sindbis virus

Summary

Summary: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.

Top Publications

  1. Laine M, Luukkainen R, Toivanen A. Sindbis viruses and other alphaviruses as cause of human arthritic disease. J Intern Med. 2004;256:457-71 pubmed
    ..Several factors related to the viruses, their hosts, and global environmental changes may affect the spread of these viruses. All over the world arbovirus-caused diseases have increased, because of global changes. ..
  2. Zhu W, Liang G. Selection and characterization of packaging cell lines for XJ-160 virus. Intervirology. 2009;52:100-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, the construction of PCLs for XJ-160 virus lays a basis for developing alphavirus-derived vector systems. ..
  3. Macdonald M, Machlin E, Albin O, Levy D. The zinc finger antiviral protein acts synergistically with an interferon-induced factor for maximal activity against alphaviruses. J Virol. 2007;81:13509-18 pubmed
    ..Since ZAP expression is induced by IFN, we utilized Sindbis virus (SINV) to investigate the role of other IFN-induced factors in ZAP's inhibitory potential...
  4. Assunção Miranda I, Bozza M, Da Poian A. Pro-inflammatory response resulting from sindbis virus infection of human macrophages: implications for the pathogenesis of viral arthritis. J Med Virol. 2010;82:164-74 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Sindbis virus (SinV), a member of the Alphavirus genus, is the most widely distributed of all known arboviruses...
  5. Molina S, Sanz M, Madan V, Ventoso I, Castello A, Carrasco L. Differential inhibition of cellular and Sindbis virus translation by brefeldin A. Virology. 2007;363:430-6 pubmed
    ..In the present work, we show that translation of subgenomic mRNA from Sindbis virus, which in contrast to cellular translation is resistant to brefeldin A after prolonged treatment...
  6. Kurkela S, Manni T, Myllynen J, Vaheri A, Vapalahti O. Clinical and laboratory manifestations of Sindbis virus infection: prospective study, Finland, 2002-2003. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:1820-9 pubmed
    b>Sindbis virus (SINV) is widespread in Europe, Africa, Australia, and Asia, but clinical infection occurs as epidemics in a few geographically restricted areas...
  7. Ryman K, Meier K, Gardner C, Adegboyega P, Klimstra W. Non-pathogenic Sindbis virus causes hemorrhagic fever in the absence of alpha/beta and gamma interferons. Virology. 2007;368:273-85 pubmed
    ..We examined the contribution of IFNgamma to the protection of adult mice from Sindbis virus (SB)-induced disease by comparing subcutaneous infection of mice lacking receptors for either IFNalpha/beta (..
  8. Myles K, Pierro D, Olson K. Comparison of the transmission potential of two genetically distinct Sindbis viruses after oral infection of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 2004;41:95-106 pubmed
    ..MRE16 and TR339 viruses now represent a well-characterized model system for the further study of virus determinants of vector infection, particularly determinants affecting the midgut escape barrier in Ae. aegypti. ..
  9. Unno Y, Shino Y, Kondo F, Igarashi N, Wang G, Shimura R, et al. Oncolytic viral therapy for cervical and ovarian cancer cells by Sindbis virus AR339 strain. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:4553-60 pubmed
    Recently, the application of replication-competent viruses has been studied as anticancer agents. Sindbis virus (SIN) is an RNA virus that belongs to the Alphavirus genus in the Togaviridae virus family...

More Information

Publications98

  1. Avadhanula V, Weasner B, Hardy G, Kumar J, Hardy R. A novel system for the launch of alphavirus RNA synthesis reveals a role for the Imd pathway in arthropod antiviral response. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000582 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we report the use of a novel system to analyze replication of Sindbis virus (type species of the alphavirus genus) RNA following expression of a Sindbis virus replicon RNA from the fly ..
  2. Tseng J, Zheng Y, Yee H, Levy D, Meruelo D. Restricted tissue tropism and acquired resistance to Sindbis viral vector expression in the absence of innate and adaptive immunity. Gene Ther. 2007;14:1166-74 pubmed
    ..Thus it appears that in vivo, in contrast to the ready transduction of tumor cells, transduction of normal cells by replication-defective Sindbis vector is limited, possibly by a novel mechanism. ..
  3. Gorchakov R, Garmashova N, Frolova E, Frolov I. Different types of nsP3-containing protein complexes in Sindbis virus-infected cells. J Virol. 2008;82:10088-101 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of our study suggest that Sindbis virus (SINV) infection in BHK-21 cells leads to the formation of at least two types of nsP3-containing complexes, ..
