capsid

Summary

Summary: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.

Top Publications

  1. May E, Feng J, Brooks C. Exploring the symmetry and mechanism of virus capsid maturation via an ensemble of pathways. Biophys J. 2012;102:606-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that all pathways obey a common mechanism characterized by formation of pentameric contacts early in the transition. ..
  2. Shingler K, Yoder J, Carnegie M, Ashley R, Makhov A, Conway J, et al. The enterovirus 71 A-particle forms a gateway to allow genome release: a cryoEM study of picornavirus uncoating. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003240 pubmed publisher
    ..In a second step after endocytosis, an unknown trigger leads to RNA expulsion, generating an intact, empty capsid. Cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of these two capsid states provide insight into the mechanics of genome ..
  3. Wu T, Li H, Faust S, Chi E, Zhou S, Wright F, et al. CD8+ T cell recognition of epitopes within the capsid of adeno-associated virus 8-based gene transfer vectors depends on vectors' genome. Mol Ther. 2014;22:42-51 pubmed publisher
    ..delivered to the liver caused in several patients an increase in transaminases accompanied by a rise in AAV capsid-specific T cells and a decrease in circulating hF...
  4. Conway J, Cockrell S, Copeland A, Newcomb W, Brown J, Homa F. Labeling and localization of the herpes simplex virus capsid protein UL25 and its interaction with the two triplexes closest to the penton. J Mol Biol. 2010;397:575-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with UL17, UL25 forms part of an elongated molecule referred to as the C-capsid-specific component (CCSC)...
  5. Chen C, Wang J, Zlotnick A. A kinase chaperones hepatitis B virus capsid assembly and captures capsid dynamics in vitro. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002388 pubmed publisher
    ..CTD phosphorylation correlates with pregenomic-RNA encapsidation during capsid assembly, reverse transcription, and viral transport, although the mechanisms remain unknown...
  6. Bosse J, Bauerfeind R, Popilka L, Marcinowski L, Taeglich M, Jung C, et al. A beta-herpesvirus with fluorescent capsids to study transport in living cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40585 pubmed publisher
    ..This is due to the lack of replication competent, capsid-tagged fluorescent viruses...
  7. Globisch C, Krishnamani V, Deserno M, Peter C. Optimization of an elastic network augmented coarse grained model to study CCMV capsid deformation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60582 pubmed publisher
    The major protective coat of most viruses is a highly symmetric protein capsid that forms spontaneously from many copies of identical proteins...
  8. Choi Y, Kim H, Lee J, Kang H, Kim H. Chromatographically-purified capsid proteins of red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae form virus-like particles. Protein Expr Purif. 2013;89:162-8 pubmed publisher
    ..infection is the NNV virus-like particle (VLP), which is a structure resulting from assembly of recombinant NNV capsid protein...
  9. Siber A, Božič A, Podgornik R. Energies and pressures in viruses: contribution of nonspecific electrostatic interactions. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2012;14:3746-65 pubmed publisher
    ..distribution of their genome charge which leads to essential differences in their free energies, depending on the capsid size and total charge in a quite different fashion...

More Information

Publications93

  1. Routh A, Domitrovic T, Johnson J. Host RNAs, including transposons, are encapsidated by a eukaryotic single-stranded RNA virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1907-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the genetic content of nonenveloped RNA viruses is variable, not just by genome mutation, but also in the diversity of RNA transcripts that are packaged...
  2. Guth C, Sodroski J. Contribution of PDZD8 to stabilization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid. J Virol. 2014;88:4612-23 pubmed publisher
    Following human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry into the host cell, the viral capsid gradually disassembles in a process called uncoating. A proper rate of uncoating is important for reverse transcription of the HIV-1 genome...
  3. Katz G, Wei H, Alimova A, Katz A, Morgan D, Gottlieb P. Protein P7 of the cystovirus ?6 is located at the three-fold axis of the unexpanded procapsid. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47489 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that P7 performs the mechanical function of stabilizing P2 on the inner protein P1 shell which ensures that entering viral single-stranded RNA is replicated. ..
