rubella virus

Summary

Summary: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.

Top Publications

  1. Robinson Agramonte M, Reiber H, Cabrera Gomez J, Galvizu R. Intrathecal polyspecific immune response to neurotropic viruses in multiple sclerosis: a comparative report from Cuban patients. Acta Neurol Scand. 2007;115:312-8 pubmed
    ..Intrathecal measles(M)- rubella(R)- and varicella zoster(Z)-antibody synthesis in German and Cuban multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are compared considering the different rubella epidemiology in the tropics...
  2. Abernathy E, Chen M, Bera J, Shrivastava S, Kirkness E, Zheng Q, et al. Analysis of whole genome sequences of 16 strains of rubella virus from the United States, 1961-2009. Virol J. 2013;10:32 pubmed publisher
    b>Rubella virus is the causative agent of rubella, a mild rash illness, and a potent teratogenic agent when contracted by a pregnant woman. Global rubella control programs target the reduction and elimination of congenital rubella syndrome...
  3. Stunf S, Petrovec M, Zigon N, Hawlina M, Kraut A, de Groot Mijnes J, et al. High concordance of intraocular antibody synthesis against the rubella virus and Fuchs heterochromic uveitis syndrome in Slovenia. Mol Vis. 2012;18:2909-14 pubmed
    To prospectively study the relationship between Fuchs heterochromic uveitis syndrome (FHUS) and intraocular production of specific antibodies against the rubella virus (RV) in Slovenia.
  4. Domegan L, Atkins G. Apoptosis induction by the Therien and vaccine RA27/3 strains of rubella virus causes depletion of oligodendrocytes from rat neural cell cultures. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:2135-43 pubmed
    The induction of cell death by the Therien strain of rubella virus (RVT), and the vaccine RA27/3 strain, was investigated in mixed glial cell cultures derived from the rat CNS...
  5. Zheng D, Zhou Y, Zhao K, Han Y, Frey T. Characterization of genotype II Rubella virus strains. Arch Virol. 2003;148:1835-50 pubmed
    Two genotypes of Rubella virus have been described that differ by 8-9% at the nucleotide level in the E1 glycoprotein gene...
  6. Ilkow C, Weckbecker D, Cho W, Meier S, Beatch M, Goping I, et al. The rubella virus capsid protein inhibits mitochondrial import. J Virol. 2010;84:119-30 pubmed publisher
    The rubella virus (RV) capsid is an RNA-binding protein that functions in nucleocapsid assembly at the Golgi complex, the site of virus budding...
  7. Wensing B, Relvas L, Caspers L, Valentincic N, Stunf S, de Groot Mijnes J, et al. Comparison of rubella virus- and herpes virus-associated anterior uveitis: clinical manifestations and visual prognosis. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:1905-10 pubmed publisher
    To compare the clinical characteristics and visual prognosis of patients with anterior uveitis (AU) and intraocular fluid analysis positive for rubella virus (RV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), or varicella zoster virus (VZV).
  8. Katow S. Molecular epidemiology of rubella virus in Asia: utility for reduction in the burden of diseases due to congenital rubella syndrome. Pediatr Int. 2004;46:207-13 pubmed
    ..order to develop a control program to reduce the number of CRS cases in Asian countries, it is necessary to conduct a survey of rubella and CRS cases, and to then determine the genotype of the circulating rubella virus in each country.
  9. Nedeljkovic J, Jovanovic T, Oker Blom C. Maturation of IgG avidity to individual rubella virus structural proteins. J Clin Virol. 2001;22:47-54 pubmed
    the structural proteins of rubella virus, the capsid protein C and the envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 were produced in lepidopteran insect cells using baculovirus expression vectors...

More Information

Publications94

  1. Atreya C, Kulkarni S, Mohan K. Rubella virus P90 associates with the cytokinesis regulatory protein Citron-K kinase and the viral infection and constitutive expression of P90 protein both induce cell cycle arrest following S phase in cell culture. Arch Virol. 2004;149:779-89 pubmed
    In utero infection of developing fetus by Rubella virus (RV) causes cell division inhibition of critical precursor cells in organogenesis, CNS-associated birth defects and induction of apoptosis in cell culture...
