delayed foreign body inflammation in Guinea pigs and rabbits. Toxicol Pathol. 2003;31:321-5 pubmed
    ..The present results contradict previous reports on biocompatibility of hylan and suggest that hylan may potentially induce similar unfavorable reactions in humans...
  23. Liu S, Chen H, Wu T, Pan G, Fan C, Xu Y, et al. Macrophage infiltration of electrospun polyester fibers. Biomater Sci. 2017;5:1579-1587 pubmed publisher
    ..but their degradation may lead to granuloma formation triggered by macrophages as the result of a foreign body reaction. To understand and solve this problem in peritendinous anti-adhesion, the effects of electrospun fibrous ..
  24. Hamard P, El Maftouhi A, Baudouin C. [Visante OCT and the Ahmed valve: from the anterior chamber to the posterior chamber]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2007;30:1089-91 pubmed
  25. Landes C, Ballon A. Skeletal stability in bimaxillary orthognathic surgery: P(L/DL)LA-resorbable versus titanium osteofixation. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006;118:703-21; discussion 722 pubmed
    ..Resorbable materials permitted clinically faster occlusal and condylar settling than standard titanium osteosyntheses, as bone segments showed slight clinical mobility up to 6 weeks postoperatively. ..
  26. Fealey M, Edwards W, Giannini C, Piepgras D, Cloft H, Rihal C. Complications of endovascular polymers associated with vascular introducer sheaths and metallic coils in 3 patients, with literature review. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32:1310-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the culprit radial artery sheath is now rarely used, embolization coils containing polymers are commonly deployed in clinical practice and may be a source of recurrent inflammatory lesions. ..
  27. Friedman H, Giurgiutiu V, Bender J, Crachiolo G, Yost M. A biomechanical and morphologic analysis of capsule formation around implanted piezoelectric wafer active sensors in rats treated with cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition. Ann Plast Surg. 2008;60:198-203 pubmed publisher
    ..However, at 5 months there was little difference histologically between the 2 groups. The use of PWAS sensors provides a new tool for investigating the physical properties of wound healing around soft tissue implants. ..
  28. Smith K, Elidemir O, Dishop M, Eldin K, Tatevian N, Moore R. Intravenous injection of pharmaceutical tablets presenting as multiple pulmonary nodules and declining pulmonary function in an adolescent with cystic fibrosis. Pediatrics. 2006;118:e924-8 pubmed
    ..Recognition of both the diagnostic imaging features and histologic features on lung biopsy are critical steps for early diagnosis, intervention, and potential prevention of sudden death in these at-risk patients. ..
  29. Gamo R, Pinedo F, Vicente J, Naz E, Calzado L, Ruiz Genao D, et al. Keratoacanthoma-like reaction after a hyaluronic acid and acrylic hydrogel cosmetic filler. Dermatol Surg. 2008;34:954-9 pubmed publisher
  30. Atis G, Arisan S, Ozagari A, Caskurlu T, Dalkilinc A, Ergenekon E. Tissue reaction of the rat urinary bladder to synthetic mesh materials. ScientificWorldJournal. 2009;9:1046-51 pubmed publisher
    ..041, p = 0.028). The bladder presented more increased inflammatory response to IVS than the other meshs. This may play a role in the ultimate outcomes or complications from slings. ..
  31. Thomas B, Silverman E. Focal uptake of Tc-99m MDP in a gossypiboma. Clin Nucl Med. 2008;33:290-1 pubmed publisher
    ..The natural progression of an aseptic gossypiboma is a foreign body reaction and granuloma formation...
  32. Sigler M, Jux C, Ewert P. Histopathological workup of an Amplatzer atrial septal defect occluder after surgical removal. Pediatr Cardiol. 2006;27:775-6 pubmed
    ..Complete endothelialization of the surface and a mild inflammatory reaction was demonstrated. ..
