blast injuries

Summary

Summary: Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Nakagawa A, Manley G, Gean A, Ohtani K, Armonda R, Tsukamoto A, et al. Mechanisms of primary blast-induced traumatic brain injury: insights from shock-wave research. J Neurotrauma. 2011;28:1101-19 pubmed publisher
  2. Kamnaksh A, Kwon S, Kovesdi E, Ahmed F, Barry E, Grunberg N, et al. Neurobehavioral, cellular, and molecular consequences of single and multiple mild blast exposure. Electrophoresis. 2012;33:3680-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We infer that at this blast frequency, a potential conditioning phenomenon counteracts with and reduces the extent of subsequent damage in MI rats...
  3. Mac Donald C, Johnson A, Cooper D, Nelson E, Werner N, Shimony J, et al. Detection of blast-related traumatic brain injury in U.S. military personnel. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:2091-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Blast-related traumatic brain injuries have been common in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, but fundamental questions about the nature of these injuries remain unanswered...
  4. Magnuson J, Leonessa F, Ling G. Neuropathology of explosive blast traumatic brain injury. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2012;12:570-9 pubmed publisher
  5. Lu J, Ng K, Ling G, Wu J, Poon D, Kan E, et al. Effect of blast exposure on the brain structure and cognition in Macaca fascicularis. J Neurotrauma. 2012;29:1434-54 pubmed publisher
  6. Yeh D, Schecter W. Primary blast injuries--an updated concise review. World J Surg. 2012;36:966-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Blast injuries have been increasing in the civilian setting and clinicians need to understand the spectrum of injury and management strategies. Multisystem trauma associated with combined blunt and penetrating injuries is the rule...
  7. BOGDANOVA Y, Verfaellie M. Cognitive sequelae of blast-induced traumatic brain injury: recovery and rehabilitation. Neuropsychol Rev. 2012;22:4-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is needed to address the patient and environmental characteristics associated with optimal treatment outcome...
  8. Bass C, Panzer M, Rafaels K, Wood G, Shridharani J, Capehart B. Brain injuries from blast. Ann Biomed Eng. 2012;40:185-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Principal areas of uncertainty include the need for a more comprehensive injury assessment for mild blast injuries in humans, an improved understanding of blast TBI pathophysiology of blast TBI in animal models and humans, ..
  9. Hoffer M, Balaban C, Slade M, Tsao J, Hoffer B. Amelioration of acute sequelae of blast induced mild traumatic brain injury by N-acetyl cysteine: a double-blind, placebo controlled study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e54163 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) versus placebo on the symptoms associated with blast exposure mTBI in a combat setting...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Poopitaya S, Kanchanaroek K. Injuries of the thoracolumbar spine from tertiary blast injury in Thai military personnel during conflict in southern Thailand. J Med Assoc Thai. 2009;92 Suppl 1:S129-34 pubmed
    There were higher numbers of tertiary blast injuries from terrorist bombing in southern Thailand. There was no previous report about spinal trauma in tertiary blast injury.
  2. Garman R, Jenkins L, Switzer R, Bauman R, Tong L, Swauger P, et al. Blast exposure in rats with body shielding is characterized primarily by diffuse axonal injury. J Neurotrauma. 2011;28:947-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Strikingly, silver staining revealed otherwise undetected abnormalities, and therefore represents a recommended outcome measure in future studies of blast TBI...
  3. Arun P, Spadaro J, John J, Gharavi R, Bentley T, Nambiar M. Studies on blast traumatic brain injury using in-vitro model with shock tube. Neuroreport. 2011;22:379-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data showed significant neurobiological effects with decreased adenosine triphosphate levels, increased cellular injury, lactate dehydrogenase release, and reactive oxygen species formation after blast exposure...
  4. Kuehn R, Simard P, Driscoll I, Keledjian K, Ivanova S, Tosun C, et al. Rodent model of direct cranial blast injury. J Neurotrauma. 2011;28:2155-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that exposure of the head alone to severe explosive blast predisposes to significant neurological dysfunction...