  4. Cristea I, Carroll J, Rout M, Rice C, Chait B, Macdonald M. Tracking and elucidating alphavirus-host protein interactions. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:30269-78 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate the utility of using a standard GFP tag to both track viral protein localization and elucidate specific viral-host interactions over time in infected mammalian cells. ..
  5. Sanz M, Castello A, Ventoso I, Berlanga J, Carrasco L. Dual mechanism for the translation of subgenomic mRNA from Sindbis virus in infected and uninfected cells. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4772 pubmed publisher
    Infection of BHK cells by Sindbis virus (SV) gives rise to a profound inhibition of cellular protein synthesis, whereas translation of viral subgenomic mRNA that encodes viral structural proteins, continues for hours...
  6. Perri S, Greer C, Thudium K, Doe B, Legg H, Liu H, et al. An alphavirus replicon particle chimera derived from venezuelan equine encephalitis and sindbis viruses is a potent gene-based vaccine delivery vector. J Virol. 2003;77:10394-403 pubmed
    Alphavirus replicon particle-based vaccine vectors derived from Sindbis virus (SIN), Semliki Forest virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) have been shown to induce robust antigen-specific cellular, humoral, and mucosal ..
  7. Schneider B, Soong L, Zeidner N, Higgs S. Aedes aegypti salivary gland extracts modulate anti-viral and TH1/TH2 cytokine responses to sindbis virus infection. Viral Immunol. 2004;17:565-73 pubmed
    ..In this study, intradermal inoculations of Aedes aegypti salivary gland extract (SGE) and Sindbis virus (SINV) were used to investigate the effect of mosquito feeding on the vertebrate immune response to infection ..
  8. Morizono K, Xie Y, Ringpis G, Johnson M, Nassanian H, Lee B, et al. Lentiviral vector retargeting to P-glycoprotein on metastatic melanoma through intravenous injection. Nat Med. 2005;11:346-52 pubmed
    ..in a living animal through intravenous injection of a lentiviral vector pseudotyped with a modified chimeric Sindbis virus envelope (termed m168)...
  9. Rubach J, Wasik B, Rupp J, Kuhn R, Hardy R, Smith J. Characterization of purified Sindbis virus nsP4 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in vitro. Virology. 2009;384:201-8 pubmed publisher
    The Sindbis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsP4) is responsible for the replication of the viral RNA genome. In infected cells, nsP4 is localized in a replication complex along with the other viral non-structural proteins...
  10. Mukhopadhyay S, Zhang W, Gabler S, Chipman P, Strauss E, Strauss J, et al. Mapping the structure and function of the E1 and E2 glycoproteins in alphaviruses. Structure. 2006;14:63-73 pubmed
    The 9 A resolution cryo-electron microscopy map of Sindbis virus presented here provides structural information on the polypeptide topology of the E2 protein, on the interactions between the E1 and E2 glycoproteins in the formation of a ..
  11. Greene I, Wang E, Deardorff E, Milleron R, Domingo E, Weaver S. Effect of alternating passage on adaptation of sindbis virus to vertebrate and invertebrate cells. J Virol. 2005;79:14253-60 pubmed
    ..To test this hypothesis, Sindbis virus was passaged serially, either in one cell type to eliminate host alteration or alternately between vertebrate (..
  12. Cristea I, Rozjabek H, Molloy K, Karki S, White L, Rice C, et al. Host factors associated with the Sindbis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase: role for G3BP1 and G3BP2 in virus replication. J Virol. 2010;84:6720-32 pubmed publisher
    b>Sindbis virus (SINV) is the prototype member of the Alphavirus genus, whose members cause severe human diseases for which there is no specific treatment...
  13. Tseng J, Hurtado A, Yee H, Levin B, Boivin C, Benet M, et al. Using sindbis viral vectors for specific detection and suppression of advanced ovarian cancer in animal models. Cancer Res. 2004;64:6684-92 pubmed
    ..b>Sindbis virus is known to infect mammalian cells using the Mr 67,000 laminin receptor...
  14. Law L, Albin O, Carroll J, Jones C, Rice C, Macdonald M. Identification of a dominant negative inhibitor of human zinc finger antiviral protein reveals a functional endogenous pool and critical homotypic interactions. J Virol. 2010;84:4504-12 pubmed publisher
    ..ZAP blocks replication of the prototype alphavirus Sindbis virus (SINV) at a step at or before translation of the incoming viral genome...