  4. Pérez Berná A, Ortega Esteban A, Menéndez Conejero R, Winkler D, Menendez M, Steven A, et al. The role of capsid maturation on adenovirus priming for sequential uncoating. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:31582-95 pubmed publisher
    Adenovirus assembly concludes with proteolytic processing of several capsid and core proteins. Immature virions containing precursor proteins lack infectivity because they cannot properly uncoat, becoming trapped in early endosomes...
  5. Mowat F, Gornik K, Dinculescu A, Boye S, Hauswirth W, Petersen Jones S, et al. Tyrosine capsid-mutant AAV vectors for gene delivery to the canine retina from a subretinal or intravitreal approach. Gene Ther. 2014;21:96-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Amino-acid substitutions in the viral capsid improve efficiency in rodent eyes by evading host responses...
  6. Lemke C, Titolo S, von Schwedler U, Goudreau N, Mercier J, Wardrop E, et al. Distinct effects of two HIV-1 capsid assembly inhibitor families that bind the same site within the N-terminal domain of the viral CA protein. J Virol. 2012;86:6643-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The viral capsid (CA) protein represents one such potential new target...
  7. Castellanos M, Pérez R, Carrillo P, de Pablo P, Mateu M. Mechanical disassembly of single virus particles reveals kinetic intermediates predicted by theory. Biophys J. 2012;102:2615-24 pubmed publisher
    ..minute-virus-of-mice particles is frequently initiated by loss of one of the 20 equivalent capsomers (trimers of capsid protein subunits) leading to a stable, nearly complete particle that does not readily lose further capsomers...
  8. Dai X, Yu X, Gong H, Jiang X, Abenes G, Liu H, et al. The smallest capsid protein mediates binding of the essential tegument protein pp150 to stabilize DNA-containing capsids in human cytomegalovirus. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003525 pubmed publisher
    ..Among all human herpesviruses, HCMV contains a much larger dsDNA genome within a similarly-sized capsid compared to the others, and it was proposed to require pp150, a tegument protein only found in cytomegaloviruses, ..
  9. Bailey G, Hyun J, Mitra A, Kingston R. A structural model for the generation of continuous curvature on the surface of a retroviral capsid. J Mol Biol. 2012;417:212-23 pubmed publisher
    The genome of a retrovirus is surrounded by a convex protein shell, or capsid, that helps facilitate infection. The major part of the capsid surface is formed by interlocking capsid protein (CA) hexamers...
  10. Flatt J, Kim R, Smith J, Nemerow G, Stewart P. An intrinsically disordered region of the adenovirus capsid is implicated in neutralization by human alpha defensin 5. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61571 pubmed publisher
    ..human ?-defensin 5 (HD5), with HAdV led to a proposed mechanism in which HD5 stabilizes the vertex region of the capsid and blocks uncoating steps required for infectivity...
  11. Sundquist W, Kräusslich H. HIV-1 assembly, budding, and maturation. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012;2:a006924 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review our current understanding of the mechanisms of HIV-1 assembly, budding, and maturation, starting with a general overview and then providing detailed descriptions of each of the different stages of virion morphogenesis. ..
  12. Gentzsch J, Brohm C, Steinmann E, Friesland M, Menzel N, Vieyres G, et al. hepatitis c Virus p7 is critical for capsid assembly and envelopment. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003355 pubmed publisher
    ..we dissected HCV morphogenesis into sub-steps including recruitment of HCV core to lipid droplets (LD), virus capsid assembly, unloading of core protein from LDs and subsequent membrane envelopment of capsids...
  13. Swiersy A, Wiek C, Zentgraf H, Lindemann D. Characterization and manipulation of foamy virus membrane interactions. Cell Microbiol. 2013;15:227-36 pubmed publisher
    ..and species examined, but also cells of amphibian or bird origin, are permissive to FV glycoprotein (Env)-mediated capsid release into the cytoplasm...
  14. Abaitua F, Hollinshead M, Bolstad M, Crump C, O Hare P. A Nuclear localization signal in herpesvirus protein VP1-2 is essential for infection via capsid routing to the nuclear pore. J Virol. 2012;86:8998-9014 pubmed publisher
    ..Electron microscopy (EM) analysis of infection in noncomplementing cells demonstrated capsid assembly, cytoplasmic envelopment, and the formation of extracellular enveloped virions...