  2. Omer A, Abdel Rahim E, Ali E, Jin L. Primary investigation of 31 infants with suspected congenital rubella syndrome in Sudan. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16:678-82 pubmed publisher
    ..For the first time in Sudan, the rubella virus genome was directly detected in clinical specimens of six CRS cases and two viruses were isolated in cell ..
  3. Virnik K, Ni Y, Berkower I. Enhanced expression of HIV and SIV vaccine antigens in the structural gene region of live attenuated rubella viral vectors and their incorporation into virions. Vaccine. 2013;31:2119-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The rubella vaccine strain readily infects rhesus macaques, and these animals will be the model of choice for testing vector growth in vivo and immunogenicity...
  4. Sakata M, Komase K, Nakayama T. Histidine at position 1042 of the p150 region of a KRT live attenuated rubella vaccine strain is responsible for the temperature sensitivity. Vaccine. 2009;27:234-42 pubmed publisher
    ..JPN/68. Thus, we concluded that one mutation, of the histidine at position 1042 of p150, was essential for the ts phenotype of the KRT strain, and structural proteins of KRT had an additive effect with H1042Y on the ts phenotype. ..
  5. Tzeng W, Frey T. Functional replacement of a domain in the rubella virus p150 replicase protein by the virus capsid protein. J Virol. 2009;83:3549-55 pubmed publisher
    The rubella virus (RUBV) capsid (C) protein rescues mutants with a lethal deletion between two in-frame NotI sites in the P150 replicase gene, a deletion encompassing nucleotides 1685 to 2192 of the RUBV genome and amino acids (aa) 548 ..
  6. Libman M, Behr M, Martel N, Ward B. Rubella susceptibility predicts measles susceptibility: implications for postpartum immunization. Clin Infect Dis. 2000;31:1501-3 pubmed
    ..2% were also measles susceptible, whereas only 0.8% of the rubella-immune women were measles susceptible. Susceptibility to mumps was evenly divided between rubella-susceptible (7.8%) and rubella-immune (7.4%) groups. ..
  7. Kakizawa J, Nitta Y, Yamashita T, Ushijima H, Katow S. Mutations of rubella virus vaccine TO-336 strain occurred in the attenuation process of wild progenitor virus. Vaccine. 2001;19:2793-802 pubmed
    The sequences of the genomes in the TO-336 vaccine strain (TO-336vac) of rubella virus and its wild progenitor virus (TO-336wt) have been determined and compared with each other...
  8. Tzeng W, Frey T. Complementation of a deletion in the rubella virus p150 nonstructural protein by the viral capsid protein. J Virol. 2003;77:9502-10 pubmed
    b>Rubella virus (RUB) replicons with an in-frame deletion of 507 nucleotides between two NotI sites in the P150 nonstructural protein (DeltaNotI) do not replicate (as detected by expression of a reporter gene encoded by the replicon) but ..
  9. Zhu Z, Abernathy E, Cui A, Zhang Y, Zhou S, Zhang Z, et al. Rubella virus genotypes in the People's Republic of China between 1979 and 2007: a shift in endemic viruses during the 2001 Rubella Epidemic. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:1775-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The Chinese rubella virus sequences were categorized into 5 of the 13 rubella virus genotypes, 1a, 1E, 1F, 2A, and 2B; cocirculations of ..
  10. Ege M, Herzum I, Buchele G, Krauss Etschmann S, Lauener R, Bitter S, et al. Specific IgE to allergens in cord blood is associated with maternal immunity to Toxoplasma gondii and rubella virus. Allergy. 2008;63:1505-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Various studies have found reduced prevalences of atopic sensitization and atopic diseases in children previously exposed to infections or living conditions with a high microbial burden, such as the farming environment...
  11. Zheng D, Frey T, Icenogle J, Katow S, Abernathy E, Song K, et al. Global distribution of rubella virus genotypes. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:1523-30 pubmed
    ..RGII viruses were limited to Asia and Europe; RGI viruses were also present in most of the countries where RGII viruses were isolated. ..
