pseudarthrosis

Summary

Summary: A pathologic entity characterized by deossification of a weight-bearing long bone, followed by bending and pathologic fracture, with inability to form normal BONY CALLUS leading to existence of the "false joint" that gives the condition its name. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Brantigan J. Pseudarthrosis rate after allograft posterior lumbar interbody fusion with pedicle screw and plate fixation. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1994;19:1271-9; discussion 1280 pubmed
  2. Dobbs M, Rich M, Gordon J, Szymanski D, Schoenecker P. Use of an intramedullary rod for treatment of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia. A long-term follow-up study. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004;86-A:1186-97 pubmed
    The treatment of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia remains difficult and controversial...
  3. Durga Nagaraju K, Vidyadhara S, Raja D, Rajasekaran S. Congenital pseudarthrosis of the ulna. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2007;16:150-2 pubmed
    We report a case of congenital pseudarthrosis of the ulna along with generalized neurofibromatosis (type I). The patient had a good clinical outcome after single-bone forearm reconstruction...
  4. Cho T, Choi I, Lee K, Lee S, Chung C, Yoo W, et al. Proximal tibial lengthening by distraction osteogenesis in congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia. J Pediatr Orthop. 2007;27:915-20 pubmed publisher
    ..to investigate the outcome of distraction osteogenesis (DO) at the proximal tibial metaphysis in congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) patients and to identify the risk factors of poor regenerate bone formation...
  5. Kim K, Lee S, Suk K, Lee J, Im Y. Spinal pseudarthrosis in advanced ankylosing spondylitis with sagittal plane deformity: clinical characteristics and outcome analysis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007;32:1641-7 pubmed
    A retrospective study of consecutive ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients with spinal pseudarthrosis.
  6. Rose R, Wright D. Treatment of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia with the Ilizarov technique. Case report and review of the literature. West Indian Med J. 2007;56:294-9 pubmed
    Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia continues to pose one of the most difficult problems in paediatric orthopaedic surgery...
  7. Sakamoto A, Yoshida T, Yamamoto H, Oda Y, Tsuneyoshi M, Iwamoto Y. Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia: analysis of the histology and the NF1 gene. J Orthop Sci. 2007;12:361-5 pubmed
    Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) is frequently, but not always, associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Double inactivation of the NF1 gene has been reported to be the pathogenesis of CPT in NF1 cases.
  8. Cho T, Choi I, Lee S, Chung C, Yoo W, Lee D, et al. Refracture after Ilizarov osteosynthesis in atrophic-type congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2008;90:488-93 pubmed publisher
    We investigated patterns of refracture and their risk factors in patients with congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia after Ilizarov osteosynthesis. We studied 43 cases in 23 patients...
  9. Mahesh B, Jayaswal A, Bhan S. Fracture dislocation of the spine after total hip arthroplasty in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis with early pseudoarthrosis. Spine J. 2008;8:529-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Literature advocates the correction of the hip deformity first and that of spine later...

More Information

Publications66

  1. Sir M, Prochazka V, Gumulec J, Pleva L. [Our first experiences with autologous transplantation of bone marrow stem cells to treat pseudarthrosis, delayed fracture healing and long bone defects fracture]. Vnitr Lek. 2009;55:187-9 pubmed
    ..e. in the treatment of pseudarthrosis, delayed fracture healing, defect fractures and aseptic bone necroses...
  2. Kuorilehto T, Ekholm E, Nissinen M, Hietaniemi K, Hiltunen A, Paavolainen P, et al. NF1 gene expression in mouse fracture healing and in experimental rat pseudarthrosis. J Histochem Cytochem. 2006;54:363-70 pubmed
    ..present osseous manifestations, which can vary from mild to severely debilitating changes such as congenital pseudarthrosis. In the present study, fracture healing of mouse tibia was followed and specimens were collected 5, 9, 14, and ..
