nucleocapsid

Summary

Summary: A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.

Top Publications

  1. Cortay J, Gerlier D, Iseni F. Selection of single-chain antibodies that specifically interact with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) nucleocapsid and inhibit viral RNA synthesis. J Virol Methods. 2006;131:16-20 pubmed
    ..RNA viruses is completely covered by the nucleoprotein (N) forming a ribonucleoprotein complex, the nucleocapsid. The nucleocapsid functions as the template for viral RNA synthesis that is mediated by a viral RNA-dependent ..
  2. Houben K, Marion D, Tarbouriech N, Ruigrok R, Blanchard L. Interaction of the C-terminal domains of sendai virus N and P proteins: comparison of polymerase-nucleocapsid interactions within the paramyxovirus family. J Virol. 2007;81:6807-16 pubmed
    ..P and N proteins is crucial for RNA synthesis by correctly positioning the polymerase complex (L+P) onto the nucleocapsid (N/RNA)...
  3. Fu W, HU W. Functional replacement of nucleocapsid flanking regions by heterologous counterparts with divergent primary sequences: effects of chimeric nucleocapsid on the retroviral replication cycle. J Virol. 2003;77:754-61 pubmed
    b>Nucleocapsid (NC) proteins in most retroviruses have a well-conserved Cys-His box(es) as well as more divergent flanking regions that are rich in basic residues...
  4. Wu W, Lin T, Pan L, Yu M, Li Z, Pang Y, et al. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus nucleocapsid assembly is interrupted upon deletion of the 38K gene. J Virol. 2006;80:11475-85 pubmed
    ..containing the capsid protein VP39 were present in cells transfected with 38K knockout bacmids, suggesting that nucleocapsid assembly was interrupted...
  5. Vanlandschoot P, Cao T, Leroux Roels G. The nucleocapsid of the hepatitis B virus: a remarkable immunogenic structure. Antiviral Res. 2003;60:67-74 pubmed
    The hepatitis B virus nucleocapsid or core antigen is extremely immunogenic during infection and after immunization...
  6. Hagan N, Fabris D. Dissecting the protein-RNA and RNA-RNA interactions in the nucleocapsid-mediated dimerization and isomerization of HIV-1 stemloop 1. J Mol Biol. 2007;365:396-410 pubmed
    The specific binding of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) to the different forms assumed in vitro by the stemloop 1 (Lai variant) of the genome's packaging signal has been investigated using electrospray ionization-Fourier transform mass ..
  7. Chang C, Chang Y, Wang S, Tseng Y, Huang K, Wang C. HIV-1 matrix protein repositioning in nucleocapsid region fails to confer virus-like particle assembly. Virology. 2008;378:97-104 pubmed publisher
    The HIV-1 matrix (MA) protein is similar to nucleocapsid (NC) proteins in its propensity for self-interaction and association with RNA...
  8. Lee H, Lee B, Dutta N, Seok S, Baek M, Lee H, et al. Detection of antibodies against SARS-Coronavirus using recombinant truncated nucleocapsid proteins by ELISA. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2008;18:1717-21 pubmed
    ..The nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV is highly antigenic and may be a suitable candidate for diagnostic applications...
  9. Lin L, Wang J, Deng R, Ke J, Wu H, Wang X. ac109 is required for the nucleocapsid assembly of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus. Virus Res. 2009;144:130-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Electron microscopy demonstrated that ac109 deletion blocked nucleocapsid formation, though infection was initiated and electron-dense bodies associated with the virogenic stroma ..

More Information

Publications115 found, 100 shown here

  1. Loney C, Mottet Osman G, Roux L, Bhella D. Paramyxovirus ultrastructure and genome packaging: cryo-electron tomography of sendai virus. J Virol. 2009;83:8191-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This is encapsidated by multiple copies of a viral nucleocapsid protein N to form a helical ribonucleoprotein complex (termed the nucleocapsid), which acts as the template for ..
  2. Noda T, Aoyama K, Sagara H, Kida H, Kawaoka Y. Nucleocapsid-like structures of Ebola virus reconstructed using electron tomography. J Vet Med Sci. 2005;67:325-8 pubmed
    ..By employing this technique, we resolved the 3D structure of Ebola virus nucleocapsid-like (NC-like) structures in the cytoplasm of cells expressing NP, VP24, and VP35: the minimum components ..
  3. Ono A, Waheed A, Joshi A, Freed E. Association of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gag with membrane does not require highly basic sequences in the nucleocapsid: use of a novel Gag multimerization assay. J Virol. 2005;79:14131-40 pubmed
    ..Gag mutants lacking the Gag-Gag interaction domain located in the N terminus of the nucleocapsid (NC) were efficiently immunoprecipitated without denaturation, indicating that the epitope masking is caused by ..