  12. Tzeng W, Frey T. Mapping the rubella virus subgenomic promoter. J Virol. 2002;76:3189-201 pubmed
    b>Rubella virus (RUB), the sole member of the Rubivirus genus in the Togaviridae family of positive-strand RNA viruses, synthesizes a single subgenomic (SG) RNA containing sequences from the 3' end of the genomic RNA including the open ..
  13. Mezzasoma L, Bacarese Hamilton T, Di Cristina M, Rossi R, Bistoni F, Crisanti A. Antigen microarrays for serodiagnosis of infectious diseases. Clin Chem. 2002;48:121-30 pubmed
    ..microbial antigens to simultaneously determine in human sera antibodies directed against Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 (ToRCH antigens)...
  14. Matthews J, Tzeng W, Frey T. Analysis of the function of cytoplasmic fibers formed by the rubella virus nonstructural replicase proteins. Virology. 2010;406:212-27 pubmed publisher
    The P150 and P90 replicase proteins of rubella virus (RUBV), a plus-strand RNA Togavirus, produce a unique cytoplasmic fiber network resembling microtubules...
  15. de Visser L, Braakenburg A, Rothova A, De Boer J. Rubella virus-associated uveitis: clinical manifestations and visual prognosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;146:292-7 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the clinical profile of patients with chronic anterior uveitis and intraocular analyses positive for intraocular Rubella virus infection and assess eventual similarities to Fuchs heterochromic uveitis (FHU).
  16. Reef S, Frey T, Theall K, Abernathy E, Burnett C, Icenogle J, et al. The changing epidemiology of rubella in the 1990s: on the verge of elimination and new challenges for control and prevention. JAMA. 2002;287:464-72 pubmed
    ..These changes and molecular typing suggest that the United States is on the verge of elimination of the disease. To prevent future rubella outbreaks and CRS, current strategies must be enhanced and new strategies developed. ..
  17. Rothova A. The riddle of fuchs heterochromic uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;144:447-8 pubmed
  18. Hübschen J, Kremer J, de Landtsheer S, Muller C. A multiplex TaqMan PCR assay for the detection of measles and rubella virus. J Virol Methods. 2008;149:246-50 pubmed publisher
    Measles and rubella virus cause fever/rash diseases that are difficult to differentiate clinically. Both viruses can be detected in the same clinical specimens and are propagated on the same cell cultures...
  19. Kitaichi N, Ariga T, Ohno S, Shimizu T. Acute unilateral conjunctivitis after rubella vaccination: the detection of the rubella genome in the inflamed conjunctiva by reverse transcriptase-polymerase-chain reaction. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:1436-7 pubmed
  20. Vauloup Fellous C, Hübschen J, Abernathy E, Icenogle J, Gaidot N, Dubreuil P, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of rubella viruses involved in congenital rubella infections in France between 1995 and 2009. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:2530-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The coding region of the rubella virus E1 gene was amplified directly from clinical specimens by reverse transcriptase PCR, and the resulting DNA ..
  21. Adamo M, Zapata M, Frey T. Analysis of gene expression in fetal and adult cells infected with rubella virus. Virology. 2008;370:1-11 pubmed
    Congenital infection with rubella virus (RUB) leads to persistent infection and congenital defects and we showed previously that primary human fetal fibroblasts did not undergo apoptosis when infected with RUB, which could promote fetal ..
  22. Claus C, Tzeng W, Liebert U, Frey T. Rubella virus-induced superinfection exclusion studied in cells with persisting replicons. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:2769-73 pubmed
    For the first time, homologous superinfection exclusion was documented for rubella virus (RUB) by using Vero cells harbouring persisting RUB replicons...
  23. Liang Y, Gillam S. Rubella virus RNA replication is cis-preferential and synthesis of negative- and positive-strand RNAs is regulated by the processing of nonstructural protein. Virology. 2001;282:307-19 pubmed
    b>Rubella virus (RV) genome encodes nonstructural protein (NSP) in a large open reading frame at its 5' end. It is translated into p200 and further processed into p150 and p90...
  24. Shyamala G, Malathi J, Moses Y, Therese K, Madhavan H. Nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for the detection of rubella virus in clinical specimens. Indian J Med Res. 2007;125:73-8 pubmed
    b>Rubella virus (RV) is one of the leading causes of childhood blindness in India. In this study we applied an optimized nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (nRT-PCR) to detect RV in clinical specimens...