  33. Waguri Nagaya Y, Yamagami T, Tsuchiya A, Nozaki M, Goto H, Kobayashi M, et al. Silicone-induced foreign-body reaction after first metatarsophalangeal joint arthroplasty for Jaccoud's arthropathy. Rheumatol Int. 2009;29:1367-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the capsuloligamentous system is fragile in Jaccoud's arthropathy, we recommend resection arthroplasty or arthrodesis of the first MP joint as an initial operative approach. ..
  34. Guivarch E, Kriegel I, Bonnet L, Di Maria S, Esteve M. [Encapsulated implantable venous access device: two clinical cases]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2009;28:238-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In all cases reported, the catheter was left in place. The potential main complications not yet observed are infection of the catheter and venous thrombosis. ..
  35. Bonavina L, Bona D, Saino G, Clemente C. Pseudoachalasia occurring after laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and crural mesh repair. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2007;392:653-6 pubmed
    ..After a 2-year follow-up, the patient is doing well and is free of symptoms. ..
  36. Luo Y, Kobler J, Heaton J, Jia X, Zeitels S, Langer R. Injectable hyaluronic acid-dextran hydrogels and effects of implantation in ferret vocal fold. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2010;93:386-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The in vivo results suggest that the HA-dextran hydrogel matrices can be further developed for applications of vocal fold tissue restoration. ..
  37. Esposito F, Cappabianca P, Fusco M, Cavallo L, Bani G, Biroli F, et al. Collagen-only biomatrix as a novel dural substitute. Examination of the efficacy, safety and outcome: clinical experience on a series of 208 patients. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2008;110:343-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of local and systemic toxicity or complications, and the scarce promotion of adherences and inflammation, make this material appealing for its use as dural substitute even in cases when a needed re-operation is anticipated. ..
  38. Alawy M, Tawfick W, Elkassaby M, Shalaby A, Zaki M, Hynes N, et al. Late Dacron Patch Inflammatory Reaction after Carotid Endarterectomy. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2017;54:423-429 pubmed publisher
    ..The remaining patients had a satisfactory outcome. All patients showed evidence of foreign body reaction in pathological examination with no pathological organism cultured from swabs or tissue harvested during ..
  39. Hernandez Vaquero D, Suarez Vazquez A. [Asymptomatic intrapelvic cyst associated to total hip arthroplasty]. Med Clin (Barc). 2007;128:598-9 pubmed
  40. Antisdel J, Janney C, Long J, Sindwani R. Hemostatic agent microporous polysaccharide hemospheres (MPH) does not affect healing or intact sinus mucosa. Laryngoscope. 2008;118:1265-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Absorbable hemostatic materials have starkly different effects on mucosal healing. Unlike other agents, MPH is rapidly cleared and has no negative effects on healing or intact sinus mucosa. ..
  41. Zielke H, Wölber L, Wiest L, Rzany B. Risk profiles of different injectable fillers: results from the Injectable Filler Safety Study (IFS Study). Dermatol Surg. 2008;34:326-35; discussion 335 pubmed publisher
    ..Adverse reactions can be documented for all injectable fillers. Time until reaction as well as type of reaction, however, vary between different fillers. Further research is necessary to evaluate potential risk factors. ..
  42. Xavier D, Amaral L, Gomes M, Rocha M, Campos P, Cota B, et al. Metformin inhibits inflammatory angiogenesis in a murine sponge model. Biomed Pharmacother. 2010;64:220-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A regulatory function of metformin on multiple parameters of main components of inflammatory angiogenesis has been revealed giving insight into the potential therapeutic underlying the actions of metformin. ..
  43. Ereth M, Schaff M, Ericson E, Wetjen N, Nuttall G, Oliver W. Comparative safety and efficacy of topical hemostatic agents in a rat neurosurgical model. Neurosurgery. 2008;63:369-72; discussion 372 pubmed publisher
    ..Apart from variable efficacy, the residual presence of these agents may cause foreign body reaction, infection, and delayed bone growth...