  3. Ferreira M, Matusin D, Machado C, Silva P, Mello N, Amaral A, et al. Characterization of pseudarthrosis with ultrasound backscattered signals in rats. Acta Cir Bras. 2010;25:13-7 pubmed
    To propose a novel model of pseudarthrosis in a small animal and to investigate the ability of backscatter parameters from ultrasound signals in differentiating normal bone from those ones with pseudarthrosis.
  4. Reigstad O, Thorkildsen R, Grimsgaard C, Reigstad A, Røkkum M. Healing of ununited scaphoid fractures by Kirschner wires and autologous structural bone grafts. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 2010;44:106-11 pubmed publisher
  5. Ferreira M, Silva P, Pereira L, Franco R, Mello N, Amaral A, et al. [Experimental model in rats for the development of pseudoarthrosis]. Rev Col Bras Cir. 2009;36:514-8 pubmed
    ..We sought to describe a new model of pseudoarthrosis in rats free of pathogenic species (Rattus norvegicus albinus - SPF)...
  6. Choi I, Cho T, Moon H. Ilizarov treatment of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia: a multi-targeted approach using the Ilizarov technique. Clin Orthop Surg. 2011;3:1-8 pubmed publisher
    Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) is one of the most challenging problems in pediatric orthopaedics...
  7. Cabraja M, Koeppen D, Lanksch W, Maier Hauff K, Kroppenstedt S. Polymethylmethacrylate-assisted ventral discectomy: rate of pseudarthrosis and clinical outcome with a minimum follow-up of 5 years. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2011;12:140 pubmed publisher
    ..PMMA) assisted ventral discectomy has been criticized for high rates of graft migration and pseudarthrosis when compared with various other fusion procedures for the treatment of cervical degenerative disc disease (..
  8. Choi I, Lee S, Moon H, Cho T, Yoo W, Chung C, et al. "4-in-1 osteosynthesis" for atrophic-type congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia. J Pediatr Orthop. 2011;31:697-704 pubmed publisher
    ..in 1 healing mass for moderate (type B2), and distal tibiofibular (TF) fusion for severe (type B3) fibular pseudarthrosis in association with atrophic-type congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT)...
  9. Korompilias A, Lykissas M, Soucacos P, Kostas I, Beris A. Vascularized free fibular bone graft in the management of congenital tibial pseudarthrosis. Microsurgery. 2009;29:346-52 pubmed publisher
    Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) remains one of the most challenging problems confronting the orthopaedic surgeon...
  10. Chang K, Tu M, Huang H, Chen H, Chen Y, Lin C. Posterior correction and fixation without anterior fusion for pseudoarthrosis with kyphotic deformity in ankylosing spondylitis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31:E408-13 pubmed
    ..Retrospective review...
  11. Finsen V, Hofstad M, Haugan H. Most scaphoid non-unions heal with bone chip grafting and Kirschner-wire fixation. Thirty-nine patients reviewed 10 years after operation. Injury. 2006;37:854-9 pubmed
    ..These are difficult operations. We have employed a simpler procedure and wished to review our results with regard to healing and long-term clinical results...
  12. Kaminski A, Gstrein A, Muhr G, Muller E. [Transarticular C1-C2 screw fixation: results of unstable odontoid fractures and pseudarthrosis in the elderly]. Unfallchirurg. 2008;111:167-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This study presents the results of this technique in patients aged at least 70 years. A modified method of indirect screw fixation is used in which soft tissue dissection is reduced compared to the classic procedure...
  13. Vlad C, Georgescu I, Gavriliu T, Hodorogea D, El Nayef T, Dan D. Burnei's procedure in the treatment of long bone pseudarthrosis in patients having osteogenesis imperfecta or congenital pseudarthrosis of tibia - preliminary report. J Med Life. 2012;5:215-21 pubmed
    given the recalcitrant behaviour of pseudarthrosis in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT), there is no ideal solution to treat such challenging deformities...