  4. Majeau N, Gagné V, Boivin A, Bolduc M, Majeau J, Ouellet D, et al. The N-terminal half of the core protein of hepatitis C virus is sufficient for nucleocapsid formation. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:971-81 pubmed
    ..We demonstrated that the 75 N-terminal residues of the C protein were sufficient to assemble and generate nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs) in vitro...
  5. Thomas J, Shulenin S, Coren L, Bosche W, Gagliardi T, Gorelick R, et al. Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) containing mutations in the nucleocapsid protein at a putative HIV-1 protease cleavage site. Virology. 2006;354:261-70 pubmed
    The HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein (NC) has been hypothesized to be cleaved by the viral protease (PR) during early infection...
  6. Runkler N, Pohl C, Schneider Schaulies S, Klenk H, Maisner A. Measles virus nucleocapsid transport to the plasma membrane requires stable expression and surface accumulation of the viral matrix protein. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:1203-14 pubmed
    ..Thus, we show for the first time that M stability and accumulation at intracellular membranes is a prerequisite for M and nucleocapsid co-transport to the plasma membrane and for subsequent virus assembly and budding processes.
  7. Wang M, Yin F, Shen S, Tan Y, Deng F, Vlak J, et al. Partial functional rescue of Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus infectivity by replacement of F protein with GP64 from Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus. J Virol. 2010;84:11505-14 pubmed publisher
    ..using pseudotyped viruses with a reintroduced polyhedrin gene showed that GP64-pseudotyped Helicoverpa armigera single nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) significantly delayed the mortality of infected H. armigera larvae.
  8. Kafaie J, Song R, Abrahamyan L, Mouland A, Laughrea M. Mapping of nucleocapsid residues important for HIV-1 genomic RNA dimerization and packaging. Virology. 2008;375:592-610 pubmed publisher
    Retroviral genomic RNA (gRNA) dimerization appears essential for viral infectivity, and the nucleocapsid protein (NC) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) facilitates HIV-1 gRNA dimerization...
  9. Hatakeyama S, Matsuoka Y, Ueshiba H, Komatsu N, Itoh K, Shichijo S, et al. Dissection and identification of regions required to form pseudoparticles by the interaction between the nucleocapsid (N) and membrane (M) proteins of SARS coronavirus. Virology. 2008;380:99-108 pubmed publisher
    When expressed in mammalian cells, the nucleocapsid (N) and membrane (M) proteins of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) are sufficient to form pseudoparticles...
  10. Goley E, Ohkawa T, Mancuso J, Woodruff J, D Alessio J, Cande W, et al. Dynamic nuclear actin assembly by Arp2/3 complex and a baculovirus WASP-like protein. Science. 2006;314:464-7 pubmed
    ..Recompartmentalizing dynamic host actin may represent a conserved mode of pathogenesis and reflect viral manipulation of normal functions of nuclear actin. ..
  11. Spilman M, Welbon C, Nelson E, Dokland T. Cryo-electron tomography of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: organization of the nucleocapsid. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:527-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The PRRSV virion consists of a lipid envelope that contains several envelope proteins surrounding a nucleocapsid core that encapsidates the RNA genome...
  12. Muriaux D, Mirro J, Nagashima K, Harvin D, Rein A. Murine leukemia virus nucleocapsid mutant particles lacking viral RNA encapsidate ribosomes. J Virol. 2002;76:11405-13 pubmed
    ..Gag normally selects the genomic RNA of the virus with high specificity; the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of Gag plays a crucial role in this selection process...
  13. Ott D, Coren L, Gagliardi T. Redundant roles for nucleocapsid and matrix RNA-binding sequences in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 assembly. J Virol. 2005;79:13839-47 pubmed
    ..While the nucleocapsid (NC) domain is the most conspicuous RNA-binding region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag ..
  14. Mateo M, Carbonnelle C, Martínez M, Reynard O, Page A, Volchkova V, et al. Knockdown of Ebola virus VP24 impairs viral nucleocapsid assembly and prevents virus replication. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 3:S892-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We reveal that VP24 is required for assembly of viral nucleocapsids and that silencing of VP24 expression prevents the release of EBOV. ..
  15. Butterfield Gerson K, Scheifele L, Ryan E, Hopper A, Parent L. Importin-beta family members mediate alpharetrovirus gag nuclear entry via interactions with matrix and nucleocapsid. J Virol. 2006;80:1798-806 pubmed publisher
    ..cerevisiae, and additionally we discovered a novel NLS within the NC (nucleocapsid) domain of Gag...