  15. Laine M, Vainionpaa R, Oksi J, Luukkainen R, Toivanen A. The prevalence of antibodies against Sindbis-related (Pogosta) virus in different parts of Finland. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2003;42:632-6 pubmed
    ..Pogosta disease has been considered to affect mainly middle-aged persons, but our results indicate a high prevalence also among children. ..
  16. Park E, Griffin D. Interaction of Sindbis virus non-structural protein 3 with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in neuronal cells. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:2073-80 pubmed publisher
    ..domain can bind poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), and PAR polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is activated and autoribosylated during Sindbis virus (SINV) infection, it was hypothesized that PARP-1 and nsP3 may interact...
  17. Zhang Y, Burke C, Ryman K, Klimstra W. Identification and characterization of interferon-induced proteins that inhibit alphavirus replication. J Virol. 2007;81:11246-55 pubmed
    ..Previous data from our laboratory have shown that IFN-alpha/beta can limit Sindbis virus (SB) replication through protein kinase R (PKR)-dependent and PKR-independent mechanisms and that one PKR-..
  18. Brummer Korvenkontio M, Vapalahti O, Kuusisto P, Saikku P, Manni T, Koskela P, et al. Epidemiology of Sindbis virus infections in Finland 1981-96: possible factors explaining a peculiar disease pattern. Epidemiol Infect. 2002;129:335-45 pubmed
    Pogosta disease (PD), an epidemic rash-arthritis occurring in late summer is caused by Sindbis virus (SINV) and is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes...
  19. Zhu W, Li J, Tang L, Wang H, Li J, Fu J, et al. Glycoprotein is enough for sindbis virus-derived DNA vector to express heterogenous genes. Virol J. 2011;8:344 pubmed publisher
    ..investigate the necessity and potential application of structural genes for expressing heterogenous genes from Sindbis virus-derived vector, the DNA-based expression vector pVaXJ was constructed by placing the recombinant genome of ..
  20. Gorchakov R, Frolova E, Frolov I. Inhibition of transcription and translation in Sindbis virus-infected cells. J Virol. 2005;79:9397-409 pubmed
    ..Using Sindbis virus (SIN) as a model, we demonstrated that (i) the replication of wild-type SIN strongly affects major cellular ..
  21. Li M, Kwan T, Simmonds H, Stollar V. Synthesis of genomic and subgenomic RNA in mosquito cells infected with two Sindbis virus nsP4 mutants: influence of intracellular nucleoside triphosphate concentrations. J Virol. 2008;82:6880-8 pubmed publisher
    Cells infected with Sindbis virus (SV) make two positive-strand RNAs, a genomic-length RNA (G) RNA and a subgenomic (SG) RNA...
  22. Tamang D, Tseng S, Huang C, Tsao I, Chou S, Higgs S, et al. The use of a double subgenomic Sindbis virus expression system to study mosquito gene function: effects of antisense nucleotide number and duration of viral infection on gene silencing efficiency. Insect Mol Biol. 2004;13:595-602 pubmed
  23. Ziegler L, Yang L, Joo K, Yang H, Baltimore D, Wang P. Targeting lentiviral vectors to antigen-specific immunoglobulins. Hum Gene Ther. 2008;19:861-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We were able to incorporate a model antigen CD20 and a fusogenic protein derived from the Sindbis virus as two distinct molecules into the lentiviral surface...
  24. Sanz M, Castello A, Carrasco L. Viral translation is coupled to transcription in Sindbis virus-infected cells. J Virol. 2007;81:7061-8 pubmed
    During the late phase of Sindbis virus infection, the viral subgenomic mRNA is translated efficiently in BHK cells, whereas host protein synthesis is inhibited...
  25. Griffin D. Recovery from viral encephalomyelitis: immune-mediated noncytolytic virus clearance from neurons. Immunol Res. 2010;47:123-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the model system of Sindbis virus-induced encephalomyelitis in mice, we have shown that immune-mediated clearance of infectious virus from ..
  26. Tseng J, Levin B, Hurtado A, Yee H, Perez de Castro I, Jimenez M, et al. Systemic tumor targeting and killing by Sindbis viral vectors. Nat Biotechnol. 2004;22:70-7 pubmed
    ..The vectors can also target syngeneic and spontaneous tumors in immune-competent mice. We document the anti-tumor specificity of a vector that systemically targets and eradicates tumor cells throughout the body without adverse effects. ..
  27. Park E, Griffin D. The nsP3 macro domain is important for Sindbis virus replication in neurons and neurovirulence in mice. Virology. 2009;388:305-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Sindbis virus (SINV), the prototype alphavirus, contains a macro domain in the highly conserved N-terminal region of nonstructural protein 3 (nsP3). However, the biological role of the macro domain is unclear...