  25. Spadaccini A, Virnik K, Ni Y, Prutzman K, Berkower I. Stable expression of a foreign protein by a replication-competent rubella viral vector. Vaccine. 2010;28:1181-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Further progress in expressing exogenous viral antigens in rubella may produce live viral vectors capable of immunizing against viruses for which attenuation is not currently feasible...
  26. Figueiredo C, Oliveira M, Curti S, Afonso A, Frugis Yu A, Araujo J, et al. Epidemiological and molecular characterization of rubella virus isolated in São Paulo, Brazil during 1997-2004. J Med Virol. 2012;84:1831-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Rubella virus (RV) infection during the early stages of pregnancy can lead to serious birth defects, known as the congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)...
  27. Mangala Prasad V, Willows S, Fokine A, Battisti A, Sun S, Plevka P, et al. Rubella virus capsid protein structure and its role in virus assembly and infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:20105-10 pubmed publisher
    b>Rubella virus (RV) is a leading cause of birth defects due to infectious agents. When contracted during pregnancy, RV infection leads to severe damage in fetuses...
  28. Mosquera M, de Ory F, Moreno M, Echevarria J. Simultaneous detection of measles virus, rubella virus, and parvovirus B19 by using multiplex PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:111-6 pubmed
    ..here a multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (RTMNPCR) assay designed to detect and differentiate measles virus, rubella virus, and parvovirus B19...
  29. Weir E, Sider D. A refresher on rubella. CMAJ. 2005;172:1680-1 pubmed
  30. Cooray S, Best J, Jin L. Time-course induction of apoptosis by wild-type and attenuated strains of rubella virus. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1275-9 pubmed
    The time-course of rubella virus (RV)-induced apoptosis was studied in RK13 cells...
  31. Duncan R, Esmaili A, Law L, Bertholet S, Hough C, Hobman T, et al. Rubella virus capsid protein induces apoptosis in transfected RK13 cells. Virology. 2000;275:20-9 pubmed
    b>Rubella virus is an enveloped positive-strand RNA virus that can cause mild to severe birth defects or death in an infected fetus...
  32. Vyse A, Gay N, Hesketh L, Pebody R, Morgan Capner P, Miller E. Interpreting serological surveys using mixture models: the seroepidemiology of measles, mumps and rubella in England and Wales at the beginning of the 21st century. Epidemiol Infect. 2006;134:1303-12 pubmed
    ..Investigations into the efficacy of two doses of a mumps containing vaccine should be a priority during the current epidemic...
  33. Matthews J, Frey T. Analysis of subcellular G3BP redistribution during rubella virus infection. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:267-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Rubella virus (RUBV) replicates slowly and to low titre in vertebrate cultured cells, with minimal cytopathology...
  34. Ilkow C, Goping I, Hobman T. The Rubella virus capsid is an anti-apoptotic protein that attenuates the pore-forming ability of Bax. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001291 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that the multifunctional capsid protein of Rubella virus is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis...
  35. Ovsyannikova I, Jacobson R, Vierkant R, Jacobsen S, Pankratz V, Poland G. The contribution of HLA class I antigens in immune status following two doses of rubella vaccination. Hum Immunol. 2004;65:1506-15 pubmed
    ..b>Rubella virus-specific humoral (serum antibody) immunity and cell-mediated immunity (lymphocyte proliferation) were assessed...
  36. Venczel L, Rota J, Dietz V, Morris Glasgow V, Siqueira M, Quirogz E, et al. The Measles Laboratory Network in the region of the Americas. J Infect Dis. 2003;187 Suppl 1:S140-5 pubmed
    ..The priority given to the laboratories in the Network must continue in order to ensure that the eradication goal is reached and that validation of the interruption of endemic transmission of measles is documented...
  37. Nokes D, Enquselassie F, Nigatu W, Vyse A, Cohen B, Brown D, et al. Has oral fluid the potential to replace serum for the evaluation of population immunity levels? A study of measles, rubella and hepatitis B in rural Ethiopia. Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79:588-95 pubmed
    ..To assess the suitability of using oral-fluid samples for determining the prevalence of immunity to vaccine-preventable infections...