  5. Ramasamy A, Hill A, Phillip R, Gibb I, Bull A, Clasper J. The modern "deck-slap" injury--calcaneal blast fractures from vehicle explosions. J Trauma. 2011;71:1694-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the pattern of injury, medical management, and functional outcome of UK Service Personnel sustaining calcaneal injuries from under-vehicle explosions...
  6. Rubovitch V, Ten Bosch M, Zohar O, Harrison C, Tempel Brami C, Stein E, et al. A mouse model of blast-induced mild traumatic brain injury. Exp Neurol. 2011;232:280-9 pubmed publisher
  7. Valiyaveettil M, Alamneh Y, Miller S, Hammamieh R, Arun P, Wang Y, et al. Modulation of cholinergic pathways and inflammatory mediators in blast-induced traumatic brain injury. Chem Biol Interact. 2013;203:371-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Acute changes in molecules involved in the modulation of cholinergic and inflammatory pathways after blast TBI can cause long-term central and peripheral pathophysiological changes...
  8. Ahmed F, Gyorgy A, Kamnaksh A, Ling G, Tong L, Parks S, et al. Time-dependent changes of protein biomarker levels in the cerebrospinal fluid after blast traumatic brain injury. Electrophoresis. 2012;33:3705-11 pubmed publisher
  9. Franke L, Walker W, Cifu D, Ochs A, Lew H. Sensorintegrative dysfunction underlying vestibular disorders after traumatic brain injury: a review. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2012;49:985-94 pubmed
    ..The ability to detect central vestibular dysfunction will significantly enhance our response to the dizziness and balance symptoms that are a common source of distress for Veterans...
  10. Valiyaveettil M, Alamneh Y, Miller S, Hammamieh R, Wang Y, Arun P, et al. Preliminary studies on differential expression of auditory functional genes in the brain after repeated blast exposures. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2012;49:1153-62 pubmed
    ..In summary, mice exposed to repeated blasts showed injury to the auditory cortex and significant alterations in multiple genes in the brain known to be involved in age- or noise-induced hearing impairment...
  11. Harch P, Andrews S, Fogarty E, Amen D, Pezzullo J, Lucarini J, et al. A phase I study of low-pressure hyperbaric oxygen therapy for blast-induced post-concussion syndrome and post-traumatic stress disorder. J Neurotrauma. 2012;29:168-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant improvements occurred in symptoms, abnormal physical exam findings, cognitive testing, and quality-of-life measurements, with concomitant significant improvements in SPECT...
  12. Davenport N, Lim K, Armstrong M, Sponheim S. Diffuse and spatially variable white matter disruptions are associated with blast-related mild traumatic brain injury. Neuroimage. 2012;59:2017-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The reported pattern of effects supports the conclusion that the neurological effects of blast mTBI are diffuse, widespread, and spatially variable...
  13. Mellor A, Woods D. Serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in ballistic injuries: a comparison between blast injuries and gunshot wounds. J Crit Care. 2012;27:419.e1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..For this reason, we hypothesized that levels of NGAL might be expressed at higher levels after blast injury compared with other ballistic injury...
  14. Hines Beard J, Marchetta J, Gordon S, Chaum E, Geisert E, Rex T. A mouse model of ocular blast injury that induces closed globe anterior and posterior pole damage. Exp Eye Res. 2012;99:63-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This is an important new model for testing the short-term and long-term spectrum of closed globe blast injuries and potential therapeutic interventions.
  15. Wang Y, Wei Y, Oguntayo S, WILKINS W, Arun P, Valiyaveettil M, et al. Tightly coupled repetitive blast-induced traumatic brain injury: development and characterization in mice. J Neurotrauma. 2011;28:2171-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that repeated blast exposures lead to increased impairment severity in multiple neurological parameters of TBI in mice...
  16. Shively S, Perl D. Traumatic brain injury, shell shock, and posttraumatic stress disorder in the military--past, present, and future. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2012;27:234-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Given current circumstance, we propose completing the work envisioned by Dr Mott almost 100 years ago...