  28. Lenschow D, Lai C, Frias Staheli N, Giannakopoulos N, Lutz A, Wolff T, et al. IFN-stimulated gene 15 functions as a critical antiviral molecule against influenza, herpes, and Sindbis viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:1371-6 pubmed
    ..increased susceptibility to both herpes simplex virus type 1 and murine gammaherpesvirus 68 infection and to Sindbis virus infection...
  29. Sawicki D, Silverman R, Williams B, Sawicki S. Alphavirus minus-strand synthesis and persistence in mouse embryo fibroblasts derived from mice lacking RNase L and protein kinase R. J Virol. 2003;77:1801-11 pubmed
  30. Li C, Gu Y, Andrade D, Liu Y. Susceptibility of colorectal cancer cells to Sindbis virus infection. J Exp Ther Oncol. 2009;8:167-75 pubmed
    b>Sindbis virus (SIN), a member of the Togaviridae family, infects a broad range of cells and has been shown to be an effective anti-tumor agent. The infection efficiency of the virus, however, varies greatly among target cells...
  31. Burdeinick Kerr R, Wind J, Griffin D. Synergistic roles of antibody and interferon in noncytolytic clearance of Sindbis virus from different regions of the central nervous system. J Virol. 2007;81:5628-36 pubmed
    b>Sindbis virus (SINV) is an alphavirus that causes infection of neurons and encephalomyelitis in adult immunocompetent mice. Recovery can occur without apparent neurological damage...
  32. Hafer A, Whittlesey R, Brown D, Hernandez R. Differential incorporation of cholesterol by Sindbis virus grown in mammalian or insect cells. J Virol. 2009;83:9113-21 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Sindbis virus was grown in insect cells under normal culture conditions and in cells depleted of cholesterol by growth in ..
  33. Thal M, Wasik B, Posto J, Hardy R. Template requirements for recognition and copying by Sindbis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Virology. 2007;358:221-32 pubmed publisher
    The Sindbis virus (SIN) nonstructural protein nsP4 possesses the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity required for the replication of the SIN genome and transcription of a subgenomic mRNA during infection...
  34. Pohjala L, Barai V, Azhayev A, Lapinjoki S, Ahola T. A luciferase-based screening method for inhibitors of alphavirus replication applied to nucleoside analogues. Antiviral Res. 2008;78:215-22 pubmed publisher
    ..inhibitors of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replication, and demonstrate the effects of 29 nucleosides on SFV and Sindbis virus replication...
  35. Li M, Stollar V. Identification of the amino acid sequence in Sindbis virus nsP4 that binds to the promoter for the synthesis of the subgenomic RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:9429-34 pubmed
    A gel mobility-shift assay was used to demonstrate the binding of the Sindbis virus transcriptase to the promoter for the synthesis of subgenomic (SG) RNA...
  36. Nargi Aizenman J, Havert M, Zhang M, Irani D, Rothstein J, Griffin D. Glutamate receptor antagonists protect from virus-induced neural degeneration. Ann Neurol. 2004;55:541-9 pubmed
    ..in fatal alphavirus-induced paralytic encephalomyelitis, we treated mice infected with neuroadapted Sindbis virus (NSV) with antagonists of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic ..
  37. Giannakopoulos N, Arutyunova E, Lai C, Lenschow D, Haas A, Virgin H. ISG15 Arg151 and the ISG15-conjugating enzyme UbE1L are important for innate immune control of Sindbis virus. J Virol. 2009;83:1602-10 pubmed publisher
    ..of mISG15 protected alpha/beta-IFN-receptor-deficient (IFN-alphabetaR(-/-)) mice from lethality following Sindbis virus infection, expression of mISG15 R151A conferred no survival benefit...
  38. Yang L, Yang H, Rideout K, Cho T, Joo K, Ziegler L, et al. Engineered lentivector targeting of dendritic cells for in vivo immunization. Nat Biotechnol. 2008;26:326-34 pubmed publisher
    ..To target dendritic cells, we enveloped the lentivector with a viral glycoprotein from Sindbis virus engineered to be DC-SIGN-specific...
  39. Aires da Silva F, Costa M, Corte Real S, Goncalves J. Cell type-specific targeting with sindbis pseudotyped lentiviral vectors displaying anti-CCR5 single-chain antibodies. Hum Gene Ther. 2005;16:223-34 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, this strategy has the potential to become a powerful approach for targeting gene delivery in anti- HIV gene therapy due to the important role of CCR5 expression in disease progression...