  14. Furlan J, Perrin R, Govender P, Petrenko Y, Massicotte E, Rampersaud Y, et al. Use of osteogenic protein-1 in patients at high risk for spinal pseudarthrosis: a prospective cohort study assessing safety, health-related quality of life, and radiographic fusion. Invited submission from the Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine . J Neurosurg Spine. 2007;7:486-95 pubmed
    ..This prospective study examines the safety and efficacy of OP-1 use in patients considered to be at a high risk for developing pseudarthrosis following reconstructive spinal surgery.
  15. Stevenson D, Little D, Armstrong L, Crawford A, Eastwood D, Friedman J, et al. Approaches to treating NF1 tibial pseudarthrosis: consensus from the Children's Tumor Foundation NF1 Bone Abnormalities Consortium. J Pediatr Orthop. 2013;33:269-75 pubmed publisher
    ..dysplasia, which typically presents as anterolateral bowing of the leg with subsequent fracture and nonunion (pseudarthrosis), is a serious but infrequent osseous manifestation of NF1...
  16. Devine J, Gloystein D, Singh N. A novel alternative for removal of the AxiaLif (TranS1) in the setting of pseudarthrosis of L5-S1. Spine J. 2009;9:910-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Wilmington, NC) is predicated on the application of minimally invasive techniques to attain fusion at L5-S1 and L4-S1 levels with a novel corridor of approach, described as the presacral "safe zone."..
  17. Granchi D, Devescovi V, Baglìo S, Magnani M, Donzelli O, Baldini N. A regenerative approach for bone repair in congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia associated or not associated with type 1 neurofibromatosis: correlation between laboratory findings and clinical outcome. Cytotherapy. 2012;14:306-14 pubmed publisher
    Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) is a rare orthopedic disease presenting spontaneous fractures that do not heal...
  18. Kim Y, Bridwell K, Lenke L, Rhim S, Cheh G. Pseudarthrosis in long adult spinal deformity instrumentation and fusion to the sacrum: prevalence and risk factor analysis of 144 cases. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31:2329-36 pubmed
    ..Retrospective study...
  19. Cho T, Choi I, Chung C, Yoo W, Lee S, Lee S, et al. Isolated congenital pseudarthrosis of the fibula: clinical course and optimal treatment. J Pediatr Orthop. 2006;26:449-54 pubmed
    The purposes of this study were to determine the clinical course of isolated congenital pseudarthrosis of the fibula (ICPF) and to establish optimal treatment guidelines for this disease...
  20. Stevenson D, Zhou H, Ashrafi S, Messiaen L, Carey J, D Astous J, et al. Double inactivation of NF1 in tibial pseudarthrosis. Am J Hum Genet. 2006;79:143-8 pubmed
    Osseous abnormalities, including long-bone dysplasia with pseudarthrosis (PA), are associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)...
  21. Raizman N, O Brien J, Poehling Monaghan K, Yu W. Pseudarthrosis of the spine. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2009;17:494-503 pubmed
    b>Pseudarthrosis is the result of failed attempted spinal fusion. This condition typically manifests with axial or radicular pain months to years after the index operation...
  22. Zoubos A, Triantafyllopoulos I, Babis G, Soucacos P. A modified Matti-Russe technique for the treatment of scaphoid waist non-union and pseudarthrosis. Med Sci Monit. 2011;17:MT7-12 pubmed
    ..analyze the long-term results of a modified Matti-Russe technique for the treatment of scaphoid non-union and pseudarthrosis. The modification was based on the use of bone graft taken from the ipsilateral distal radius, rather than ..
  23. Tan J, Roach J, Wang A. Transfer of ipsilateral fibula on vascular pedicle for treatment of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia. J Pediatr Orthop. 2011;31:72-8 pubmed publisher
    Although the use of free vascularized fibula grafts has frequently been reported in the treatment of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia, the use of ipsilateral fibula graft on a vascular pedicle is uncommon...