  16. Luo K, Liu B, Xiao Z, Yu Y, Yu X, Gorelick R, et al. Amino-terminal region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid is required for human APOBEC3G packaging. J Virol. 2004;78:11841-52 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the N-terminal region of HIV-1 NC, which is critical for binding to RNA and mediating Gag-Gag oligomerization, plays an important role in APOBEC3G binding and virion packaging. ..
  17. Ahmad Raus R, Ali A, Tan W, Salleh H, Eshaghi M, Yusoff K. Localization of the antigenic sites of newcastle disease virus nucleocapsid using a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Res Vet Sci. 2009;86:174-82 pubmed publisher
    A panel of six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the nucleocapsid (NP) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) was produced by immunization of Balb/c mice with purified recombinant NP protein...
  18. Guo H, Mao R, Block T, Guo J. Production and function of the cytoplasmic deproteinized relaxed circular DNA of hepadnaviruses. J Virol. 2010;84:387-96 pubmed publisher
    ..infected cells, in vitro deproteinization requires the maturation of plus-strand DNA and results in changes in nucleocapsid structure that render the DP rcDNA susceptible to DNase I digestion...
  19. Tremblay M, Majeau N, Gagné M, Lecours K, Morin H, Duvignaud J, et al. Effect of mutations K97A and E128A on RNA binding and self assembly of papaya mosaic potexvirus coat protein. FEBS J. 2006;273:14-25 pubmed
    ..PapMV) coat protein (CP) was expressed (CPdeltaN5) in Escherichia coli and showed to self assemble into nucleocapsid like particles (NLPs)...
  20. Das S, Nayak D, Zhou Y, Pattnaik A. Visualization of intracellular transport of vesicular stomatitis virus nucleocapsids in living cells. J Virol. 2006;80:6368-77 pubmed
    ..These findings are compatible with a model in which the progeny viral nucleocapsids are transported toward the cell periphery by MT and the transport may be facilitated by mitochondria. ..
  21. Mettenleiter T, Klupp B, Granzow H. Herpesvirus assembly: a tale of two membranes. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2006;9:423-9 pubmed
    ..Fusion of the primary viral envelope with the outer nuclear membrane results in translocation of the nucleocapsid to the cytoplasm...
  22. Ott D, Coren L, Chertova E, Gagliardi T, Nagashima K, Sowder R, et al. Elimination of protease activity restores efficient virion production to a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid deletion mutant. J Virol. 2003;77:5547-56 pubmed
    The nucleocapsid (NC) region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag is required for specific genomic RNA packaging...
  23. Linger B, Kunovska L, Kuhn R, Golden B. Sindbis virus nucleocapsid assembly: RNA folding promotes capsid protein dimerization. RNA. 2004;10:128-38 pubmed
    In Sindbis virus, initiation of nucleocapsid core assembly begins with recognition of the encapsidation signal of the viral RNA genome by capsid protein...
  24. Lobigs M, Lee E. Inefficient signalase cleavage promotes efficient nucleocapsid incorporation into budding flavivirus membranes. J Virol. 2004;78:178-86 pubmed
    The mechanism for efficient nucleocapsid (NC) uptake into flavivirus particles which form by budding through the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was investigated by using Murray Valley encephalitis virus as a model...
  25. Berkhout B, Gorelick R, Summers M, Mely Y, Darlix J. 6th international symposium on retroviral nucleocapsid. Retrovirology. 2008;5:21 pubmed publisher
    ..The retroviral nucleocapsid is the inner structure of the virus where several hundred nucleocapsid protein (NC) molecules coat the dimeric, ..
  26. Sim n O, Williams T, Asensio A, Ros S, Gaya A, Caballero P, et al. Sf29 gene of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus is a viral factor that determines the number of virions in occlusion bodies. J Virol. 2008;82:7897-904 pubmed publisher
    ..Other motifs, including zinc-binding and threonine-rich regions, suggest degradation and adhesion functions. We conclude that Sf29 is a viral factor that determines the number of ODVs occluded in each OB...
  27. Liu X, Ma H, Xu Q, Sun N, Han Z, Sun C, et al. Characterization of a recombinant coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus with distinct S1 subunits of spike and nucleocapsid genes and a 3' untranslated region. Vet Microbiol. 2013;162:429-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This recombination event took place at the 3' end of the N gene and the 3' untranslated region may account for differences in replication efficiency in tissues of chickens inoculated by the two viruses...