  40. Fros J, Liu W, Prow N, Geertsema C, Ligtenberg M, Vanlandingham D, et al. Chikungunya virus nonstructural protein 2 inhibits type I/II interferon-stimulated JAK-STAT signaling. J Virol. 2010;84:10877-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, mutations in CHIKV-nsP2 (P718S) and Sindbis virus (SINV)-nsP2 (P726S) that render alphavirus replicons noncytopathic significantly reduced JAK-STAT inhibition...
  41. Mudiganti U, Hernandez R, Ferreira D, Brown D. Sindbis virus infection of two model insect cell systems--a comparative study. Virus Res. 2006;122:28-34 pubmed
    ..to use the vast array of Drosophila genetic information available for investigations of the interaction of Sindbis virus with an alternate invertebrate host...
  42. Huang P, Guo J, Hwang L. Oncolytic Sindbis virus targets tumors defective in the interferon response and induces significant bystander antitumor immunity in vivo. Mol Ther. 2012;20:298-305 pubmed publisher
    b>Sindbis virus (SBV) has been shown to possess oncolytic potential in many human xenograft tumor models in immunocompromised mice. However, the mechanism underlying the tumor selectivity of SBV remains undetermined...
  43. Bear J, Byrnes A, Griffin D. Heparin-binding and patterns of virulence for two recombinant strains of Sindbis virus. Virology. 2006;347:183-90 pubmed
    E2 is an important determinant of Sindbis virus neurovirulence. Increased heparan sulfate (HS) binding is associated with rapid clearance of viremia and usually with decreased virulence...
  44. Madan V, Sanz M, Carrasco L. Requirement of the vesicular system for membrane permeabilization by Sindbis virus. Virology. 2005;332:307-15 pubmed
    ..Herein, we describe that the entry of Sindbis virus (SV) in BHK cells promotes the co-entry of the macromolecule alpha-sarcin into the cytoplasm, thereby blocking ..
  45. Khoo C, Doty J, Heersink M, Olson K, Franz A. Transgene-mediated suppression of the RNA interference pathway in Aedes aegypti interferes with gene silencing and enhances Sindbis virus and dengue virus type 2 replication. Insect Mol Biol. 2013;22:104-14 pubmed publisher
    ..antiviral pathway in Aedes aegypti that responds to replicating arboviruses such as dengue virus (DENV) and Sindbis virus (SINV). On the one hand, the mosquito's RNAi machinery is capable of completely eliminating DENV2 from Ae...
  46. Kelly E, Moon D, Bowers D. Apoptosis in mosquito salivary glands: Sindbis virus-associated and tissue homeostasis. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:2419-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Adult female Aedes albopictus mosquitoes challenged with increasing titres of Sindbis virus (SINV) via intrathoracic inoculation demonstrated that the injection dosage did not result in significantly ..
  47. Hernandez R, Paredes A. Sindbis virus as a model for studies of conformational changes in a metastable virus and the role of conformational changes in in vitro antibody neutralisation. Rev Med Virol. 2009;19:257-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Sindbis virus has long been the prototypical alphavirus used in the study of assembly of icosahedral viruses which contain membranes...
  48. Fayzulin R, Gorchakov R, Petrakova O, Volkova E, Frolov I. Sindbis virus with a tricomponent genome. J Virol. 2005;79:637-43 pubmed
    We established a system for propagation of Sindbis virus (SIN)-based replicons in tissue culture in the form of a tricomponent genome virus...
  49. Bowers D, Coleman C, Brown D. Sindbis virus-associated pathology in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. 2003;40:698-705 pubmed
    ..dissemination and associated pathology were examined in Aedes albopictus after intrathoracic inoculation of Sindbis virus (SIN), the prototypic Alphavirus...
  50. Brackney D, Scott J, Sagawa F, Woodward J, Miller N, Schilkey F, et al. C6/36 Aedes albopictus cells have a dysfunctional antiviral RNA interference response. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e856 pubmed publisher
    ..C6/36 and Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells were infected with WNV (Flaviviridae), Sindbis virus (SINV, Togaviridae) and La Crosse virus (LACV, Bunyaviridae) and total RNA recovered from cell lysates...
  51. Perera R, Navaratnarajah C, Kuhn R. A heterologous coiled coil can substitute for helix I of the Sindbis virus capsid protein. J Virol. 2003;77:8345-53 pubmed
    ..This sequence, which spans residues 38 to 55 of the Sindbis virus capsid protein, was implicated in stabilizing dimeric contacts initiated through the C-terminal two-thirds of ..