  15. Nemecek D, Boura E, Wu W, Cheng N, Plevka P, Qiao J, et al. Subunit folds and maturation pathway of a dsRNA virus capsid. Structure. 2013;21:1374-83 pubmed publisher
    ..the human pathogen, rotavirus: segmented genomes, nonequivalent packing of 120 subunits in its icosahedral capsid, and capsids as compartments for transcription and replication...
  16. Henaff D, Rémillard Labrosse G, Loret S, Lippé R. Analysis of the early steps of herpes simplex virus 1 capsid tegumentation. J Virol. 2013;87:4895-906 pubmed publisher
    Herpes simplex virus type 1 particles are multilayered structures with a DNA genome surrounded by a capsid, tegument, and envelope...
  17. Kay C, Ryals R, Aslanidi G, Min S, Ruan Q, Sun J, et al. Targeting photoreceptors via intravitreal delivery using novel, capsid-mutated AAV vectors. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62097 pubmed publisher
    ..Transduction efficiencies of self-complimentary, capsid-mutant and unmodified AAV vectors containing the smCBA promoter and mCherry cDNA were initially scored in vitro ..
  18. Zins S, Nelson C, Maginnis M, Banerjee R, O Hara B, Atwood W. The human alpha defensin HD5 neutralizes JC polyomavirus infection by reducing endoplasmic reticulum traffic and stabilizing the viral capsid. J Virol. 2014;88:948-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, HD5 binding to the virion stabilizes the capsid and prevents genome release...
  19. Poranen M, Bamford D. Assembly of large icosahedral double-stranded RNA viruses. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;726:379-402 pubmed publisher
    ..have revealed common structural characteristics unique to these viruses including an internal icosahedral capsid built from 60 asymmetric dimers (120 monomers!) of the major coat protein...
  20. DiMattia M, Nam H, Van Vliet K, Mitchell M, Bennett A, Gurda B, et al. Structural insight into the unique properties of adeno-associated virus serotype 9. J Virol. 2012;86:6947-58 pubmed publisher
    Adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) has enhanced capsid-associated tropism for cardiac muscle and the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier compared to other AAV serotypes...
  21. Li C, DiPrimio N, Bowles D, Hirsch M, Monahan P, Asokan A, et al. Single amino acid modification of adeno-associated virus capsid changes transduction and humoral immune profiles. J Virol. 2012;86:7752-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we found that a single insertion of Thr from AAV1 into AAV2 capsid at residue 265 preserved high muscle transduction, while also changing the immune profile...
  22. Bharat T, Davey N, Ulbrich P, Riches J, De Marco A, Rumlova M, et al. Structure of the immature retroviral capsid at 8?Å resolution by cryo-electron microscopy. Nature. 2012;487:385-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Gag is a multidomain polyprotein including three conserved folded domains: MA (matrix), CA (capsid) and NC (nucleocapsid). Assembly of an infectious virion proceeds in two stages...
  23. Camus G, Herker E, Modi A, Haas J, Ramage H, Farese R, et al. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 localizes hepatitis C virus NS5A protein to lipid droplets and enhances NS5A interaction with the viral capsid core. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:9915-23 pubmed publisher
    ..acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) plays a critical role in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by recruiting the HCV capsid protein core onto the surface of cellular lipid droplets (LDs)...
  24. Sun X, Bamford D, Poranen M. Probing, by self-assembly, the number of potential binding sites for minor protein subunits in the procapsid of double-stranded RNA bacteriophage ?6. J Virol. 2012;86:12208-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Although required for nucleation, excess P4 resulted in slower assembly kinetics...
  25. Robertson K, Furukawa Y, Underwood A, Black L, Liu J. Deletion of the Hoc and Soc capsid proteins affects the surface and cellular uptake properties of bacteriophage T4 derived nanoparticles. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;418:537-40 pubmed publisher
    ..T4 phage capsid derived nanoparticles (NPs) have potential advantages as sensors and in biotechnology...
  26. Biris N, Yang Y, Taylor A, Tomashevski A, Guo M, Hart P, et al. Structure of the rhesus monkey TRIM5? PRYSPRY domain, the HIV capsid recognition module. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:13278-83 pubmed publisher
    ..TRIM5? that potently restricts HIV infection, and identify features involved in its interaction with the HIV capsid. The extensive capsid-binding interface maps on the structurally divergent face of the protein formed by ..