  24. Jager M, Jelinek E, Wess K, Scharfstädt A, Jacobson M, Kevy S, et al. Bone marrow concentrate: a novel strategy for bone defect treatment. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 2009;4:34-43 pubmed
    ..Although strong efforts have been made over the last decade to introduce stem cell and tissue engineering treatment strategies to the field of orthopaedics, only few clinical applications are currently available...
  25. Leskelä H, Kuorilehto T, Risteli J, Koivunen J, Nissinen M, Peltonen S, et al. Congenital pseudarthrosis of neurofibromatosis type 1: impaired osteoblast differentiation and function and altered NF1 gene expression. Bone. 2009;44:243-50 pubmed publisher
    Three patients with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) were operated for congenital pseudarthrosis (PA) of the tibia. Three non-NF1 patients served as reference...
  26. Thabet A, Paley D, Kocaoglu M, Eralp L, Herzenberg J, Ergin O. Periosteal grafting for congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia: a preliminary report. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2008;466:2981-94 pubmed publisher
    The results of treatment of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT) are frequently unsatisfactory because of the need for multiple operations for recalcitrant nonunion, residual deformities, and limb-length discrepancies (LLD)...
  27. Vander Have K, Hensinger R, Caird M, Johnston C, Farley F. Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2008;16:228-36 pubmed
    Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia is characterized by anterolateral deformity of the tibia and shortening of the limb. Its etiology remains unclear...
  28. Pateder D, Park Y, Kebaish K, Cascio B, Buchowski J, Song E, et al. Spinal fusion after revision surgery for pseudarthrosis in adult scoliosis. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2006;31:E314-9 pubmed
    A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE.: To decipher the incidence, characteristics, functional outcomes, and complications of spinal fusion after revision surgery for recurrent pseudarthrosis in adult patients with scoliosis.
  29. Anticevic D, Jelic M, Vukicevic S. Treatment of a congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia by osteogenic protein-1 (bone morphogenetic protein-7): a case report. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2006;15:220-1 pubmed
    Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia remains one of the most difficult orthopaedic problems to treat...
  30. Sakaura H, Hosono N, Mukai Y, Fujii R, Yoshikawa H. Paraparesis due to exacerbation of preexisting spinal pseudoarthrosis following infliximab therapy for advanced ankylosing spondylitis. Spine J. 2006;6:325-9 pubmed
    ..The most important adverse effects of infliximab are infections, malignancies, autoimmunities, and hypersensitivity reactions. There has never been a reported case of paraparesis after infliximab therapy for AS...
  31. Shen H, Buchowski J, Yeom J, Liu G, Lin N, Riew K. Pseudarthrosis in multilevel anterior cervical fusion with rhBMP-2 and allograft: analysis of one hundred twenty-seven cases with minimum two-year follow-up. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010;35:747-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Consecutive case series...
  32. Davis T, Pace A. Trapeziectomy for trapeziometacarpal joint osteoarthritis: is ligament reconstruction and temporary stabilisation of the pseudarthrosis with a Kirschner wire important?. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2009;34:312-21 pubmed publisher
    ..However the pain, DASH and PEM scores, and also key and tip thumb pinch and all the other clinical outcome measures, did not differ significantly between the two groups at either 3-months or 1-year after surgery...
  33. Ferreira M, Silva P, Alvarez Silva L, Bonfim D, Conilho Macedo Müller L, Esposito C, et al. Heterologous mesenchymal stem cells successfully treat femoral pseudarthrosis in rats. J Transl Med. 2012;10:51 pubmed publisher
    This study evaluated the effectiveness of treating pseudarthrosis in rats by using bone marrow cell suspensions or cultures of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells
  34. Fabeck L, Ghafil D, Gerroudj M, Baillon R, Delincé P. Bone morphogenetic protein 7 in the treatment of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2006;88:116-8 pubmed
    We describe a 13-year-old boy with atrophic tibial pseudarthrosis associated with neurofibromatosis who had undergone nine unsuccessful operations...