  38. Zhou Y, Chen X, Ushijima H, Frey T. Analysis of base and codon usage by rubella virus. Arch Virol. 2012;157:889-99 pubmed publisher
    b>Rubella virus (RUBV), a small, plus-strand RNA virus that is an important human pathogen, has the unique feature that the GC content of its genome (70%) is the highest (by 20%) among RNA viruses...
  39. Cong H, Jiang Y, Tien P. Identification of the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein as a cellular receptor for rubella virus. J Virol. 2011;85:11038-47 pubmed publisher
    b>Rubella virus (RV) is a highly transmissible pathogenic agent that causes the disease rubella. Maternal RV infection during early pregnancy causes the death of the fetus or congenital rubella syndrome in infants...
  40. Claus C, Chey S, Heinrich S, Reins M, Richardt B, Pinkert S, et al. Involvement of p32 and microtubules in alteration of mitochondrial functions by rubella virus. J Virol. 2011;85:3881-92 pubmed publisher
    The interaction of the rubella virus (RV) capsid (C) protein and the mitochondrial p32 protein is believed to participate in virus replication...
  41. Haralambieva I, Dhiman N, Ovsyannikova I, Vierkant R, Pankratz V, Jacobson R, et al. 2'-5'-Oligoadenylate synthetase single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes are associated with variations in immune responses to rubella vaccine. Hum Immunol. 2010;71:383-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Associations between SNPs/haplotypes and rubella virus-specific immune measures were assessed using linear regression methodologies...
  42. Matthews J, Tzeng W, Frey T. Determinants of subcellular localization of the rubella virus nonstructural replicase proteins. Virology. 2009;390:315-23 pubmed publisher
    The rubella virus (RUBV) nonstructural replicase proteins (NSPs), P150 and P90, are proteolytically processed from a P200 precursor...
  43. Ilkow C, Mancinelli V, Beatch M, Hobman T. Rubella virus capsid protein interacts with poly(a)-binding protein and inhibits translation. J Virol. 2008;82:4284-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that the rubella virus (RV) capsid protein binds to poly(A)-binding protein (PABP), a host cell protein that enhances translational ..
  44. Wandinger K, Saschenbrecker S, Steinhagen K, Scheper T, Meyer W, Bartelt U, et al. Diagnosis of recent primary rubella virus infections: significance of glycoprotein-based IgM serology, IgG avidity and immunoblot analysis. J Virol Methods. 2011;174:85-93 pubmed publisher
    Reliable serodiagnosis of rubella virus (RV) infections requires discrimination of specific IgM induced by primary rubella from persistent, reactivated or non-specific IgM reactivity...
  45. Virnik K, Ni Y, Berkower I. Live attenuated rubella viral vectors stably express HIV and SIV vaccine antigens while reaching high titers. Vaccine. 2012;30:5453-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Rubella readily infects rhesus macaques, and these animals will provide an ideal model for testing the new vectors for replication in vivo, immunogenicity, and protection against SIV or SHIV challenge...
  46. De Santis M, Cavaliere A, Straface G, Caruso A. Rubella infection in pregnancy. Reprod Toxicol. 2006;21:390-8 pubmed
    ..World wide, the aim is to perform an adequate primary prevention through vaccination of childbearing age women without specific immunological protection...
  47. Beatch M, Everitt J, Law L, Hobman T. Interactions between rubella virus capsid and host protein p32 are important for virus replication. J Virol. 2005;79:10807-20 pubmed
    The distribution and morphology of mitochondria are dramatically affected during infection with rubella virus (RV)...
  48. de Groot Mijnes J, de Visser L, Rothova A, Schuller M, van Loon A, Weersink A. Rubella virus is associated with fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006;141:212-214 pubmed
    To determine whether rubella virus (RV) is involved in the pathogenesis of Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI).
  49. Law L, Duncan R, Esmaili A, Nakhasi H, Hobman T. Rubella virus E2 signal peptide is required for perinuclear localization of capsid protein and virus assembly. J Virol. 2001;75:1978-83 pubmed
    The rubella virus (RV) structural proteins capsid, E2, and E1 are synthesized as a polyprotein precursor...