  27. Periz J, Celma C, Jing B, Pinkney J, Roy P, Kapanidis A. Rotavirus mRNAS are released by transcript-specific channels in the double-layered viral capsid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:12042-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Nascent transcripts exit the capsid through 12 channels, but it is unknown whether these channels specialize in specific transcripts or simply act as ..
  28. Jalaguier P, Turcotte K, Danylo A, Cantin R, Tremblay M. Efficient production of HIV-1 virus-like particles from a mammalian expression vector requires the N-terminal capsid domain. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28314 pubmed publisher
    ..This polyprotein precursor contains different domains including matrix, capsid, SP1, nucleocapsid, SP2 and p6...
  29. Plevka P, Perera R, Cardosa J, Kuhn R, Rossmann M. Crystal structure of human enterovirus 71. Science. 2012;336:1274 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; Thus, the structure of antiviral compounds may require a hydrophilic head group designed to interact with residues at the entrance of the pocket...
  30. Yang Y, Brandariz Nu ez A, Fricke T, IVANOV D, Sarnak Z, Diaz Griffero F. Binding of the rhesus TRIM5? PRYSPRY domain to capsid is necessary but not sufficient for HIV-1 restriction. Virology. 2014;448:217-28 pubmed publisher
    The PRYSPRY domain of TRIM5? provides specificity and the capsid recognition motif to retroviral restriction...
  31. Strang B, Bender B, Sharma M, Pesola J, Sanders R, Spector D, et al. A mutation deleting sequences encoding the amino terminus of human cytomegalovirus UL84 impairs interaction with UL44 and capsid localization. J Virol. 2012;86:11066-77 pubmed publisher
    ..a rather modest downregulation of levels of multiple proteins and particularly decreased levels of the minor capsid protein UL85...
  32. White H, Sherman M, Brasil s S, Jacquet E, Seavers P, Tavares P, et al. Capsid structure and its stability at the late stages of bacteriophage SPP1 assembly. J Virol. 2012;86:6768-77 pubmed publisher
    The structure of the bacteriophage SPP1 capsid was determined at subnanometer resolution by cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle analysis...
  33. Lemke C, Titolo S, Goudreau N, Faucher A, Mason S, Bonneau P. A novel inhibitor-binding site on the HIV-1 capsid N-terminal domain leads to improved crystallization via compound-mediated dimerization. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2013;69:1115-23 pubmed publisher
    ..in the global battle against HIV there remains a need for new drugs directed against novel targets, and the viral capsid protein (CA) may represent one such target...
  34. Lin J, Lee L, Roivainen M, Filman D, Hogle J, Belnap D. Structure of the Fab-labeled "breathing" state of native poliovirus. J Virol. 2012;86:5959-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Fab and virus were mixed and imaged via cryogenic electron microscopy. The resulting reconstruction showed the capsid expands similarly to the irreversibly altered cell entry intermediate (135S) particle, but the N terminus of VP1 ..
  35. Li C, Wang J, Taylor M, Zlotnick A. In vitro assembly of an empty picornavirus capsid follows a dodecahedral path. J Virol. 2012;86:13062-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that empty particles are not a storage form of 14S particles, at least for bovine enterovirus, but are either a dead-end product or direct precursor into which viral RNA is packaged by as-yet-unidentified machinery...
  36. Larsson D, Liljas L, van der Spoel D. Virus capsid dissolution studied by microsecond molecular dynamics simulations. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012;8:e1002502 pubmed publisher
    Dissolution of many plant viruses is thought to start with swelling of the capsid caused by calcium removal following infection, but no high-resolution structures of swollen capsids exist...
  37. Dykeman E, Stockley P, Twarock R. Building a viral capsid in the presence of genomic RNA. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2013;87:022717 pubmed
    Virus capsid assembly has traditionally been considered as a process that can be described primarily via self-assembly of the capsid proteins, neglecting interactions with other viral or cellular components...
  38. Serri re J, Fenel D, Schoehn G, Gouet P, Guillon C. Biophysical characterization of the feline immunodeficiency virus p24 capsid protein conformation and in vitro capsid assembly. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56424 pubmed publisher
    The Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) capsid protein p24 oligomerizes to form a closed capsid that protects the viral genome...