  17. Alam M, Iqbal M, Khan A, Khan S. Ocular injuries in blast victims. J Pak Med Assoc. 2012;62:138-42 pubmed
    ..To study the type and severity of ocular injuries in blast victims...
  18. Abdul Muneer P, Schuetz H, Wang F, Skotak M, Jones J, Gorantla S, et al. Induction of oxidative and nitrosative damage leads to cerebrovascular inflammation in an animal model of mild traumatic brain injury induced by primary blast. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;60:282-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, induction of oxidative stress and activation of matrix metalloproteinases by shock wave underlie the mechanisms of cerebral vascular BBB leakage and neuroinflammation. ..
  19. Valiyaveettil M, Alamneh Y, Wang Y, Arun P, Oguntayo S, Wei Y, et al. Contribution of systemic factors in the pathophysiology of repeated blast-induced neurotrauma. Neurosci Lett. 2013;539:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Platelet/leukocyte targeted therapies can be evaluated as potential acute treatment strategies to mitigate blast-induced neurotrauma...
  20. Radford P, Patel H, Hamilton N, Collins M, Dryden S. Tympanic membrane rupture in the survivors of the July 7, 2005, London bombings. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;145:806-12 pubmed publisher
    ..this study was to analyze the prevalence of tympanic membrane rupture in the survivors of the London bombings of July 2005 and to assess whether tympanic membrane rupture provides a useful biomarker for underlying primary blast injuries.
  21. Baalman K, Cotton R, Rasband S, Rasband M. Blast wave exposure impairs memory and decreases axon initial segment length. J Neurotrauma. 2013;30:741-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the conclusion that exposure to a single blast wave can lead to mTBI with accompanying cognitive impairment and subcellular changes in the molecular organization of neurons...
  22. Zhang B, Wang A, Hu W, Zhang L, Xiong Y, Chen J, et al. Hemoconcentration caused by microvascular dysfunction after blast injuries to the chest and abdomen of rabbits. J Trauma. 2011;71:694-701 pubmed publisher
    One of the important causes of death after blast injuries is reduced blood volume, which typically results from hemorrhage but may also result from nonhemorrhagic causes...
  23. Rafaels K, Bass C, Panzer M, Salzar R, Woods W, Feldman S, et al. Brain injury risk from primary blast. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012;73:895-901 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there is little information on the intensity and duration of blast necessary to cause brain injury...
  24. VandeVord P, Bolander R, Sajja V, Hay K, Bir C. Mild neurotrauma indicates a range-specific pressure response to low level shock wave exposure. Ann Biomed Eng. 2012;40:227-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation into the biomechanical aspects of shock wave exposure is required to elucidate this pressure range-specific phenomenon...
  25. Omalu B, Hammers J, Bailes J, Hamilton R, Kamboh M, Webster G, et al. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in an Iraqi war veteran with posttraumatic stress disorder who committed suicide. Neurosurg Focus. 2011;31:E3 pubmed publisher
  26. Koliatsos V, Cernak I, Xu L, Song Y, Savonenko A, Crain B, et al. A mouse model of blast injury to brain: initial pathological, neuropathological, and behavioral characterization. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2011;70:399-416 pubmed publisher
    The increased use of explosives in recent wars has increased the number of veterans with blast injuries. Of particular interest is blast injury to the brain, and a key question is whether the primary overpressure wave of the blast is ..
  27. Xiong Y, Mahmood A, Chopp M. Animal models of traumatic brain injury. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2013;14:128-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This failure in clinical translation of preclinical studies highlights a compelling need to revisit the current status of animal models of TBI and therapeutic strategies...
  28. Kamnaksh A, Kovesdi E, Kwon S, Wingo D, Ahmed F, Grunberg N, et al. Factors affecting blast traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2011;28:2145-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings should be taken into consideration when designing bTBI studies, to better understand the role of stressors in the development of post-traumatic symptoms, and to establish a differential diagnosis for PTSD and bTBI...
