asphyxia

Summary

Summary: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.

Top Publications

  1. Risso F, Serpero L, Zimmermann L, Gavilanes A, Frulio R, Michetti F, et al. Perinatal asphyxia: kidney failure does not affect S100B urine concentrations. Clin Chim Acta. 2012;413:150-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Since S100B is mainly eliminated by the kidneys and perinatal asphyxia (PA) is often associated with kidney failure we investigated whether S100B release might be kidney-mediated, ..
  2. Vlassaks E, Strackx E, Vles J, Nikiforou M, Martinez Martinez P, Kramer B, et al. Fetal asphyctic preconditioning modulates the acute cytokine response thereby protecting against perinatal asphyxia in neonatal rats. J Neuroinflammation. 2013;10:14 pubmed publisher
    Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is a major cause of brain damage and neurodevelopmental impairment in infants...
  3. Faulkner S, Bainbridge A, Kato T, Chandrasekaran M, Kapetanakis A, Hristova M, et al. Xenon augmented hypothermia reduces early lactate/N-acetylaspartate and cell death in perinatal asphyxia. Ann Neurol. 2011;70:133-50 pubmed publisher
    ..effects of combining inhaled xenon with therapeutic hypothermia after transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia in a piglet model of perinatal asphyxia using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) biomarkers supported by immunohistochemistry.
  4. Baldursdottir S, Sigvaldason K, Karason S, Valsson F, Sigurdsson G. Induced hypothermia in comatose survivors of asphyxia: a case series of 14 consecutive cases. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2010;54:821-6 pubmed publisher
    ..At our hospital, hypothermia has also been used for the management of all comatose survivors of asphyxiation. The aim of the present study was to report the results of the management of these patients...
  5. Egge M, Berkowitz C, Toms C, Sathyavagiswaran L. The choking game: a cause of unintentional strangulation. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2010;26:206-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Accident, suicide, homicide, autoerotic behavior, and the "choking game" should be considered in the differential when an adolescent presents with evidence of strangulation...
  6. Barrett R, Bennet L, Naylor A, George S, Dean J, Gunn A. Effect of cerebral hypothermia and asphyxia on the subventricular zone and white matter tracts in preterm fetal sheep. Brain Res. 2012;1469:35-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that hypothermia is also protective after profound asphyxia in the preterm brain...
  7. Carlo W, Goudar S, Pasha O, Chomba E, Wallander J, Biasini F, et al. Randomized trial of early developmental intervention on outcomes in children after birth asphyxia in developing countries. J Pediatr. 2013;162:705-712.e3 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine if early developmental intervention (EDI) improves developmental abilities in resuscitated children...
  8. Solberg R, Enot D, Deigner H, Koal T, Scholl Burgi S, Saugstad O, et al. Metabolomic analyses of plasma reveals new insights into asphyxia and resuscitation in pigs. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9606 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that the quantification of metabolites after hypoxia and resuscitation would enable the detection of markers of hypoxia as well as markers enabling the monitoring and evaluation of resuscitation strategies...
  9. Helmy M, Tolner E, Vanhatalo S, Voipio J, Kaila K. Brain alkalosis causes birth asphyxia seizures, suggesting therapeutic strategy. Ann Neurol. 2011;69:493-500 pubmed publisher
    The mechanisms whereby birth asphyxia leads to generation of seizures remain unidentified...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Saraceno G, Ayala M, Badorrey M, Holubiec M, Romero J, Galeano P, et al. Effects of perinatal asphyxia on rat striatal cytoskeleton. Synapse. 2012;66:9-19 pubmed publisher
    Perinatal asphyxia (PA) is a medical condition associated with a high short-term morbimortality and different long-term neurological diseases...
  2. Fleiss B, Coleman H, Castillo Melendez M, Ireland Z, Walker D, Parkington H. Effects of birth asphyxia on neonatal hippocampal structure and function in the spiny mouse. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2011;29:757-66 pubmed publisher
    Studies of human neonates, and in animal experiments, suggest that birth asphyxia results in functional compromise of the hippocampus, even when structural damage is not observable or resolves in early postnatal life...