  52. Morizono K, Ku A, Xie Y, Harui A, Kung S, Roth M, et al. Redirecting lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with Sindbis virus-derived envelope proteins to DC-SIGN by modification of N-linked glycans of envelope proteins. J Virol. 2010;84:6923-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously developed targeting lentiviral vectors by pseudotyping with modified Sindbis virus envelope proteins...
  53. Venticinque L, Meruelo D. Sindbis viral vector induced apoptosis requires translational inhibition and signaling through Mcl-1 and Bak. Mol Cancer. 2010;9:37 pubmed publisher
    ..A comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of apoptosis would facilitate the design of more effective vectors for cancer therapy...
  54. Zhu W, Fu S, Wang J, He Y, Tang Q, Liang G. Effects of the nsP2-726 Pro mutation on infectivity and pathogenesis of Sindbis virus derived from a full-length infectious cDNA clone. Virus Res. 2009;142:204-7 pubmed publisher
    The point mutations at residue 726 Pro in the nonstructural gene 2 (nsP2-726P) could make Sindbis virus (SINV) replicons lacking the structural protein-coding region less cytopathic and capable of persisting in some vertebrate cell lines...
  55. Hernandez R, Sinodis C, Horton M, Ferreira D, Yang C, Brown D. Deletions in the transmembrane domain of a sindbis virus glycoprotein alter virus infectivity, stability, and host range. J Virol. 2003;77:12710-9 pubmed
    ..We also found that membrane composition effects protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions during virus assembly...
  56. Morizono K, Xie Y, Helguera G, Daniels T, Lane T, Penichet M, et al. A versatile targeting system with lentiviral vectors bearing the biotin-adaptor peptide. J Gene Med. 2009;11:655-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We have now developed a more stable conjugation strategy utilizing the interaction between avidin and biotin...
  57. Sane J, Kurkela S, Desdouits M, Kalimo H, Mazalrey S, Lokki M, et al. Prolonged myalgia in Sindbis virus infection: case description and in vitro infection of myotubes and myoblasts. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:407-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Sindbis virus (SINV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus found in Eurasia, Africa, and Oceania. Clinical SINV infection is characterized by febrile rash and arthritis and sometimes prolonged arthralgia and myalgia...
  58. Wang L, Fu S, Yang Y, Zhu W, Tang Q, Liang G. [Molecular basis of one-way serological reaction between SINV and XJ-160 virus]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2010;26:228-33 pubmed
    ..Our study identified the SINE2 gene was the determined gene for one way serological reaction between XJ-160 virus and SINV, and this research laid the foundation for further analysis of the genomic structure and function of SINV...
  59. Ventoso I, Sanz M, Molina S, Berlanga J, Carrasco L, Esteban M. Translational resistance of late alphavirus mRNA to eIF2alpha phosphorylation: a strategy to overcome the antiviral effect of protein kinase PKR. Genes Dev. 2006;20:87-100 pubmed
    ..Our findings show the existence of an alternative way to locate the ribosomes on the initiation codon of mRNA that is exploited by a family of viruses to counteract the antiviral effect of PKR...
  60. Garmashova N, Gorchakov R, Volkova E, Paessler S, Frolova E, Frolov I. The Old World and New World alphaviruses use different virus-specific proteins for induction of transcriptional shutoff. J Virol. 2007;81:2472-84 pubmed
    ..e., Sindbis virus (SINV) and Semliki Forest virus (SFV)...
  61. Sane J, Kurkela S, Putkuri N, Huhtamo E, Vaheri A, Vapalahti O. Complete coding sequence and molecular epidemiological analysis of Sindbis virus isolates from mosquitoes and humans, Finland. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:1984-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Sindbis virus (SINV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus, which causes rash-arthritis, particularly in Finland. SINV is transmitted by mosquitoes in Finland but thus far no virus has been isolated from mosquitoes...
  62. Silva da Costa L, Pereira da Silva A, Da Poian A, El Bacha T. Mitochondrial bioenergetic alterations in mouse neuroblastoma cells infected with Sindbis virus: implications to viral replication and neuronal death. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33871 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Sindbis virus, the prototype of and most widespread alphavirus, causes outbreaks of arthritis in humans and serves as a ..
  63. Shapiro J, Varble A, Pham A, tenOever B. Noncanonical cytoplasmic processing of viral microRNAs. RNA. 2010;16:2068-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest the existence of a noncanonical, small-RNA-based activity capable of processing cytoplasmic hairpins and perhaps contributing to the cell's antiviral arsenal...