  29. Armstrong K, Cooper M, Williams M, Elsayed N. Vitamin E and lipoic acid, but not vitamin C improve blood oxygenation after high-energy IMPULSE noise (BLAST) exposure. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;253:114-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, measurement of blood oxygenation may function as a simple semi-invasive biomarker of BLAST-induced injury applicable to humans...
  30. Säljö A, Bao F, Haglid K, Hansson H. Blast exposure causes redistribution of phosphorylated neurofilament subunits in neurons of the adult rat brain. J Neurotrauma. 2000;17:719-26 pubmed
    ..The findings are interpreted to show a dephosphorylation of NFHs in axons and dendrites and a piling up of p-NFHs in the perikarya due to disturbed axonal transport...
  31. Elsayed N, Armstrong K, William M, Cooper M. Antioxidant loading reduces oxidative stress induced by high-energy impulse noise (blast) exposure. Toxicology. 2000;155:91-9 pubmed
    ..These observations, suggest that brief antioxidant loading with pharmacological doses can reduce blast-induced oxidative stress, and may have occupational and clinical implications...
  32. Braverman I, Wexler D, Oren M. A novel mode of infection with hepatitis B: penetrating bone fragments due to the explosion of a suicide bomber. Isr Med Assoc J. 2002;4:528-9 pubmed
  33. Bauman R, Ling G, Tong L, Januszkiewicz A, Agoston D, Delanerolle N, et al. An introductory characterization of a combat-casualty-care relevant swine model of closed head injury resulting from exposure to explosive blast. J Neurotrauma. 2009;26:841-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The polytraumatic nature of blast injuries is evidence of their effectiveness,and brain injury is a frequent and debilitating form of this trauma...
  34. Taylor P, Ford C. Simulation of blast-induced early-time intracranial wave physics leading to traumatic brain injury. J Biomech Eng. 2009;131:061007 pubmed publisher
  35. Risling M, Plantman S, Angeria M, Rostami E, Bellander B, Kirkegaard M, et al. Mechanisms of blast induced brain injuries, experimental studies in rats. Neuroimage. 2011;54 Suppl 1:S89-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments indicate that rotational acceleration may be a critical factor for DAI and other acute changes after blast TBI. The further exploration of the mechanisms of blast TBI will have to include a search for long-term effects...
  36. Cheng J, Gu J, Ma Y, Yang T, Kuang Y, Li B, et al. Development of a rat model for studying blast-induced traumatic brain injury. J Neurol Sci. 2010;294:23-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Capillary damage and enlarged intercellular and vascular space in the cortex, along with a tattered nerve fiber were observed. These findings demonstrate that we have provided a reliable and reproducible blast-induced TBI model in rats...
  37. Chafi M, Karami G, Ziejewski M. Biomechanical assessment of brain dynamic responses due to blast pressure waves. Ann Biomed Eng. 2010;38:490-504 pubmed publisher
    ..The research cannot identify, however, the specific levels of ICP, stress and strain that necessarily lead to traumatic brain injury (TBI) because there is no access to experimental data regarding head-blast interactions...
  38. Wolf Y, Rivkind A. Vascular trauma in high-velocity gunshot wounds and shrapnel-blast injuries in Israel. Surg Clin North Am. 2002;82:237-44 pubmed
    ..Early revascularization with temporary shunts, the use of autologous tissue, major venous reconstruction, a low threshold for fasciotomy, and reliable tissue coverage are the mainstays of management...
  39. Wu J, Liu B, Fan J, Zhu Q, Wu J. Study of protective effect on rat cochlear spiral ganglion after blast exposure by adenovirus-mediated human ?-nerve growth factor gene. Am J Otolaryngol. 2011;32:8-12 pubmed publisher
    ..To study whether adenovirus-mediated human ?-nerve growth factor (Ad-hNGF?) gene has any protective effect on rat cochlear spiral ganglion after blast exposure...