  44. Klopfleisch R. Macrophage reaction against biomaterials in the mouse model - Phenotypes, functions and markers. Acta Biomater. 2016;43:3-13 pubmed publisher
    The foreign body reaction (FBR) is a response of the host tissue against more or less degradation-resistant foreign macromolecular material...
  45. Burgess C, Lowe N. NewFill for skin augmentation: a new filler or failure?. Dermatol Surg. 2006;32:1530-2; author reply 1532 pubmed
  46. Silberstein J, Downs T, Goldstein I. Penile injection with silicone: case report and review of the literature. J Sex Med. 2008;5:2231-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We currently discourage the use of LIS for penile augmentation until carefully designed and evaluated trials have been completed. ..
  47. Kern M. In search of perfect closure. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2008;71:747 pubmed publisher
  48. O Neill J, Rigby H, Kenealy J. Leakage and osmotic shifts in PIP Hydrogel implants. A case demonstrating increase and decrease of implant volume in the same patient. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2008;61:1122-3 pubmed publisher
  49. Enon S, Kayi Cangir A, Okten I. Swallowing of a dynamic tracheal stent: an unusual complication. Tuberk Toraks. 2007;55:92-4 pubmed
    ..In this report, we present a case of swallowing a tracheal dynamic stent as an unusual complication of tracheal stents. ..
  50. Takeuchi K, Tsujino T, Yasumizu R, Kitazawa S. Possible relationship between chronic inflammation and pyloric metaplasia in a patient with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2009;30:707-10 pubmed
    ..Focal immunoreactivity for MIB-1 was detected only in the LEGH cells adjacent to the fibrosis and foreign body reaction. The histological findings, in relation to the previous cesarean section suggest that the ectopic pyloric ..
  51. Ward B, Anderson J, McVenes R, Stokes K. In vivo biostability of polyether polyurethanes with fluoropolymer surface modifying endgroups: resistance to biologic oxidation and stress cracking. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2006;79:827-35 pubmed
    ..The use of fluoropolymer as a SME does appear to be warranted as a means to improve polyether polyurethane biostability...
  52. Kneitz H, Weyandt G, Meissner C, Gebhart E, Brocker E. Dermal schwannoma (neurilemmoma): a peculiar foreign body reaction?. Am J Dermatopathol. 2010;32:367-9 pubmed publisher
    ..An association of deeply located schwannoma with foreign material has been reported in very few cases. To our knowledge, we present the first case of a painful dermal schwannoma in association to foreign material. ..
  53. Petruska J, Durcansky D, Makarevic A, Kubovicova E, Pivko J. [Morphological-functional characteristic of periarticular tissue after total hip arthroplasty: histological, cytochemical and electron microscopy aspects]. Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech. 2008;75:375-81 pubmed
    ..Fibroproliferative process may be considered as an immune response to the implanted foreign material. ..
  54. Luttikhuizen D, Harmsen M, van Luyn M. Cytokine and chemokine dynamics differ between rats and mice after collagen implantation. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2007;1:398-405 pubmed
    Implanted scaffold materials induce an inflammatory reaction known as the 'foreign body reaction' (FBR)...
  55. Ferraz L, Schellini S, Wludarski S, Padovani C. [Gel and porous polyethylene implants in the rabbit anophthalmic cavity]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2006;69:305-8 pubmed
    ..To evaluate porous polyethylene implants as compared to solid and gel spheres in anophthalmic cavities...
  56. Jerosch J, Moursi M. Foreign body reaction due to polyethylene's wear after implantation of an interspinal segment. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2008;128:1-4 pubmed
    ..We present a case with foreign body reaction due to polyethylene's wear after a device for intervertebral assisted motion (DIAM) implantation...
  57. Christensen L, Nielsen J, Mouritsen L, Sørensen M, Lose G. Tissue integration of polyacrylamide hydrogel: an experimental study of periurethral, perivesical, and mammary gland tissue in the pig. Dermatol Surg. 2008;34 Suppl 1:S68-77; discussion S77 pubmed publisher
    ..CONCLUSION PAAG is a stable, viscoelastic bulking agent, which unlike silicone gel is slowly integrated within its host tissue via a thin fibrous network. Long-term risk of fibrosis and migration is minimal...