  3. Schlapbach L, Frey S, Bigler S, Manh Nhi C, Aebi C, Nelle M, et al. Copeptin concentration in cord blood in infants with early-onset sepsis, chorioamnionitis and perinatal asphyxia. BMC Pediatr. 2011;11:38 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, its involvement in neonatal diseases remains unknown. The aim of this study was to establish copeptin concentrations in neonates of different stress states such as sepsis, chorioamnionitis and asphyxia.
  4. Aissaoui A, Salem N, Chadly A. Unusual foreign body aspiration as a cause of asphyxia in adults: an autopsy case report. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2012;33:284-5 pubmed publisher
    Most asphyxia deaths caused by foreign body aspiration occur in children and the elderly...
  5. Keilhoff G, John R, Langnaese K, Schweizer H, Ebmeyer U. Triggered by asphyxia neurogenesis seems not to be an endogenous repair mechanism, gliogenesis more like it. Neuroscience. 2010;171:869-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The majority of newcomers, especially in the damaged CA1 region, consisted of glial cells. Moreover, asphyxia seemed to be able to induce the migration of microglia and astroglia from adjacent areas into the damaged area ..
  6. Vlassaks E, Mencarelli C, Nikiforou M, Strackx E, Ferraz M, Aerts J, et al. Fetal asphyxia induces acute and persisting changes in the ceramide metabolism in rat brain. J Lipid Res. 2013;54:1825-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Global fetal asphyxia was induced in rats by clamping both uterine and ovarian vasculature for 30 min...
  7. Ferrari F, Todeschini A, Guidotti I, Martinez Biarge M, Roversi M, Berardi A, et al. General movements in full-term infants with perinatal asphyxia are related to Basal Ganglia and thalamic lesions. J Pediatr. 2011;158:904-11 pubmed publisher
  8. Sauvageau A, Boghossian E. Classification of asphyxia: the need for standardization. J Forensic Sci. 2010;55:1259-67 pubmed publisher
    The classification of asphyxia and the definitions of subtypes are far from being uniform, varying widely from one textbook to another and from one paper to the next...
  9. Solevåg A, Dannevig I, Wyckoff M, Saugstad O, Nakstad B. Extended series of cardiac compressions during CPR in a swine model of perinatal asphyxia. Resuscitation. 2010;81:1571-6 pubmed publisher
    ..An extended series of cardiac compressions offers the theoretical advantage of improving coronary perfusion pressures and hence, we aimed to explore the impact of compression cycles of two different durations...
  10. Lee T, Liu J, Li Y, Nasim K, Chaba T, Bigam D, et al. Improved renal recovery with postresuscitation N-acetylcysteine treatment in asphyxiated newborn pigs. Shock. 2011;35:428-33 pubmed publisher
    Renal injury is one of the severe and common complications that occurs early in neonates with asphyxia, and reactive oxygen species have been implicated to play an important role on its pathogenesis...
  11. Gill R, Manouchehri N, Liu J, Lee T, Cho W, Thiesen A, et al. Cyclosporine treatment improves cardiac function and systemic hemodynamics during resuscitation in a newborn piglet model of asphyxia: a dose-response study. Crit Care Med. 2012;40:1237-44 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the cardioprotective effect of cyclosporine in neonates has not yet been studied. We hypothesize that cyclosporine will improve cardiac function and reduce myocardial injury in asphyxiated newborn piglets...
  12. Gill R, Lee T, Manouchehri N, Liu J, Lopaschuk G, Bigam D, et al. Postresuscitation cyclosporine treatment attenuates myocardial and cardiac mitochondrial injury in newborn piglets with asphyxia-reoxygenation. Crit Care Med. 2013;41:1069-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that cyclosporine A treatment would attenuate myocardial and cardiac mitochondrial injury during the resuscitation of asphyxiated newborn piglets...