  28. Kurihara N, Hiruma Y, Yamana K, Michou L, Rousseau C, Morissette J, et al. Contributions of the measles virus nucleocapsid gene and the SQSTM1/p62(P392L) mutation to Paget's disease. Cell Metab. 2011;13:23-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Because measles virus nucleocapsid gene (MVNP) and the p62(P392L) mutation are implicated in PD, marrows from 12 PD patients harboring p62(P392L) ..
  29. Lin Y, Wu H, Chen D, Chen P. Hepatitis B virus nucleocapsid but not free core antigen controls viral clearance in mice. J Virol. 2012;86:9266-73 pubmed publisher
    ..HBcAg is the main structural protein of HBV icosahedral nucleocapsid. A mutant HBV DNA which expresses an assembly-defective HBcAg, HBcAgY132A, surprisingly prolonged HBV surface ..
  30. Li Z, Lin Q, Chen J, Wu J, Lim T, Loh S, et al. Shotgun identification of the structural proteome of shrimp white spot syndrome virus and iTRAQ differentiation of envelope and nucleocapsid subproteomes. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2007;6:1609-20 pubmed
    ..and absolute quantification), a quantitative proteomics strategy, was used to distinguish envelope proteins and nucleocapsid proteins of WSSV...
  31. Bharat T, Riches J, Kolesnikova L, Welsch S, Krähling V, Davey N, et al. Cryo-electron tomography of Marburg virus particles and their morphogenesis within infected cells. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001196 pubmed publisher
    ..show that the N-terminal domain of the nucleoprotein contains the minimal assembly determinants for a helical nucleocapsid with variable number of proteins per turn...
  32. Sealy R, Surman S, Hurwitz J, Coleclough C. Antibody response to influenza infection of mice: different patterns for glycoprotein and nucleocapsid antigens. Immunology. 2003;108:431-9 pubmed
    ..Here we show that these AFC are directed only against viral glycoprotein, and not nucleocapsid antigens...
  33. Huang R, Xie Y, Zhang J, Shi Z. A novel envelope protein involved in White spot syndrome virus infection. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:1357-61 pubmed
    ..The mortality curves showed that the VP76 antiserum could partially attenuate infection with WSSV, suggesting that VP76 is an envelope protein involved in WSSV infection. ..
  34. Kuo T, Hu C, Chen Y, Hong M, Jeng K, Liang C, et al. HBV replication is significantly reduced by IL-6. J Biomed Sci. 2009;16:41 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results will provide important information to better understand the role of IL-6 in the course of HBV infection. ..
  35. Hogue I, Hoppe A, Ono A. Quantitative fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag-Gag interaction: relative contributions of the CA and NC domains and membrane binding. J Virol. 2009;83:7322-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies demonstrated the importance of the capsid C-terminal domain (CA-CTD), nucleocapsid (NC), and membrane association in Gag-Gag interactions, but the relationships between these factors remain ..
  36. Hurst K, Kuo L, Koetzner C, Ye R, Hsue B, Masters P. A major determinant for membrane protein interaction localizes to the carboxy-terminal domain of the mouse coronavirus nucleocapsid protein. J Virol. 2005;79:13285-97 pubmed
    The two major constituents of coronavirus virions are the membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins...
  37. Paweska J, van Vuren P, Kemp A, Buss P, Bengis R, Gakuya F, et al. Recombinant nucleocapsid-based ELISA for detection of IgG antibody to Rift Valley fever virus in African buffalo. Vet Microbiol. 2008;127:21-8 pubmed
    ..An indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (I-ELISA) based on the recombinant nucleocapsid protein (rNp) of RVFV was validated for the detection of specific IgG antibodies in African buffalo...
  38. Nguyen D, Hu J. Reverse transcriptase- and RNA packaging signal-dependent incorporation of APOBEC3G into hepatitis B virus nucleocapsids. J Virol. 2008;82:6852-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we provide evidence that the N-terminal domain of A3G is required for packaging into HBV nucleocapsids. ..
  39. Gil L, Bernardo L, Pav n A, Izquierdo A, Vald s I, Lazo L, et al. Recombinant nucleocapsid-like particles from dengue-2 induce functional serotype-specific cell-mediated immunity in mice. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:1204-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present work, a new formulation of nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs) obtained from the recombinant dengue-2 capsid protein was evaluated in mice to determine ..
  40. Barabas O, Rumlova M, Erdei A, Pongrácz V, Pichova I, Vertessy B. dUTPase and nucleocapsid polypeptides of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus form a fusion protein in the virion with homotrimeric organization and low catalytic efficiency. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:38803-12 pubmed
    ..frame-shifts during expression of retroviral proteins provide a unique possibility for covalent joining of nucleocapsid (NC) and dUTPase within Gag-Pro polyproteins...