  35. Granchi D, Devescovi V, Baglìo S, Leonardi E, Donzelli O, Magnani M, et al. Biological basis for the use of autologous bone marrow stromal cells in the treatment of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia. Bone. 2010;46:780-8 pubmed publisher
    ..use of autologous bone-marrow stromal cells (MSC) in order to improve the curing opportunities of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT)...
  36. Sulaiman A, Nordin S, Faisham W, Zulmi W, Halim A. Residual nonunion following vascularised fibular graft treatment for congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia: a report of two cases. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong). 2006;14:64-6 pubmed
    ..Resection and reconstruction using a vascularised fibular graft is a viable alternative treatment for congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia, although distal junctional nonunion and residual deformity are known complications that are ..
  37. Shah H, Doddabasappa S, Joseph B. Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia treated with intramedullary rodding and cortical bone grafting: a follow-up study at skeletal maturity. J Pediatr Orthop. 2011;31:79-88 pubmed publisher
    The problems of managing congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia include difficulty in obtaining union, refractures, limb-length inequality, and deformities of the ankle and leg...
  38. Sabapathy S, Venkatramani H, Bhardwaj P. Pseudarthrosis of cervical rib: an unusual cause of thoracic outlet syndrome. J Hand Surg Am. 2010;35:2018-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We report an unusual case of thoracic outlet syndrome in a 14-year-old girl caused by pseudarthrosis of the cervical rib...
  39. Lee D, Cho T, Lee H, Lee K, Moon H, Park M, et al. Disturbed osteoblastic differentiation of fibrous hamartoma cell from congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia associated with neurofibromatosis type I. Clin Orthop Surg. 2011;3:230-7 pubmed publisher
    Fibrous hamartoma is the key pathology of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT), which was shown to have low osteogenicity and high osteoclastogenicity...
  40. Chim H, Yam A, Teoh L. Elbow ganglion arising from medial epicondyle pseudarthrosis. Hand Surg. 2007;12:155-8 pubmed
    ..was diagnosed as a ganglion originating from a non-united avulsion fracture of the medial epicondyle with a pseudarthrosis. Medial elbow ganglia are unusual lesions typically arising from the medial aspect of the ulnohumeral joint ..
  41. Cassinelli E, Wallach C, Hanscom B, Vogt M, Kang J. Prospective clinical outcomes of revision fusion surgery in patients with pseudarthrosis after posterior lumbar interbody fusions using stand-alone metallic cages. Spine J. 2006;6:428-34 pubmed
    ..Complications have been reported, however, including pseudarthrosis with persistent pain...
  42. Lee F, Sinicropi S, Lee F, Vitale M, Roye D, Choi I. Treatment of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 (rhBMP-7). A report of five cases. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88:627-33 pubmed
  43. Inan M, El Rassi G, Riddle E, Kumar S. Residual deformities following successful initial bone union in congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia. J Pediatr Orthop. 2006;26:393-9 pubmed
    ..There were 9 refractures in 8 patients. Nine patients had an LLD (average 3.5 cm). The study demonstrates that careful follow-up of these patients is necessary and residual problems are to be treated as they occur...
  44. Cho T, Seo J, Lee H, Yoo W, Chung C, Choi I. Biologic characteristics of fibrous hamartoma from congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008;90:2735-44 pubmed publisher
    Fibrous hamartoma is a key pathologic component of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia, a challenging and disabling bone disorder...
  45. Hope M, Savva N, Whitehouse S, Elliot R, Saxby T. Is it necessary to re-fuse a non-union of a Hallux metatarsophalangeal joint arthrodesis?. Foot Ankle Int. 2010;31:662-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We present data to suggest that removal of hardware and debridement alone is an alternative treatment option...
  46. Kim Y, Bridwell K, Lenke L, Cho K, Edwards C, Rinella A. Pseudarthrosis in adult spinal deformity following multisegmental instrumentation and arthrodesis. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88:721-8 pubmed
    There have been few detailed reports concerning pseudarthrosis following spinal instrumentation and arthrodesis in adults with spinal deformity since the introduction of modern segmental fixation techniques...