  64. Guo X, Carroll J, Macdonald M, Goff S, Gao G. The zinc finger antiviral protein directly binds to specific viral mRNAs through the CCCH zinc finger motifs. J Virol. 2004;78:12781-7 pubmed
    ..It specifically inhibits the replication of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MLV) and Sindbis virus (SIN) by preventing the accumulation of viral RNA in the cytoplasm...
  65. Geders T, Smith J, Kuhn R. Role for conserved residues of sindbis virus nonstructural protein 2 methyltransferase-like domain in regulation of minus-strand synthesis and development of cytopathic infection. J Virol. 2008;82:7284-97 pubmed publisher
    The plus-strand RNA genome of Sindbis virus (SINV) encodes four nonstructural proteins (nsP1 to nsP4) that are involved in the replication of the viral RNA...
  66. Derrick S, Yang A, Morris S. Vaccination with a Sindbis virus-based DNA vaccine expressing antigen 85B induces protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infect Immun. 2005;73:7727-35 pubmed
    To improve DNA vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we evaluated the effectiveness of a Sindbis virus-based DNA construct expressing the tuberculosis antigen 85B (Sin85B)...
  67. Burdeinick Kerr R, Griffin D. Gamma interferon-dependent, noncytolytic clearance of sindbis virus infection from neurons in vitro. J Virol. 2005;79:5374-85 pubmed
    ..an in vitro cell culture system that will allow the study of mechanisms of IFN-gamma-mediated control of Sindbis virus (SINV) replication in neurons, we have characterized the susceptibility to SINV infection and IFN-gamma ..
  68. Bick M, Carroll J, Gao G, Goff S, Rice C, Macdonald M. Expression of the zinc-finger antiviral protein inhibits alphavirus replication. J Virol. 2003;77:11555-62 pubmed
    ..inhibits the replication of multiple members of the Alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae, including Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus, Ross River virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus...
  69. Cirimotich C, Scott J, Phillips A, Geiss B, Olson K. Suppression of RNA interference increases alphavirus replication and virus-associated mortality in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. BMC Microbiol. 2009;9:49 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study was to use a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae; genus Alphavirus) that expresses B2 protein of Flock House virus (FHV; family ..
  70. Navaratnarajah C, Kuhn R. Functional characterization of the Sindbis virus E2 glycoprotein by transposon linker-insertion mutagenesis. Virology. 2007;363:134-47 pubmed
    ..of mutants, containing 19 amino acid insertions in the E2 glycoprotein sequence of the prototype alphavirus, Sindbis virus (SINV), was generated...
  71. Cheng W, Lee C, Su Y, Chai C, Chang M, Polo J, et al. Sindbis virus replicon particles encoding calreticulin linked to a tumor antigen generate long-term tumor-specific immunity. Cancer Gene Ther. 2006;13:873-85 pubmed
    ..We concluded that the CRT strategy used in the context of SIN replicon particles facilitated the generation of a highly effective vaccine for cancer prophylaxis and immunotherapy...
  72. Hardy R, Rice C. Requirements at the 3' end of the sindbis virus genome for efficient synthesis of minus-strand RNA. J Virol. 2005;79:4630-9 pubmed
    The 3'-untranslated region of the Sindbis virus genome is 0.3 kb in length with a 19-nucleotide conserved sequence element (3' CSE) immediately preceding the 3'-poly(A) tail...
  73. Orvedahl A, MacPherson S, Sumpter R, Talloczy Z, Zou Z, Levine B. Autophagy protects against Sindbis virus infection of the central nervous system. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;7:115-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that the autophagy gene Atg5 function is critical for protection against lethal Sindbis virus (SIN) infection of the mouse central nervous system...
  74. Zhu W, Yang Y, Fu S, Wang L, Zai Y, Tang Q, et al. Substitutions of 169Lys and 173Thr in nonstructural protein 1 influence the infectivity and pathogenicity of XJ-160 virus. Arch Virol. 2009;154:245-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These mutations might be associated with the RNA methyltransferase (MTase) activity of nsP1...
  75. Gorchakov R, Hardy R, Rice C, Frolov I. Selection of functional 5' cis-acting elements promoting efficient sindbis virus genome replication. J Virol. 2004;78:61-75 pubmed
    The 5' portion of the Sindbis virus (SIN) genome RNA is multifunctional...
  76. Tseng J, Daniels G, Meruelo D. Controlled propagation of replication-competent Sindbis viral vector using suicide gene strategy. Gene Ther. 2009;16:291-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To enhance the safety, several viral vectors, including vectors based on Sindbis virus, were engineered to lose their capability to replicate and spread after transduction of target cells...