  41. Bhella D, Ralph A, Yeo R. Conformational flexibility in recombinant measles virus nucleocapsids visualised by cryo-negative stain electron microscopy and real-space helical reconstruction. J Mol Biol. 2004;340:319-31 pubmed
    ..The virus has a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome that is encapsidated by the nucleocapsid protein (N) to form a helical ribonucleoprotein complex known as the nucleocapsid...
  42. Schmitt A, Lamb R. Escaping from the cell: assembly and budding of negative-strand RNA viruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2004;283:145-96 pubmed
  43. Huiskonen J, de Haas F, Bubeck D, Bamford D, Fuller S, Butcher S. Structure of the bacteriophage phi6 nucleocapsid suggests a mechanism for sequential RNA packaging. Structure. 2006;14:1039-48 pubmed
    ..This leads to expansion of the polymerase complex, minus and plus strand RNA synthesis, and assembly of the nucleocapsid. The phi6 in vitro assembly and packaging system is a valuable model for dsRNA virus replication...
  44. Bogerd H, Cullen B. Single-stranded RNA facilitates nucleocapsid: APOBEC3G complex formation. RNA. 2008;14:1228-36 pubmed publisher
    Binding of APOBEC3G to the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Gag polyprotein may represent a critical early step in the selective packaging of this antiretroviral factor into HIV virions...
  45. Lu M, Isogawa M, Xu Y, Hilken G. Immunization with the gene expressing woodchuck hepatitis virus nucleocapsid protein fused to cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 leads to enhanced specific immune responses in mice and woodchucks. J Virol. 2005;79:6368-76 pubmed
    ..Plasmids expressing the nucleocapsid protein (WHcAg) and e antigen (WHeAg) of woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) alone or in fusion to the ..
  46. Vorreiter J, Leifer I, Rösler C, Jackevica L, Pumpens P, Nassal M. Monoclonal antibodies providing topological information on the duck hepatitis B virus core protein and avihepadnaviral nucleocapsid structure. J Virol. 2007;81:13230-4 pubmed
    ..These data fully support key features of the model...
  47. Narayanan K, Chen C, Maeda J, Makino S. Nucleocapsid-independent specific viral RNA packaging via viral envelope protein and viral RNA signal. J Virol. 2003;77:2922-7 pubmed
    ..any of the enveloped RNA viruses studied to date, recognition of a specific RNA packaging signal by the virus's nucleocapsid (N) protein is the first step described in the process of viral RNA packaging...
  48. Shi Y, Yi Y, Li P, Kuang T, Li L, Dong M, et al. Diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) by detection of SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid antibodies in an antigen-capturing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:5781-2 pubmed
    Recombinant severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus nucleocapsid protein was employed to establish an antigen-capturing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antinucleocapsid protein antibodies could be detected in 68...
  49. Gedvilaite A, Zvirbliene A, Staniulis J, Sasnauskas K, Kruger D, Ulrich R. Segments of puumala hantavirus nucleocapsid protein inserted into chimeric polyomavirus-derived virus-like particles induce a strong immune response in mice. Viral Immunol. 2004;17:51-68 pubmed
    ..demonstrate that the insertion of 45 or 120 amino acid-long segments from the N-terminus of Puumala hantavirus nucleocapsid protein into sites 1 (amino acids 80-89) and 4 (amino acids 288-295) of VP1 allowed the highly efficient ..
  50. Hu K, Beck J, Nassal M. SELEX-derived aptamers of the duck hepatitis B virus RNA encapsidation signal distinguish critical and non-critical residues for productive initiation of reverse transcription. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:4377-89 pubmed
  51. Hoenen T, Groseth A, Kolesnikova L, Theriault S, Ebihara H, Hartlieb B, et al. Infection of naive target cells with virus-like particles: implications for the function of ebola virus VP24. J Virol. 2006;80:7260-4 pubmed publisher
    ..However, current systems depend on the expression of viral helper nucleocapsid proteins in target cells, thus making it impossible to determine whether ribonucleoprotein complexes ..
  52. Wu G, Zheng X, Yin C, Jiang D, Zhu L, Liu Y, et al. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication by Bay 41-4109 and its association with nucleocapsid disassembly. J Chemother. 2008;20:458-67 pubmed
    ..The core protein assembled in a misdirected manner cannot function effectively. Our results suggest that, based on its particular activities, Bay 41-4109 is a promising anti-HBV candidate...