  13. Allende Castro C, Espina Marchant P, Bustamante D, Rojas Mancilla E, Neira T, Gutierrez Hernandez M, et al. Further studies on the hypothesis of PARP-1 inhibition as a strategy for lessening the long-term effects produced by perinatal asphyxia: effects of nicotinamide and theophylline on PARP-1 activity in brain and peripheral tissue : nicotinamide and the. Neurotox Res. 2012;22:79-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects observed long after perinatal asphyxia (PA) have been explained by over-expression of sentinel proteins, such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), ..
  14. Keogh M, Drury P, Bennet L, Davidson J, Mathai S, Gunn E, et al. Limited predictive value of early changes in EEG spectral power for neural injury after asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep. Pediatr Res. 2012;71:345-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined whether spectral analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) can discriminate between mild and severe hypoxic-ischemic injury in the immature brain...
  15. Solevåg A, Dannevig I, Wyckoff M, Saugstad O, Nakstad B. Return of spontaneous circulation with a compression:ventilation ratio of 15:2 versus 3:1 in newborn pigs with cardiac arrest due to asphyxia. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2011;96:F417-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors aimed to compare these two C:V ratios in a neonatal swine model of cardiac arrest following asphyxia.
  16. Drury P, Bennet L, Booth L, Davidson J, Wassink G, Gunn A. Maturation of the mitochondrial redox response to profound asphyxia in fetal sheep. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39273 pubmed publisher
    ..This study examined the hypothesis that this is associated with impaired mitochondrial adaptation, as measured by more rapid oxidation of cytochrome oxidase (CytOx) during profound asphyxia.
  17. López Herce J, Fernandez B, Urbano J, Mencía S, Solana M, del Castillo J, et al. Terlipressin versus adrenaline in an infant animal model of asphyxial cardiac arrest. Intensive Care Med. 2010;36:1248-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of terlipressin versus adrenaline in an experimental infant animal model of asphyxial cardiac arrest (ACA)...
  18. Robertson N, Kato T, Bainbridge A, Chandrasekaran M, Iwata O, Kapetanakis A, et al. Methyl-isobutyl amiloride reduces brain Lac/NAA, cell death and microglial activation in a perinatal asphyxia model. J Neurochem. 2013;124:645-57 pubmed publisher
    ..the cerebral effects of the NHE inhibitor, methyl isobutyl amiloride (MIA) given after severe perinatal asphyxia in the piglet...
  19. Souza S, Martins T, Ferreira G, Vinagre A, Silva R, Frizzo M. Metabolic effects of perinatal asphyxia in the rat cerebral cortex. Metab Brain Dis. 2013;28:25-32 pubmed publisher
    We reported previously that intrauterine asphyxia acutely affects the rat hippocampus...
  20. Liu J, Litt L, Segal M, Kelly M, Yoshihara H, James T. Outcome-related metabolomic patterns from 1H/31P NMR after mild hypothermia treatments of oxygen-glucose deprivation in a neonatal brain slice model of asphyxia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2011;31:547-59 pubmed publisher
    Human clinical trials using 72 hours of mild hypothermia (32°C-34°C) after neonatal asphyxia have found substantially improved neurologic outcomes...
  21. Fleiss B, Parkington H, Coleman H, Dickinson H, Yawno T, Castillo Melendez M, et al. Effect of maternal administration of allopregnanolone before birth asphyxia on neonatal hippocampal function in the spiny mouse. Brain Res. 2012;1433:9-19 pubmed publisher
    ..determine if prophylactic treatment of the pregnant female with a single dose of this steroid could reduce birth asphyxia-induced losses in hippocampal function at 5 days of age (P5) in spiny mouse neonates (Acomys cahirinus)...
  22. Ramírez Jarquín J, Lara Hernández S, López Guerrero J, Aguileta M, Rivera Angulo A, Sampieri A, et al. Somatostatin modulates generation of inspiratory rhythms and determines asphyxia survival. Peptides. 2012;34:360-72 pubmed publisher
    ..blockade of SST receptor type-2 reduces gasping amplitude and consequently, it precludes auto-resuscitation after asphyxia. Based on our findings, we suggest that SST functions as an inhibitory neuromodulator released by excitatory ..