  39. Moyer C, Nemerow G. Disulfide-bond formation by a single cysteine mutation in adenovirus protein VI impairs capsid release and membrane lysis. Virology. 2012;428:41-7 pubmed publisher
    The internal capsid protein VI mediates adenovirus (AdV) endosome penetration during cell entry...
  40. Garriga D, Pickl Herk A, Luque D, Wruss J, Castón J, Blaas D, et al. Insights into minor group rhinovirus uncoating: the X-ray structure of the HRV2 empty capsid. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002473 pubmed publisher
    ..0 Å resolution of the end-stage of HRV2 uncoating, the empty capsid. The structure shows important conformational changes in the capsid protomer...
  41. Liu Z, Li X, Jiang T, Deng Y, Zhao H, Wang H, et al. Novel cis-acting element within the capsid-coding region enhances flavivirus viral-RNA replication by regulating genome cyclization. J Virol. 2013;87:6804-18 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, a novel conserved cis-acting element was identified in the capsid-coding region of mosquito-borne flavivirus...
  42. Wang J, Dhason M, Zlotnick A. Structural organization of pregenomic RNA and the carboxy-terminal domain of the capsid protein of hepatitis B virus. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002919 pubmed publisher
    ..HBV) double-stranded DNA genome is reverse transcribed from its RNA pregenome (pgRNA) within the virus core (or capsid)...
  43. Yang Y, Luban J, Diaz Griffero F. The fate of HIV-1 capsid: a biochemical assay for HIV-1 uncoating. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1087:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This assay is based on the biochemical separation of soluble capsid protein from particulate capsid cores and provides information about the fate of the capsid during infection.
  44. Nagel C, Döhner K, Binz A, Bauerfeind R, Sodeik B. Improper tagging of the non-essential small capsid protein VP26 impairs nuclear capsid egress of herpes simplex virus. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44177 pubmed publisher
    To analyze the subcellular trafficking of herpesvirus capsids, the small capsid protein has been labeled with different fluorescent proteins...
  45. Ganser Pornillos B, Yeager M, Pornillos O. Assembly and architecture of HIV. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;726:441-65 pubmed publisher
    ..the genome, and approximately 1,500 copies of CA assemble into a new cone-shaped protein shell, called the mature capsid, which surrounds the genomic ribonucleoprotein complex...
  46. Zhang X, Sun S, Xiang Y, Wong J, Klose T, Raoult D, et al. Structure of Sputnik, a virophage, at 3.5-Å resolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:18431-6 pubmed publisher
    ..5-Å resolution, sufficient to verify the identity of most amino acids in the capsid proteins and to establish the identity of the pentameric protein forming the fivefold vertices...
  47. Grutter M, Luban J. TRIM5 structure, HIV-1 capsid recognition, and innate immune signaling. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:142-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Restriction activity is targeted to the virion core via recognition of the capsid protein lattice that encases the viral genomic RNA...
  48. Horowitz E, Rahman K, Bower B, Dismuke D, Falvo M, Griffith J, et al. Biophysical and ultrastructural characterization of adeno-associated virus capsid uncoating and genome release. J Virol. 2013;87:2994-3002 pubmed publisher
    ..and electron microscopy (EM) revealed that AAV particles release packaged genomes and undergo marked changes in capsid morphology upon heating in physiological buffer (pH 7.2)...
  49. Comas Garcia M, Cadena Nava R, Rao A, Knobler C, Gelbart W. In vitro quantification of the relative packaging efficiencies of single-stranded RNA molecules by viral capsid protein. J Virol. 2012;86:12271-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Under the right solution conditions, for example, cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) capsid protein (CP) has been shown to package RNA molecules whose lengths range from 100 to 10,000 nt...
  50. Preux O, Durand D, Huet A, Conway J, Bertin A, Boulogne C, et al. A two-state cooperative expansion converts the procapsid shell of bacteriophage T5 into a highly stable capsid isomorphous to the final virion head. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:1999-2014 pubmed publisher
    ..It is a critical step in the capsid maturation pathway that yields final particles capable to withstand the huge internal pressure generated by the ..