  53. Wang S, Noonan K, Aldovini A. Nucleocapsid-RNA interactions are essential to structural stability but not to assembly of retroviruses. J Virol. 2004;78:716-23 pubmed
    ..type 1 mutant particles (which are highly unstable and break down soon after release from the cell) lacking nucleocapsid (NC) core protein-mediated RNA incorporation are produced efficiently and can be recovered at the normal ..
  54. Che X, Qiu L, Pan Y, Wen K, Hao W, Zhang L, et al. Sensitive and specific monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme immunoassay for detection of nucleocapsid antigen in sera from patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:2629-35 pubmed
    ..The nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is abundantly expressed in infected-cell culture filtrate ..
  55. Leonard V, Kohl A, Osborne J, McLees A, Elliott R. Homotypic interaction of Bunyamwera virus nucleocapsid protein. J Virol. 2005;79:13166-72 pubmed
    The bunyavirus nucleocapsid protein, N, plays a central role in viral replication in encapsidating the three genomic RNA segments to form functional templates for transcription and replication by the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase...
  56. Fan H, Ooi A, Tan Y, Wang S, Fang S, Liu D, et al. The nucleocapsid protein of coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus: crystal structure of its N-terminal domain and multimerization properties. Structure. 2005;13:1859-68 pubmed
    The coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein packages viral genomic RNA into a ribonucleoprotein complex. Interactions between N proteins and RNA are thus crucial for the assembly of infectious virus particles...
  57. Jayaram H, Fan H, Bowman B, Ooi A, Jayaram J, Collisson E, et al. X-ray structures of the N- and C-terminal domains of a coronavirus nucleocapsid protein: implications for nucleocapsid formation. J Virol. 2006;80:6612-20 pubmed
    ..In these enveloped viruses, the filamentous nucleocapsid is formed by the association of nucleocapsid (N) protein with single-stranded viral RNA...
  58. Nikolaitchik O, Gorelick R, Leavitt M, Pathak V, HU W. Functional complementation of nucleocapsid and late domain PTAP mutants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 during replication. Virology. 2008;375:539-49 pubmed publisher
    During human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) assembly, the nucleocapsid (NC) and the PTAP motif in p6 of Gag play important roles in RNA encapsidation and virus release, respectively...
  59. Yang Q, Maluf N, Catalano C. Packaging of a unit-length viral genome: the role of nucleotides and the gpD decoration protein in stable nucleocapsid assembly in bacteriophage lambda. J Mol Biol. 2008;383:1037-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the poorly hydrolyzed ATP analog ATP-gammaS only partially stabilizes the nucleocapsid, and a DNA is released in "quantized" steps...
  60. Lu X, Tran T, Simsek E, Block T. The alkylated imino sugar, n-(n-Nonyl)-deoxygalactonojirimycin, reduces the amount of hepatitis B virus nucleocapsid in tissue culture. J Virol. 2003;77:11933-40 pubmed
    ..Although the cellular and viral mediators of this inhibition are not known, depletion of nucleocapsid has been attributed to some other compounds as well as interferon's mechanism of anti-HBV action...
  61. Andersen E, Contera S, Knudsen B, Damgaard C, Besenbacher F, Kjems J. Role of the trans-activation response element in dimerization of HIV-1 RNA. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:22243-9 pubmed
    ..response element (TAR) that functions as a strong dimerization site when transiently exposed to the viral nucleocapsid protein...
  62. Luo H, Chen J, Chen K, Shen X, Jiang H. Carboxyl terminus of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein: self-association analysis and nucleic acid binding characterization. Biochemistry. 2006;45:11827-35 pubmed
    Coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein envelops the genomic RNA to form long helical nucleocapsid during virion assembly...
  63. Xu G, Weber P, Hu Q, Xue H, Audry L, Li C, et al. WELYSSA: a simple tool using mouse monoclonal antibodies for the detection of lyssavirus nucleocapsid in rabies suspected specimens. Dev Biol (Basel). 2008;131:555-61 pubmed
    ..It included a panel of 1,660 specimens received for rabies diagnostic testing, and was found to be highly specific (99.9%) and sensitive (97.0%) when compared to other recommended rabies diagnostic methods...
  64. Grohmann D, Godet J, Mely Y, Darlix J, Restle T. HIV-1 nucleocapsid traps reverse transcriptase on nucleic acid substrates. Biochemistry. 2008;47:12230-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Numerous studies have shown that the viral nucleocapsid (NC) protein has a vital impact on various steps during reverse transcription, which is crucial for virus ..
  65. Longhi S. Nucleocapsid structure and function. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009;329:103-28 pubmed
    ..single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome is encapsidated by the nucleoprotein (N) to form a helical nucleocapsid. This ribonucleoproteic complex is the substrate for both transcription and replication...