  23. George S, Barrett R, Bennet L, Mathai S, Jensen E, Gunn A. Nonadditive neuroprotection with early glutamate receptor blockade and delayed hypothermia after asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep. Stroke. 2012;43:3114-7 pubmed publisher
    ..with the noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, dizocilpine, can augment neuroprotection with delayed hypothermia after severe asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep at 0.7 weeks gestation (equivalent to 28-32 weeks in humans).
  24. Cohen G, Katz Salamon M, Malcolm G. A key circulatory defence against asphyxia in infancy--the heart of the matter!. J Physiol. 2012;590:6157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..can produce a sustained rise in HR (tachycardia) when a sleeping infant is confronted by mild, rapidly worsening asphyxia, simulating apnoea...
  25. Cummings K, Commons K, Trachtenberg F, Li A, Kinney H, Nattie E. Caffeine improves the ability of serotonin-deficient (Pet-1-/-) mice to survive episodic asphyxia. Pediatr Res. 2013;73:38-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that caffeine, a respiratory stimulant, would hasten the onset of gasping and improve autoresuscitation in 5-HT-deficient, Pet-1(-/-) mice...
  26. Wassink G, Bennet L, Davidson J, Westgate J, Gunn A. Pre-existing hypoxia is associated with greater EEG suppression and early onset of evolving seizure activity during brief repeated asphyxia in near-term fetal sheep. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73895 pubmed publisher
    ..4 min/h in the first 6 hours of recovery. In conclusion, in fetuses with pre-existing hypoxia, repeated brief asphyxia at a rate consistent with early labor is associated with hypotension, cephalic hypoperfusion, greater EEG ..
  27. Boghossian E, Tambuscio S, Sauvageau A. Nonchemical suffocation deaths in forensic setting: a 6-year retrospective study of environmental suffocation, smothering, choking, and traumatic/positional asphyxia. J Forensic Sci. 2010;55:646-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, new data without actual literature correlates were obtained in the conducting of this study and are presented here...
  28. Sauvageau A, LaHarpe R, Geberth V. Agonal sequences in eight filmed hangings: analysis of respiratory and movement responses to asphyxia by hanging. J Forensic Sci. 2010;55:1278-81 pubmed publisher
    It has been proposed that filmed hangings may hold the key to a better understanding of human asphyxia, and The Working Group on Human Asphyxia was formed to systematically review and compare these video recordings...
  29. Drury P, Booth L, Bennet L, Davidson J, Wibbens B, Gunn A. Dopamine infusion for postresuscitation blood pressure support after profound asphyxia in near-term fetal sheep. Exp Physiol. 2013;98:699-709 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypothesis that after near-terminal asphyxia in utero, dopamine infusions would prevent secondary hypotension...
  30. Yerian L, Brady L, Hart J. Hepatic manifestations of Jeune syndrome (asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy). Semin Liver Dis. 2003;23:195-200 pubmed
    ..We present a discussion of the gross and histopathologic findings in the explanted liver, along with a review of the pathology of liver disease in Jeune syndrome...
  31. Yan E, Baburamani A, Walker A, Walker D. Changes in cerebral blood flow, cerebral metabolites, and breathing movements in the sheep fetus following asphyxia produced by occlusion of the umbilical cord. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R60-9 pubmed publisher
    Severe global fetal asphyxia, if caused by a brief occlusion of the umbilical cord, results in prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion in fetal sheep...
  32. Morgan N, Bacchelli C, Gissen P, Morton J, Ferrero G, Silengo M, et al. A locus for asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy, ATD, maps to chromosome 15q13. J Med Genet. 2003;40:431-5 pubmed
    ..Families with both mild and severe forms of ATD mapped to 15q13, but mutation analysis of two candidate genes, GREMLIN and FORMIN, did not show pathogenic mutations...