  51. Snijder J, Uetrecht C, Rose R, Sánchez Eugenia R, Marti G, Agirre J, et al. Probing the biophysical interplay between a viral genome and its capsid. Nat Chem. 2013;5:502-9 pubmed publisher
    The interaction between a viral capsid and its genome governs crucial steps in the life cycle of a virus, such as assembly and genome uncoating...
  52. Maree F, Blignaut B, de Beer T, Rieder E. Analysis of SAT type foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins and the identification of putative amino acid residues affecting virus stability. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61612 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombinant vSAT2 and intra-serotype chimeric viruses were used to map the amino acid differences in the capsid proteins of viruses with disparate low pH stabilities...
  53. Bichel K, Price A, Schaller T, Towers G, Freund S, James L. HIV-1 capsid undergoes coupled binding and isomerization by the nuclear pore protein NUP358. Retrovirology. 2013;10:81 pubmed publisher
    Lentiviruses such as HIV-1 can be distinguished from other retroviruses by the cyclophilin A-binding loop in their capsid and their ability to infect non-dividing cells...
  54. Wang X, Peng W, Ren J, Hu Z, Xu J, Lou Z, et al. A sensor-adaptor mechanism for enterovirus uncoating from structures of EV71. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:424-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Hydrophobic pockets in the EV71 capsid are collapsed in this expanded particle, providing a detailed explanation of the mechanism for receptor-binding ..
  55. Ford R, Barker A, Bakker S, Coutts R, Ranson N, Phillips S, et al. Sequence-specific, RNA-protein interactions overcome electrostatic barriers preventing assembly of satellite tobacco necrosis virus coat protein. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:1050-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are discussed in light of a first stage of assembly involving compaction of the genomic RNA driven by multiple RNA packaging signal-CP interactions...
  56. Polacek C, Gullberg M, Li J, Belsham G. Low levels of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3C protease expression are required to achieve optimal capsid protein expression and processing in mammalian cells. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:1249-58 pubmed publisher
    The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein precursor (P1-2A) is processed by the virus-encoded 3C protease (3C(pro)) to produce VP0, VP3, VP1 and 2A...
  57. Kobayashi S, Suzuki T, Igarashi M, Orba Y, Ohtake N, Nagakawa K, et al. Cysteine residues in the major capsid protein, Vp1, of the JC virus are important for protein stability and oligomer formation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76668 pubmed publisher
    The capsid of the human polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) consists of 72 pentameric capsomeres of a major structural protein, Vp1...
  58. DiMattia M, Watts N, Stahl S, Grimes J, Steven A, Stuart D, et al. Antigenic switching of hepatitis B virus by alternative dimerization of the capsid protein. Structure. 2013;21:133-142 pubmed publisher
    ..This structural switch precludes capsid assembly and engenders a distinct antigenic repertoire, explaining why the two antigens are cross-reactive at the ..
  59. Patterson D, Prevelige P, Douglas T. Nanoreactors by programmed enzyme encapsulation inside the capsid of the bacteriophage P22. ACS Nano. 2012;6:5000-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings reported here clearly illustrate that P22 holds potential for synthetic approaches to create nanoreactors, by design, using the power of highly evolved enzymes for chemical transformations...
  60. Aalto A, Bitto D, Ravantti J, Bamford D, Huiskonen J, Oksanen H. Snapshot of virus evolution in hypersaline environments from the characterization of a membrane-containing Salisaeta icosahedral phage 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:7079-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The virion structure, determined by electron cryomicroscopy, reveals that the bulk of the outer protein capsid is composed of upright standing pseudohexameric capsomers organized on a T = 49 icosahedral lattice...
  61. White K, Alba R, Parker A, Wright A, Bradshaw A, Delles C, et al. Assessment of a novel, capsid-modified adenovirus with an improved vascular gene transfer profile. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2013;8:183 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to assess whether a novel genetically engineered Adenovirus could be utilised to produce enhanced levels of vascular gene expression...
  62. Yang H, Ji X, Zhao G, Ning J, Zhao Q, Aiken C, et al. Structural insight into HIV-1 capsid recognition by rhesus TRIM5?. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:18372-7 pubmed publisher
    ..TRIM5? recognizes the lattice of the retrovirus capsid through its B30.2 (PRY/SPRY) domain in a species-specific manner...