  66. Perlman D, Hu J. Duck hepatitis B virus virion secretion requires a double-stranded DNA genome. J Virol. 2003;77:2287-94 pubmed
  67. Schäfer A, Bogerd H, Cullen B. Specific packaging of APOBEC3G into HIV-1 virions is mediated by the nucleocapsid domain of the gag polyprotein precursor. Virology. 2004;328:163-8 pubmed
    ..of APOBEC3G into HIV-1 virions is mediated by the specific interaction of APOBEC3G with the carboxy-terminal nucleocapsid/p6 domain of the Gag polyprotein precursor...
  68. Vanlandschoot P, Van Houtte F, Ulrichts P, Tavernier J, Leroux Roels G. Immunostimulatory potential of hepatitis B nucleocapsid preparations: lipopolysaccharide contamination should not be overlooked. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:323-31 pubmed
    The nucleocapsid of hepatitis B virus (HBV) allows insertions of heterologous peptides and even complete proteins...
  69. Cowton V, Fearns R. Evidence that the respiratory syncytial virus polymerase is recruited to nucleotides 1 to 11 at the 3' end of the nucleocapsid and can scan to access internal signals. J Virol. 2005;79:11311-22 pubmed
    ..Data are presented which suggest that following recruitment to a promoter at the 3' end of Le, the polymerase is able to scan and respond to a promoter signal embedded within the RNA template...
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    ..a defect in particle production exhibited by an HIV-1 proviral mutant with a severe deletion in the RNA-binding nucleocapsid (NC) region of Gag, NX, could be reversed by eliminating its protease activity...
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    ..RNA of negative-strand RNA viruses, such as vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), is completely enwrapped by the nucleocapsid protein (N) in every stage of virus infection...
  72. Alce T, Popik W. APOBEC3G is incorporated into virus-like particles by a direct interaction with HIV-1 Gag nucleocapsid protein. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:34083-6 pubmed
    ..This interaction is mediated by the Gag nucleocapsid protein NC, and the N-terminal part of NC is most critical for this interaction...
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    A specific interaction between the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the Gag polyprotein and the RNA encapsidation signal (Psi) is required for preferential incorporation of the retroviral genomic RNA into the assembled virion...
  74. Lalibert Gagn M, Lecours K, Gagn S, Leclerc D. The F13 residue is critical for interaction among the coat protein subunits of papaya mosaic virus. FEBS J. 2008;275:1474-84 pubmed publisher
    Papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) coat protein (CP) in Escherichia coli was previously showed to self-assemble in nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs) that were similar in shape and appearance to the native virus...
  75. Fang M, Nie Y, Theilmann D. AcMNPV EXON0 (AC141) which is required for the efficient egress of budded virus nucleocapsids interacts with beta-tubulin. Virology. 2009;385:496-504 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the egress of AcMNPV budded virus may be facilitated by the interaction of EXON0 with beta-tubulin and microtubules...
  76. Wallace G, Cheng Mayer C, Schito M, Fletcher P, Miller Jenkins L, Hayashi R, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid inhibitors impede trans infection in cellular and explant models and protect nonhuman primates from infection. J Virol. 2009;83:9175-82 pubmed publisher
    ..that the S-acyl-2-mercaptobenzamide thioester (SAMT) class of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nucleocapsid protein (NCp7) inhibitors was able to prevent transmission of HIV-1 from infected cells, including primary ..
  77. Tang J, Jose J, Chipman P, Zhang W, Kuhn R, Baker T. Molecular links between the E2 envelope glycoprotein and nucleocapsid core in Sindbis virus. J Mol Biol. 2011;414:442-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The N-termini of the CPs form a contiguous network that interconnects 12 pentameric and 30 hexameric CP capsomers. A single glycoprotein spike cross-links three neighboring CP capsomers as might occur during initiation of virus budding...
  78. Kuo S, Kao H, Hou M, Wang C, Lin S, Su H. Evolution of infectious bronchitis virus in Taiwan: positively selected sites in the nucleocapsid protein and their effects on RNA-binding activity. Vet Microbiol. 2013;162:408-18 pubmed publisher
    ..similar to Chinese (CH) IBVs, exhibit a genetic rearrangement with the American (US) IBV at the 5' end of the nucleocapsid (N) gene...
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    During viral infection, fusion of the viral envelope with endosomal membranes and nucleocapsid release were thought to be concomitant events...