  33. Low J. Determining the contribution of asphyxia to brain damage in the neonate. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2004;30:276-86 pubmed
    Studies in the research laboratory have demonstrated the complex relationship between fetal and newborn asphyxia and brain damage, a balance between the degree, duration and nature of the asphyxia and the quality of the cardiovascular ..
  34. Bennewith O, Gunnell D, Kapur N, Turnbull P, Simkin S, Sutton L, et al. Suicide by hanging: multicentre study based on coroners' records in England. Br J Psychiatry. 2005;186:260-1 pubmed
    ..In only half the cases (52%) were victims fully suspended with both feet off the ground. Four per cent had also taken an overdose...
  35. McClane G, Strack G, Hawley D. A review of 300 attempted strangulation cases Part II: clinical evaluation of the surviving victim. J Emerg Med. 2001;21:311-5 pubmed
    ..It also corroborates the findings of Strack et al., in the study by the San Diego City Attorney's Office, described in Part I of this series...
  36. Capani F, Loidl C, Piehl L, Facorro G, De Paoli T, Hager A. Long term production of reactive oxygen species during perinatal asphyxia in the rat central nervous system: effects of hypothermia. Int J Neurosci. 2003;113:641-54 pubmed
    ..reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was significantly increased in rat neostriatum during acute perinatal asphyxia (PA) in pups...
  37. Barakat M, Belkhadir Z, Belkrezia R, Faroudy M, Ababou A, Lazreq C, et al. [Traumatic asphyxia or Perthe's syndrome. Six cas reports]. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim. 2004;23:59-62 pubmed
    Perthe's syndrome or traumatic asphyxia is a clinical syndrome associating cervicofacial cyanosis, petechia and subconjonctival hemorrhage to neurological symptoms...
  38. Henderson J, Morgan S, Patel F, Tiplady M. Patterns of non-firearm homicide. J Clin Forensic Med. 2005;12:128-32 pubmed
    ..Males tended to fall victim to strangers encountered while socialising in and around bars and clubs. Females were most often killed by close acquaintances in domestic disputes at home...
  39. Piscopo P, Bernardo A, Calamandrei G, Venerosi A, Valanzano A, Bianchi D, et al. Altered expression of cyclooxygenase-2, presenilins and oxygen radical scavenging enzymes in a rat model of global perinatal asphyxia. Exp Neurol. 2008;209:192-8 pubmed
    ..patterns of expression during the first 2 weeks of postnatal life in a rat model of moderate global perinatal asphyxia that we have previously reported to be characterized by early oxidative stress and delayed behavioral alterations...
  40. Weitzdörfer R, Hoger H, Burda G, Pollak A, Lubec G. Differences in hippocampal protein expression at 3 days, 3 weeks, and 3 months following induction of perinatal asphyxia in the rat. J Proteome Res. 2008;7:1945-52 pubmed publisher
    Perinatal asphyxia (PA) was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats; pups were sacrificed 3 days, 3 weeks, and 3 months following the asphyctic insult, and hippocampal protein levels were determined by a gel-based proteomic method...
  41. Kiss P, Szogyi D, Reglodi D, Horvath G, Farkas J, Lubics A, et al. Effects of perinatal asphyxia on the neurobehavioral and retinal development of newborn rats. Brain Res. 2009;1255:42-50 pubmed publisher
    Perinatal asphyxia during delivery produces long-term deficits and represents a major problem in both neonatal and pediatric care...
  42. Töro K, Kardos M, Dunay G. Fatal asphyxia due to laryngomucocele. Forensic Sci Int. 2009;190:e1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..larynx resulting from an abnormal dilation of the laryngeal saccule, however, severe airway obstruction and even asphyxia may occur. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who presented with a feeling of discomfort and mild asphyxia...
  43. Frizzo J, Cardoso M, de Assis A, Perry M, Volonte C, Frizzo M. Effects of acute perinatal asphyxia in the rat hippocampus. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30:683-92 pubmed publisher
    In the present work, we have used a rat animal model to study the early effects of intrauterine asphyxia occurring no later than 60 min following the cesarean-delivery procedure...