  58. Poeppl N, Schreml S, Lichtenegger F, Lenich A, Eisenmann Klein M, Prantl L. Does the surface structure of implants have an impact on the formation of a capsular contracture?. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2007;31:133-9 pubmed
    The formation of a fibrous capsule around a silicone breast implant is part of a physiologic foreign body reaction after breast augmentation. In contrast, the formation of a capsular contracture is a local complication of unknown cause...
  59. Słowiński K, Misiuk Hojło M, Szaliński M. [Influence of material on biocompatibility of intraocular lenses]. Polim Med. 2007;37:35-45 pubmed
    ..New perspective technologies of intraocular artificial lens production such as single crystal materials are also discussed...
  60. Hartley C, McConnell J, Doust R. Wooden orbital foreign body in a Weimaraner. Vet Ophthalmol. 2007;10:390-3 pubmed
    ..5 x 0.8 cm extending from the orbit to the level of the oropharynx. A modified lateral orbitotomy with zygomatic arch resection on the left side allowed removal of the wooden foreign body...
  61. Konstantinov I, Saxena P, Shehatha J, Mitchell A, Cherian S. Novel aeration technique for necrotizing fasciitis of the chest wall. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008;86:1973-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein we present a patient with necrotizing fasciitis who was managed successfully with aggressive surgical debridement combined with an aeration system that provided effective aeration and drainage of the infected tissues...
  62. Iyer S, Barr W, Dance M, Coleman P, Karnes H. A 'biorelevant' system to investigate in vitro drug released from a naltrexone implant. Int J Pharm. 2007;340:104-18 pubmed
    ..No macroscopic or clinical toxicity signs were observed during the in vivo implantation study...
  63. Khan N, Butany J, Leong S, Rao V, Cusimano R, Ross H. Mitral valve-sparing procedures and prosthetic heart valve failure: a case report. Can J Cardiol. 2009;25:e86-8 pubmed
    ..The present report illustrates the role of the subvalvular apparatus and pannus in prosthesis dysfunction...
  64. Wouters D, Bos R, van Horn J, van Luyn M. Should in the treatment of osteochondritis dissecans biodegradable or metallic fixation devices be used? A comparative study in goat knees. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2008;84:154-64 pubmed
    ..This screw has to be removed before loading the limb to prevent cartilage wear of the opposite tibia plateau...
  65. Gancedo M, Ruiz Corro L, Salazar Montes A, Rincón A, Armendariz Borunda J. Pirfenidone prevents capsular contracture after mammary implantation. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2008;32:32-40 pubmed
    ..Mammary implantation, the most frequent aesthetic surgery, may present several complications after surgery such as swelling, capsule contracture, hardness, and pain...
  66. Zeplin P, Larena Avellaneda A, Schmidt K. Surface modification of silicone breast implants by binding the antifibrotic drug halofuginone reduces capsular fibrosis. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010;126:266-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Should this case arise, a periprosthetic deposition of fibroid tissue may evolve. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta is one of the most important mediators in relation to such processes...
  67. Shipchandler T, Lorenz R, McMahon J, Tubbs R. Supraclavicular lymphadenopathy due to silicone breast implants. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007;133:830-2 pubmed
  68. Coronado Malagón M, Visoso Palacios P, Arce Salinas C. Fat embolism syndrome secondary to injection of large amounts of soft tissue filler in the gluteal area. Aesthet Surg J. 2010;30:448-50 pubmed publisher
    ..After advanced support measures, she recovered completely. This article reviews the presence of FES after a cosmetic procedure with STF...