  40. Wong J, Marsh D, Abu Sitta G, Lau S, Mann H, Nawabi D, et al. Biological foreign body implantation in victims of the London July 7th suicide bombings. J Trauma. 2006;60:402-4 pubmed
  41. Witsaman R, Comstock R, Smith G. Pediatric fireworks-related injuries in the United States: 1990-2003. Pediatrics. 2006;118:296-303 pubmed
    ..Our goal was to describe the epidemiology of pediatric fireworks-related injuries among children aged 19 years and younger by using a nationally representative sample...
  42. Warden D, French L, Shupenko L, Fargus J, Riedy G, Erickson M, et al. Case report of a soldier with primary blast brain injury. Neuroimage. 2009;47 Suppl 2:T152-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuroimaging abnormalities are described together with normalization of the fractional anisotrophy on diffusion tensor imaging after follow-up imaging studies...
  43. Elder G, Cristian A. Blast-related mild traumatic brain injury: mechanisms of injury and impact on clinical care. Mt Sinai J Med. 2009;76:111-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Improvised explosive devices have been the major cause of blast injuries. It is estimated that 10% to 20% of veterans returning from these operations have suffered a traumatic brain ..
  44. Abbotts R, Harrison S, Cooper G. Primary blast injuries to the eye: a review of the evidence. J R Army Med Corps. 2007;153:119-23 pubmed
    ..The aim of this review is to consider the evidence in the literature for true primary blast injury to the eye...
  45. Gorbunov N, Asher L, Ayyagari V, Atkins J. Inflammatory leukocytes and iron turnover in experimental hemorrhagic lung trauma. Exp Mol Pathol. 2006;80:11-25 pubmed
  46. Foged T, Lauritsen J, Ipsen T, Ibsen T. [Firework injuries in Denmark in the period 1995/1996 to 2006/2007]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2007;169:4271-5 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to observe the occurrence and character of firework injuries on the two days around New Year in Denmark over the last decade...
  47. Bhattacharjee Y. Neuroscience. Shell shock revisited: solving the puzzle of blast trauma. Science. 2008;319:406-8 pubmed publisher
  48. Turégano Fuentes F, Caba Doussoux P, Jover Navalón J, Martín Pérez E, Fernández Luengas D, Díez Valladares L, et al. Injury patterns from major urban terrorist bombings in trains: the Madrid experience. World J Surg. 2008;32:1168-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Civilian care providers are usually not familiar with the types of blast injuries sustained by victims of these MCI.
  49. Bala M, Shussman N, Rivkind A, Izhar U, Almogy G. The pattern of thoracic trauma after suicide terrorist bombing attacks. J Trauma. 2010;69:1022-8; discussion 1028-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study was to characterize thoracic injuries inflicted by terrorist-related explosions and compare pattern of injury to penetrating and blunt thoracic trauma...
  50. Chavko M, Watanabe T, Adeeb S, Lankasky J, Ahlers S, McCarron R. Relationship between orientation to a blast and pressure wave propagation inside the rat brain. J Neurosci Methods. 2011;195:61-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The pattern of the pressure wave inside the brain in the head facing away from blast exposures assumes contribution of the static pressure, similar to hydrodynamic pressure to the pressure wave inside the brain...
  51. Warden D. Military TBI during the Iraq and Afghanistan wars. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2006;21:398-402 pubmed
    ..Individuals with TBI and posttraumatic stress disorder require treatment of both conditions. Families and communities need to be cognizant of the needs of these returning veterans...
  52. Desmoulin G, Dionne J. Blast-induced neurotrauma: surrogate use, loading mechanisms, and cellular responses. J Trauma. 2009;67:1113-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented and literature reviewed formed the fundamentals of a successful grant from the U.S. Office of Naval Research to Wayne State University...
  53. Ritenour A, Wickley A, Ritenour J, Kriete B, Blackbourne L, Holcomb J, et al. Tympanic membrane perforation and hearing loss from blast overpressure in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom wounded. J Trauma. 2008;64:S174-8; discussion S178 pubmed publisher
    ..We wanted to determine the severity of perforation and its effect on hearing and combat readiness...