  44. Morales P, Huaiquín P, Bustamante D, Fiedler J, Herrera Marschitz M. Perinatal asphyxia induces neurogenesis in hippocampus: an organotypic culture study. Neurotox Res. 2007;12:81-4 pubmed
    ..In the present report, perinatal asphyxia was induced by immersing foetuses-containing uterine horns removed from ready-to-deliver rats into a water bath ..
  45. Berzlanovich A, Fazeny Dörner B, Waldhoer T, Fasching P, Keil W. Foreign body asphyxia: a preventable cause of death in the elderly. Am J Prev Med. 2005;28:65-9 pubmed
    To assess the prevalence of food/foreign body asphyxia in the elderly Viennese population in order to reduce the incidence of these fatal events.
  46. Stark C, Hopkins P, Gibbs D, Rapson T, Belbin A, Hay A. Trends in suicide in Scotland 1981 - 1999: age, method and geography. BMC Public Health. 2004;4:49 pubmed
    ..Previous work has suggested higher than average rates in some rural areas of Scotland. This paper describes trends in suicide and undetermined death in Scotland by age, gender, geographical area and method for 1981 - 1999...
  47. Mitchell E, Snyder Keller A. Blockade of D1 dopaminergic transmission alleviates c-fos induction and cleaved caspase-3 expression in the brains of rat pups exposed to prenatal cocaine or perinatal asphyxia. Exp Neurol. 2003;182:64-74 pubmed
    ..Both cocaine binge (3 x 15 mg/kg) and perinatal asphyxia on embryonic day 22 (E22) induced c-fos in the striatum as well as in several other brain regions within 3 h ..
  48. Toblin R, Paulozzi L, Gilchrist J, Russell P. Unintentional strangulation deaths from the "choking game" among youths aged 6-19 years - United States, 1995-2007. J Safety Res. 2008;39:445-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Impact of industry: By learning about the risk factors for and warning signs of the choking game, parents, educators, and health-care providers may be able to identify youth at risk for playing the game and prevent future deaths...
  49. Huang L, Wu X. [Effect of Xinmailong on hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha expression in neonatal rats with asphyxia]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi. 2009;11:683-6 pubmed
    ..of Xinmailong on myocardial hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and plasma endothelin-1(ET-1) levels in neonatal rats with asphyxia and explored the protection mechanism of Xinmailong in hypoxia-ischemic myocardial injury.
  50. Van de Berg W, Kwaijtaal M, de Louw A, Lissone N, Schmitz C, Faull R, et al. Impact of perinatal asphyxia on the GABAergic and locomotor system. Neuroscience. 2003;117:83-96 pubmed
    Perinatal asphyxia can cause neuronal loss and depletion of neurotransmitters within the striatum. The striatum plays an important role in motor control, sensorimotor integration and learning...
  51. Aaltonen M, Soukka H, Halkola L, Jalonen J, Holopainen I, Kero P, et al. Asphyxia aggravates systemic hypotension but not pulmonary hypertension in piglets with meconium aspiration. Pediatr Res. 2003;53:473-8 pubmed
    Meconium aspiration and birth asphyxia are both separately connected to significant pulmonary and systemic hemodynamic changes in newborns, but, although these insults frequently coexist, their combined effects on the neonatal circulation ..
  52. Low J, Killen H, Derrick E. Antepartum fetal asphyxia in the preterm pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;188:461-5 pubmed
    The objective of this report was to provide insight into the frequency and characteristics of antepartum fetal asphyxia in pregnancies that are delivered preterm.
  53. Kamohara T, Weil M, Tang W, Sun S, Yamaguchi H, Klouche K, et al. A comparison of myocardial function after primary cardiac and primary asphyxial cardiac arrest. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164:1221-4 pubmed
    ..study was designed to compare postresuscitation left ventricular (LV) function after cardiac arrest caused by asphyxia with that of cardiac arrest induced by dysrhythmia...