  50. Adams S, Tzeng W, Chen M, Frey T. Analysis of intermolecular RNA-RNA recombination by rubella virus. Virology. 2003;309:258-71 pubmed
    To investigate whether rubella virus (RUB) undergoes intermolecular RNA-RNA recombination, cells were cotransfected with pairs of in vitro transcripts from genomic cDNA plasmid vectors engineered to contain nonoverlapping deletions: the ..
  51. Castillo Solorzano C, Carrasco P, Tambini G, Reef S, Brana M, de Quadros C. New horizons in the control of rubella and prevention of congenital rubella syndrome in the Americas. J Infect Dis. 2003;187 Suppl 1:S146-52 pubmed
    Data from the regional measles surveillance system have documented widespread rubella virus circulation in many different countries in the Americas...
  52. Chen M, Zhu Z, Zhang Y, Favors S, Xu W, Featherstone D, et al. An indirect immunocolorimetric assay to detect rubella virus infected cells. J Virol Methods. 2007;146:414-8 pubmed
    An indirect immunocolorimetric assay (ICA) to detect rubella virus infected cells by the naked eye was developed...
  53. Martínez Torres A, Mosquera M, Sanz J, Ramos B, Echevarria J. Phylogenetic analysis of rubella virus strains from an outbreak in Madrid, Spain, from 2004 to 2005. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:158-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This study presents the first data on rubella virus genotypes in Spain...
  54. Battisti A, Yoder J, Plevka P, Winkler D, Prasad V, Kuhn R, et al. Cryo-electron tomography of rubella virus. J Virol. 2012;86:11078-85 pubmed
    b>Rubella virus is the only member of the Rubivirus genus within the Togaviridae family and is the causative agent of the childhood disease known as rubella or German measles...
  55. Vyse A, Jin L. An RT-PCR assay using oral fluid samples to detect rubella virus genome for epidemiological surveillance. Mol Cell Probes. 2002;16:93-7 pubmed
    A reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method was developed for detecting rubella virus (RV) RNA using primer pairs which targeted a variable region of the E1 gene...
  56. Birnbaum A, Tessler H, Schultz K, Farber M, Gao W, Lin P, et al. Epidemiologic relationship between fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis and the United States rubella vaccination program. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;144:424-428 pubmed
    ..To investigate an epidemiologic association between Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI) and the rubella vaccination program in the United States...
  57. Risco C, Carrascosa J, Frey T. Structural maturation of rubella virus in the Golgi complex. Virology. 2003;312:261-9 pubmed
    b>Rubella virus is a small enveloped virus that assembles in association with Golgi membranes...
  58. Ruokonen P, Metzner S, Ucer A, Torun N, Hofmann J, Pleyer U. Intraocular antibody synthesis against rubella virus and other microorganisms in Fuchs' heterochromic cyclitis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2010;248:565-71 pubmed publisher
    Fuchs' heterochromic cyclitis (FHC) is a common intraocular disease of uncertain etiology that has recently been related to rubella virus (RV) infection.
  59. Banatvala J, Brown D. Rubella. Lancet. 2004;363:1127-37 pubmed
    ..Reverse transcriptase PCR and sequencing for diagnosis and molecular epidemiological investigation and detection of rubella-specific IgG and IgM salivary antibody responses in oral fluid are now available...
  60. Okuda M, Yamanaka M, Takahashi T, Ishikawa H, Endoh M, Hirahara F. Positive rates for rubella antibody in pregnant women and benefit of post-partum vaccination in a Japanese perinatal center. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2008;34:168-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This study of pregnant women was undertaken to clarify their immune status for rubella and to evaluate the efficacy of, and adverse reaction to, post-partum rubella vaccination...
  61. Tzeng W, Frey T. Rubella virus capsid protein modulation of viral genomic and subgenomic RNA synthesis. Virology. 2005;337:327-34 pubmed
    The ratio of the subgenomic (SG) to genome RNA synthesized by rubella virus (RUB) replicons expressing the green fluorescent protein reporter gene (RUBrep/GFP) is substantially higher than the ratio of these species synthesized by RUB (4...