  63. Yu Z, Dobro M, Woodward C, Levandovsky A, Danielson C, Sandrin V, et al. Unclosed HIV-1 capsids suggest a curled sheet model of assembly. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:112-23 pubmed publisher
    The RNA genome of retroviruses is encased within a protein capsid. To gather insight into the assembly and function of this capsid, we used electron cryotomography to image human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and equine infectious anemia ..
  64. Goldstone D, Flower T, Ball N, Sanz Ramos M, Yap M, Ogrodowicz R, et al. A unique spumavirus Gag N-terminal domain with functional properties of orthoretroviral matrix and capsid. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003376 pubmed publisher
    ..coiled coil that forms the dimer interface and despite the shared function it is entirely unrelated to either the capsid or matrix of Gag from other retroviruses...
  65. Li Z, Yi Y, Yin X, Zhang Y, Liu M, Liu H, et al. Development of a foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A empty capsid subunit vaccine using silkworm (Bombyx mori) pupae. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43849 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the 50% bovine protective dose (PD(50)) test was performed to assess the bovine potency of the empty capsid subunit vaccine and was shown to achieve 4.33 PD(50) per dose...
  66. Lee K, Mulky A, Yuen W, Martin T, Meyerson N, Choi L, et al. HIV-1 capsid-targeting domain of cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 6. J Virol. 2012;86:3851-60 pubmed publisher
    ..factor CPSF6-358 restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection through an interaction with capsid (CA), preventing virus nuclear entry and integration...
  67. Salganik M, Venkatakrishnan B, Bennett A, Lins B, Yarbrough J, Muzyczka N, et al. Evidence for pH-dependent protease activity in the adeno-associated virus capsid. J Virol. 2012;86:11877-85 pubmed publisher
    ..5 induced significant autocleavage of capsid proteins at several amino acid positions. No autocleavage was seen at pH 7.5...
  68. De Colibus L, Wang X, Spyrou J, Kelly J, Ren J, Grimes J, et al. More-powerful virus inhibitors from structure-based analysis of HEV71 capsid-binding molecules. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2014;21:282-288 pubmed publisher
    ..One ligand (with IC50 of 25 pM) is an order of magnitude more potent than the best previously reported inhibitor and is also more soluble. Our approach may be useful in the design of effective drugs for enterovirus infections. ..
  69. Zeng Y, Larson S, HEITSCH C, McPherson A, Harvey S. A model for the structure of satellite tobacco mosaic virus. J Struct Biol. 2012;180:110-6 pubmed publisher
    ..As far as we know, this is the first all-atom model for the complete structure of any virus (100% of the atoms) using the natural genomic sequence...
  70. Sanz Ramos M, Stoye J. Capsid-binding retrovirus restriction factors: discovery, restriction specificity and implications for the development of novel therapeutics. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:2587-98 pubmed publisher
    ..discovery, properties and possible therapeutic uses of the group of restriction factors known to interact with the capsid core of incoming retroviruses...
  71. Black L, Rao V. Structure, assembly, and DNA packaging of the bacteriophage T4 head. Adv Virus Res. 2012;82:119-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The capsid is built from three essential proteins: gp23*, which forms the hexagonal capsid lattice; gp24*, which forms ..
  72. Hendrix R, Johnson J. Bacteriophage HK97 capsid assembly and maturation. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2012;726:351-63 pubmed publisher
    ..of the process for which the HK97 system has been particularly informative include assembly of the icosahedral capsid shell from the component proteins, structure of the capsid subunits and of the entire capsid as it progresses ..
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    The amino terminus of the human papillomavirus minor capsid protein L2 contains a major cross-neutralizing epitope that provides the basis for the development of a broadly protective HPV vaccine...
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    ..retrovirus particle maturation, the assembled Gag polyprotein is cleaved by the viral protease into matrix (MA), capsid (CA), and nucleocapsid (NC) proteins...
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    ..Likewise, the dynamic control of intracellular protein expression rates becomes very important to minimize wasted proteins...
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    ..The expanded form, which is a putative disassembly intermediate during infection, arises from a separation of the capsid-forming domains of the CP subunits...
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