  77. Kurkela S, Helve T, Vaheri A, Vapalahti O. Arthritis and arthralgia three years after Sindbis virus infection: clinical follow-up of a cohort of 49 patients. Scand J Infect Dis. 2008;40:167-73 pubmed
    b>Sindbis virus (SINV) emerges as large human outbreaks in northern Europe every 7 years. Similar to many other alphaviruses, SINV is a mosquito-borne causative agent of a rash-arthritis...
  78. Metcalf T, Griffin D. Alphavirus-induced encephalomyelitis: antibody-secreting cells and viral clearance from the nervous system. J Virol. 2011;85:11490-501 pubmed publisher
    b>Sindbis virus (SINV) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) provides a model for understanding the role of the immune response in recovery from alphavirus infection of neurons...
  79. Fayzulin R, Frolov I. Changes of the secondary structure of the 5' end of the Sindbis virus genome inhibit virus growth in mosquito cells and lead to accumulation of adaptive mutations. J Virol. 2004;78:4953-64 pubmed
    Both the 5' end of the Sindbis virus (SIN) genome and its complement in the 3' end of the minus-strand RNA synthesized during virus replication serve as parts of the promoters recognized by the enzymes that comprise the replication ..
  80. Li M, Stollar V. Distinct sites on the Sindbis virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase for binding to the promoters for the synthesis of genomic and subgenomic RNA. J Virol. 2007;81:4371-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Sindbis virus-infected cells make two positive-strand RNAs, a genomic (G) RNA and a subgenomic (SG) RNA...
  81. Gorchakov R, Frolova E, Williams B, Rice C, Frolov I. PKR-dependent and -independent mechanisms are involved in translational shutoff during Sindbis virus infection. J Virol. 2004;78:8455-67 pubmed
    The replication of Sindbis virus (SIN) profoundly affects the metabolism of infected vertebrate cells. One of the main events during SIN infection is the strong inhibition of translation of cellular mRNAs...
  82. Wang H, Gort T, Boyle D, Clem R. Effects of manipulating apoptosis on Sindbis virus infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. J Virol. 2012;86:6546-54 pubmed publisher
    ..When mosquitoes which had been injected with Aeiap1 double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) were orally infected with Sindbis virus (SINV), increased midgut infection and virus dissemination to other organs were observed...
  83. Cook S, Griffin D. Luciferase imaging of a neurotropic viral infection in intact animals. J Virol. 2003;77:5333-8 pubmed
    ..b>Sindbis virus causes encephalomyelitis in mice, and the outcome of infection is determined both by the strain of virus used ..
  84. Campbell C, Keene K, Brackney D, Olson K, Blair C, Wilusz J, et al. Aedes aegypti uses RNA interference in defense against Sindbis virus infection. BMC Microbiol. 2008;8:47 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study was to use Ae. aegypti as a model system to determine how the mosquito's anti-viral RNAi pathway interacts with recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus).
  85. Buckley A, Dawson A, Moss S, Hinsley S, Bellamy P, Gould E. Serological evidence of West Nile virus, Usutu virus and Sindbis virus infection of birds in the UK. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:2807-17 pubmed
    ..b>Sindbis virus, a pathogenic alphavirus that causes arthritis, is widespread throughout Africa, Europe, Asia and Australia, ..
  86. Khoo C, Piper J, Sanchez Vargas I, Olson K, Franz A. The RNA interference pathway affects midgut infection- and escape barriers for Sindbis virus in Aedes aegypti. BMC Microbiol. 2010;10:130 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Sindbis virus (SINV; family: Togaviridae, genus: Alphavirus) is an arbovirus that infects Ae. aegypti in the laboratory...
  87. Patel R, Hardy R. Role for the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt-TOR pathway during sindbis virus replication in arthropods. J Virol. 2012;86:3595-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a system to study Sindbis virus RNA replication in Drosophila melanogaster, we found that the overexpression of Akt enhanced Sindbis virus ..
  88. Linger B, Kunovska L, Kuhn R, Golden B. Sindbis virus nucleocapsid assembly: RNA folding promotes capsid protein dimerization. RNA. 2004;10:128-38 pubmed
    In Sindbis virus, initiation of nucleocapsid core assembly begins with recognition of the encapsidation signal of the viral RNA genome by capsid protein...
  89. Uhlirova M, Foy B, Beaty B, Olson K, Riddiford L, Jindra M. Use of Sindbis virus-mediated RNA interference to demonstrate a conserved role of Broad-Complex in insect metamorphosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15607-12 pubmed
    ..Here we use a recombinant Sindbis virus as a tool to silence BR-C expression in the silkmoth Bombyx mori...