  62. Soleimanjahi H, Bamdad T, Fotouhi F, Roustai M, Faghihzadeh S. Prevalence of HI antibody titer against rubella virus to determine the effect of mass vaccination in Tehran. J Clin Virol. 2005;34:153-4 pubmed
    ..Mass vaccination campaigns and Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) have increased vaccine coverage in the world with a substantial impact on the reduction of rubella infections, such as CRS...
  63. Kee S, Cho E, Song J, Park K, Baek L, Song K. Effects of endocytosis inhibitory drugs on rubella virus entry into VeroE6 cells. Microbiol Immunol. 2004;48:823-9 pubmed
    It has been suggested that infectious entry of rubella virus (RV) is conducted by receptor mediated endocytosis...
  64. Suppiah S, Mousa H, Tzeng W, Matthews J, Frey T. Binding of cellular p32 protein to the rubella virus P150 replicase protein via PxxPxR motifs. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:807-16 pubmed publisher
    A proline-rich region (PRR) within the rubella virus (RUBV) P150 replicase protein that contains three SH3 domain-binding motifs (PxxPxR) was investigated for its ability to bind cell proteins...
  65. Claus C, Schönefeld K, Hubner D, Chey S, Reibetanz U, Liebert U. Activity increase in respiratory chain complexes by rubella virus with marginal induction of oxidative stress. J Virol. 2013;87:8481-92 pubmed publisher
    ..A highly complex interaction with mitochondria is exerted by rubella virus (RV), which includes an increase in the mitochondrial membrane potential as a general marker for mitochondrial ..
  66. Tahita M, Hübschen J, Tarnagda Z, Ernest D, Charpentier E, Kremer J, et al. Rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in Burkina Faso. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:164 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the serious consequences of rubella infection during early pregnancy, very little is known about the rubella seroprevalence in a number of African countries including Burkina Faso...
  67. Chey S, Claus C, Liebert U. Validation and application of normalization factors for gene expression studies in rubella virus-infected cell lines with quantitative real-time PCR. J Cell Biochem. 2010;110:118-28 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to identify and validate appropriate reference genes as internal controls for RT-qPCR experiments in rubella virus (RV)-infected Vero and MCF-7 cell lines using SYBR green fluorescence...
  68. Matthews J, Tzeng W, Frey T. Determinants in the maturation of rubella virus p200 replicase polyprotein precursor. J Virol. 2012;86:6457-69 pubmed publisher
    b>Rubella virus (RUBV), a positive-strand RNA virus, replicates its RNA within membrane-associated replication complexes (RCs) in the cytoplasm of infected cells...
  69. Désinor O, Ansèlme R, Laender F, Saint Louis C, Bien Aimé J. Seroprevalence of antibodies against rubella virus in pregnant women in Haiti. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2004;15:147-50 pubmed
    To assess the seroprevalence of immunity to the rubella virus in pregnant women in Haiti attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the State University Hospital, in the capital city of Port-au-Prince, in order to help with ..
  70. Abernathy E, Cabezas C, Sun H, Zheng Q, Chen M, Castillo Solorzano C, et al. Confirmation of rubella within 4 days of rash onset: comparison of rubella virus RNA detection in oral fluid with immunoglobulin M detection in serum or oral fluid. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:182-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Rubella virus infection is typically diagnosed by the identification of rubella virus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in serum, but approximately 50% of serum samples from rubella cases collected on the day of rash onset are ..
  71. Zheng D, Zhu H, Revello M, Gerna G, Frey T. Phylogenetic analysis of rubella virus isolated during a period of epidemic transmission in Italy, 1991-1997. J Infect Dis. 2003;187:1587-97 pubmed
    To study the molecular epidemiology of rubella virus during endemic transmission, phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the E1 gene was done with 31 isolates collected in northern Italy during 1991-1997, a period spanning 3 ..
  72. Featherstone D, Rota P, Icenogle J, Mulders M, Jee Y, Ahmed H, et al. Expansion of the global measles and rubella laboratory network 2005-09. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 1:S491-8 pubmed publisher
    ..follows well-validated, standardized procedures for confirming suspected cases and for monitoring measles and rubella virus transmission patterns...
  73. Siemerink M, Sijssens K, de Groot Mijnes J, De Boer J. Rubella virus-associated uveitis in a nonvaccinated child. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;143:899-900 pubmed
    To report presumed Fuchs heterochromic uveitis (FHU) associated with Rubella virus (RV)-specific intraocular antibody production in a child who was not vaccinated against rubella.