  47. Bara T, Sibinski M, Synder M. Own clinical experience with functional bracing for treatment of pseudarthrosis and delayed union of the tibia. Ortop Traumatol Rehabil. 2007;9:259-63 pubmed
    ..The brace greatly limits the angulation and displacement allowing the axial compression, promoting the physiology of fracture healing...
  48. Stachniak J, Diebner J, Brunk E, Speed S. Analysis of prevertebral soft-tissue swelling and dysphagia in multilevel anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in patients at risk for pseudarthrosis. J Neurosurg Spine. 2011;14:244-9 pubmed publisher
  49. Kuorilehto T, Kinnunen P, Nissinen M, Alanne M, Leskelä H, Lehenkari P, et al. Vasculopathy in two cases of NF1-related congenital pseudarthrosis. Pathol Res Pract. 2006;202:687-90 pubmed
    ..More than half of NF1 patients suffer from skeletal manifestations, of which congenital pseudarthrosis of tibia (CPT) is one of the most incapacitating lesions...
  50. Gehr J, Schmidt A, Friedl W. [Calcaneus pseudarthrosis: a clinical rarity]. Unfallchirurg. 2000;103:499-503 pubmed
    ..The authors point especially at anatomical characteristics and biomechanical reasons and their meaning for aetiology of pseudoathrosis after a calcaneus fracture. ..
  51. Deburge A, Guigui P, Ouahes M, Barre E. Cervical pseudarthrosis in ankylosing spondylitis. A case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1996;21:2801-5 pubmed
    This report illustrates two different cases of cervical pseudarthrosis in ankylosing spondylitis...
  52. Joseph B, Somaraju V, Shetty S. Management of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia in children under 3 years of age: effect of early surgery on union of the pseudarthrosis and growth of the limb. J Pediatr Orthop. 2003;23:740-6 pubmed
    The study was undertaken to determine whether the results of treatment of pseudarthrosis of the tibia in children under age 3 are so poor as to recommend that surgery be deferred until after 3 years of age...
  53. Cheng J, Hung L, Bundoc R. Congenital pseudarthrosis of the ulna. J Hand Surg Br. 1994;19:238-43 pubmed
    Congenital ulnar pseudarthrosis is a very rare condition. Two cases are reported in addition to 36 already reported in the English literature...
  54. Dacho A, Germann G, Sauerbier M. [The reconstruction of scaphoid pseudoarthroses with the operation of Matti-Russe. A retrospective follow-up analysis of 84 patients]. Unfallchirurg. 2004;107:388-96 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long term results after scaphoid reconstruction and to get impressions about subjective feeling of the patients...
  55. Hisaoka M, Hashimoto H, Ohguri T, Aoki T, Okamoto S, Tanaka H, et al. Congenital (infantile) pseudarthrosis of the fibula associated with osteofibrous dysplasia. Skeletal Radiol. 2004;33:545-9 pubmed
    We describe a recently noted association of congenital (infantile) pseudarthrosis of the lower leg with osteofibrous dysplasia...
  56. Mariaud Schmidt R, Rosales Quintana S, Bitar E, Fajardo D, Chiapa Robles G, González Mendoza A, et al. Hamartoma involving the pseudarthrosis site in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2005;8:190-6 pubmed
    Congenital pseudarthrosis is a rare disease with variable clinical effects. The disease remains 1 of the most controversial pediatric entities in terms of etiopathogenesis, therapy, and prognosis. Between 0.5% and 2...
  57. Mountney J, Murphy A, Fowler J. Lessons learned from cervical pseudoarthrosis in ankylosing spondylitis. Eur Spine J. 2005;14:689-93 pubmed
    ..The myelopathic symptoms resolved, and the patient had a good result at 18 months. We conclude that any increased movement of the spine after trauma in ankylosing spondylitis must be considered suspect and fully investigated...