  69. Mendes P, Bins Ely J, Lima E, Vasconcellos Z, D Acampora A, Neves R. Histological study on acute inflammatory reaction to polyurethane-coated silicone implants in rats. Acta Cir Bras. 2008;23:93-101 pubmed
    ..Evaluating histologically the silicone peri-implant coated by polyurethane inflammation associated to the use of anti-microbial and bacterial contamination...
  70. Lee J, Park K, Park C. A cluster of Teflon pledgets manifesting as an intrathoracic cavitary mass following lung resection. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010;58:250-2 pubmed publisher
    ..We present an unusual case of an intrathoracic cavitary mass that was formed by the erosion of a cluster of Teflon pledgets into the lung parenchyma eight years after a lung resection...
  71. Wollina U. Informed society--fact or fiction? The jelly case. South Med J. 2008;101:353 pubmed publisher
  72. Pugliese D, Bush D, Harrington T. Silicone synovitis: longer term outcome data and review of the literature. J Clin Rheumatol. 2009;15:8-11 pubmed publisher
    ..There are still patients with long-standing silicone prostheses. We describe 7 cases of synovitis attributed to these...
  73. Kim Y, Park H. Foreign body granuloma of activated charcoal. Abdom Imaging. 2008;33:94-7 pubmed
    ..All the lesions showed high attenuation relative to muscle on the precontrast CT and showed positive findings on PET/CT...
  74. Aydin O, Sengor G, Gurbuz Y, Mola F. Histopathologic study of minced and injected expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-Tex) in quadriceps muscle of rats for injection laryngoplasty. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2007;34:333-8 pubmed
  75. Burger J, Halm J, Wijsmuller A, Ten Raa S, Jeekel J. Evaluation of new prosthetic meshes for ventral hernia repair. Surg Endosc. 2006;20:1320-5 pubmed
    ..Recently, new meshes have been introduced. In an experimental rat study, their value was established and compared with that of meshes already available on the market...
  76. Charalampaki P, Heimann A, Kockro R, Kohnen W, Kempski O. A new model of skull base reconstruction following expanded endonasal or transoral approaches--long-term results in primates. Eur Surg Res. 2008;41:208-13 pubmed publisher
    ..After acute testing of plug efficiency in a pig model, which showed a 100% closure of the bone defect without CSF leak, we now tested the long-term accuracy of the plugs...
  77. Nicolau P. Long-lasting and permanent fillers: biomaterial influence over host tissue response. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007;119:2271-86 pubmed
  78. Heffernan E, Alkubaidan F, Nielsen T, Munk P. The imaging appearances of metallosis. Skeletal Radiol. 2008;37:59-62 pubmed
    ..The radiographic, CT and MRI features of metallosis in a 63-year-old man who presented 16 years post-arthroplasty are described in this case report...
  79. Sharma U, Sharma Y, Chhetri R, Makaju R, Chapagain S, Shrestha R. Epigastric mass in a young girl: trichobezoar. Imaging diagnosis. Nepal Med Coll J. 2006;8:211-2 pubmed
  80. Raba G, Chamuła W. [Management of selected complications following urogynecological surgeries with the use of synthetic prostheses--own observations]. Ginekol Pol. 2008;79:550-4 pubmed
  81. Heigener D, Lotz P, Akkan R, Fraedrich J, Welker L, Gatzemeier U. [Foreign body aspiration mimicking lung cancer]. Med Klin (Munich). 2007;102:859-60 pubmed
  82. Corleto V, D Alonzo L, Zykaj E, Carnuccio A, Chiesara F, Pagnini C, et al. A case of oesophageal ulcer developed after taking homeopathic pill in a young woman. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:2132-4 pubmed
  83. Dougherty P, Vaidya R, Silverton C, Bartlett C, Najibi S. Joint and long-bone gunshot injuries. Instr Course Lect. 2010;59:465-79 pubmed
    ..The clinician's recognition of the signs and symptoms of lead toxicity is important to achieve the best care for these patients...
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    ..Popular demand and clinical convenience have raised an interest in bioresorbable barrier devices. Tissue reactions to such bioresorbable devices are, however, generally not well explored...