  74. Binnicker M, Jespersen D, Harring J. Multiplex detection of IgM and IgG class antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, and cytomegalovirus using a novel multiplex flow immunoassay. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:1734-8 pubmed publisher
    ..55). Both the BioPlex IgG and IgM assays reduced turnaround time (1.7 h versus 5.5 h by EIA/ELFA for 100 specimens) and eliminated the necessity to manually pipette or aliquot specimens prior to testing...
  75. Suzuki J, Goto H, Komase K, Abo H, Fujii K, Otsuki N, et al. Rubella virus as a possible etiological agent of Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2010;248:1487-91 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether rubella virus is involved in the pathogenesis of Fuchs heterochromic iridocyclitis (FHI).
  76. Jin L, Thomas B. Application of molecular and serological assays to case based investigations of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome. J Med Virol. 2007;79:1017-24 pubmed
    ..In order to comply with recent WHO recommendations for establishing uniform genetic analysis protocols for rubella virus we have developed a new block based PCR assay (PCR-E317), which extends the sequence generated by the block ..
  77. Hannachi N, Marzouk M, Harrabi I, Ferjani A, Ksouri Z, Ghannem H, et al. [Seroprevalence of rubella virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus and parvovirus B19 among pregnant women in the Sousse region, Tunisia]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2011;104:62-7 pubmed publisher
    The aim of the study is to evaluate seroprevalence of rubella virus (RV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), and parvovirus B19 (PB19) in 404 Tunisian pregnant women, and to determine reliability of maternal past ..
  78. Lee J, Bowden D. Rubella virus replication and links to teratogenicity. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2000;13:571-87 pubmed
    b>Rubella virus (RV) is the causative agent of the disease known more popularly as German measles. Rubella is predominantly a childhood disease and is endemic throughout the world...
  79. Zhu Z, Cui A, Wang H, Zhang Y, Liu C, Wang C, et al. Emergence and continuous evolution of genotype 1E rubella viruses in China. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:353-63 pubmed publisher
    ..and estimate the evolutionary rate, molecular clock phylogeny, and demographic history of the predominant rubella virus genotypes circulating in China using Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo phylodynamic analyses...
  80. Law L, Everitt J, Beatch M, Holmes C, Hobman T. Phosphorylation of rubella virus capsid regulates its RNA binding activity and virus replication. J Virol. 2003;77:1764-71 pubmed
    b>Rubella virus is an enveloped positive-strand RNA virus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE: Virions are composed of three structural proteins: a capsid and two membrane-spanning glycoproteins, E2 and E1...
  81. Tzeng W, Zhou Y, Icenogle J, Frey T. Novel replicon-based reporter gene assay for detection of rubella virus in clinical specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:879-85 pubmed
    Proof of concept for a novel diagnostic assay for rubella virus (RUB) based on RUB replicons expressing reporter genes was demonstrated...
  82. Jin L, Vyse A, Brown D. The role of RT-PCR assay of oral fluid for diagnosis and surveillance of measles, mumps and rubella. Bull World Health Organ. 2002;80:76-7 pubmed
  83. Bamgboye A, Afolabi K, Esumeh F, Enweani I. Prevalence of rubella antibody in pregnant women in Ibadan, Nigeria. West Afr J Med. 2004;23:245-8 pubmed
    ..There is a dearth of information on the incidence and prevalence of rubella infection in Nigeria. The risk of congenital rubella in sero-negative pregnant women has been found to produce congenital abnormalities even in developed countries...
  84. Jarius S, Eichhorn P, Jacobi C, Wildemann B, Wick M, Voltz R. The intrathecal, polyspecific antiviral immune response: Specific for MS or a general marker of CNS autoimmunity?. J Neurol Sci. 2009;280:98-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides MS and CNS vasculitis, paraneoplastic neurological disorders (PND) represent the best recognized models of CNS autoimmunity...
  85. Abernathy E, Hübschen J, Muller C, Jin L, Brown D, Komase K, et al. Status of global virologic surveillance for rubella viruses. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 1:S524-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Current challenges are discussed...