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  81. Paweska J, Jansen van Vuren P, Swanepoel R. Validation of an indirect ELISA based on a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Rift Valley fever virus for the detection of IgG antibody in humans. J Virol Methods. 2007;146:119-24 pubmed
    An indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (I-ELISA) based on the recombinant nucleocapsid protein (rNp) of Rift Valley fever virus was validated for the detection of specific IgG antibody in human sera...
  82. Dutta N, Mazumdar K, Lee B, Baek M, Kim D, Na Y, et al. Search for potential target site of nucleocapsid gene for the design of an epitope-based SARS DNA vaccine. Immunol Lett. 2008;118:65-71 pubmed publisher
    It is believed today that nucleocapsid protein (N) of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV is one of the most promising antigen candidates for vaccine design...
  83. Kingston R, Gay L, Baase W, Matthews B. Structure of the nucleocapsid-binding domain from the mumps virus polymerase; an example of protein folding induced by crystallization. J Mol Biol. 2008;379:719-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The template for the polymerase is the nucleocapsid, a filamentous protein-RNA complex harboring the viral genome...
  84. Wang L, Yi J, Zhu S, Li B, Chen Y, Shen W, et al. Identification of a single-nucleocapsid baculovirus isolated from Clanis bilineata tsingtauica (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Arch Virol. 2008;153:1557-61 pubmed publisher
    ..nucleopolyhedrovirus (ClbiSNPV) occlusion bodies (OBs) showed several virions (up to 16) with a single nucleocapsid packaged within a single viral envelope. The diameter of the OBs was 0.77-1.7 mum with a mean of 1.13 +/- 0...
  85. Nayak D, Panda D, Das S, Luo M, Pattnaik A. Single-amino-acid alterations in a highly conserved central region of vesicular stomatitis virus N protein differentially affect the viral nucleocapsid template functions. J Virol. 2009;83:5525-34 pubmed publisher
    The nucleocapsid protein (N) of vesicular stomatitis virus and other rhabdoviruses plays a central role in the assembly and template functions of the viral N-RNA complex...
  86. Gil L, Lopez C, Lazo L, Valdes I, Marcos E, Alonso R, et al. Recombinant nucleocapsid-like particles from dengue-2 virus induce protective CD4+ and CD8+ cells against viral encephalitis in mice. Int Immunol. 2009;21:1175-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs) adjuvanted with alum did not induce antiviral antibodies...
  87. Roldan A, Warren O, Russell R, Liang C, Wainberg M. A HIV-1 minimal gag protein is superior to nucleocapsid at in vitro annealing and exhibits multimerization-induced inhibition of reverse transcription. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:17488-96 pubmed
    ..During annealing, the nucleocapsid (NC) protein enhances the unwinding of tertiary structures within both RNA molecules...
  88. Hong E, Perera R, Kuhn R. Alphavirus capsid protein helix I controls a checkpoint in nucleocapsid core assembly. J Virol. 2006;80:8848-55 pubmed
    The assembly of the alphavirus nucleocapsid core has been investigated using an in vitro assembly system...
  89. Nakanishi A, Itoh N, Li P, Handa H, Liddington R, Kasamatsu H. Minor capsid proteins of simian virus 40 are dispensable for nucleocapsid assembly and cell entry but are required for nuclear entry of the viral genome. J Virol. 2007;81:3778-85 pubmed
    ..Further, the nucleocapsids' ability to enter cells implies that Vp1 contains the major determinants for cell attachment and entry. We propose that the major role of Vp2/3 in infectivity is to mediate the nuclear entry of viral DNA...
  90. Xu H, Yao L, Lu S, Qi Y. Host filamentous actin is associated with Heliothis armigera single nucleopolyhedrosis virus (HaSNPV) nucleocapsid transport to the host nucleus. Curr Microbiol. 2007;54:199-206 pubmed
    ..the nucleocapsids was not inhibited in colchicin-treated cells, demonstrating that the transportation of HaSNPV nucleocapsid from the cytoplasm to the nucleus was associated with actin filaments but not with microtubules, a conclusion ..
  91. Puro R, Schneider R. Tumor necrosis factor activates a conserved innate antiviral response to hepatitis B virus that destabilizes nucleocapsids and reduces nuclear viral DNA. J Virol. 2007;81:7351-62 pubmed
    ..These results define a novel antiviral mechanism mediated by TNF against multiple types of HBVs in different species...
  92. Buser C, Fleischer F, Mertens T, Michel D, Schmidt V, Walther P. Quantitative investigation of murine cytomegalovirus nucleocapsid interaction. J Microsc. 2007;228:78-87 pubmed
    ..Thereby, a quantification is provided for the effect that the deletion of M97 leads to a loss of typical nucleocapsid clustering in MCMV-infected nuclei.