semliki forest virus

Summary

Summary: A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.

Top Publications

  1. Fleeton M, Chen M, Berglund P, Rhodes G, Parker S, Murphy M, et al. Self-replicative RNA vaccines elicit protection against influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and a tickborne encephalitis virus. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:1395-8 pubmed
    ..Mice were immunized with recombinant Semliki Forest virus RNA-encoding envelope proteins from one of 3 viruses: influenza A virus, a tickborne flavivirus (louping ..
  2. Billecocq A, Coudrier D, Boue F, Combes B, Zeller H, Artois M, et al. Expression of the nucleoprotein of the Puumala virus from the recombinant Semliki Forest virus replicon: characterization and use as a potential diagnostic tool. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003;10:658-63 pubmed
    ..We expressed the N protein (nucleoprotein) of Puumala virus via the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicon in mammalian cells and compared its antigenic properties with those of the native antigen ..
  3. Casales E, Rodriguez Madoz J, Ruiz Guillen M, Razquin N, Cuevas Y, Prieto J, et al. Development of a new noncytopathic Semliki Forest virus vector providing high expression levels and stability. Virology. 2008;376:242-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to generate a Semliki Forest virus (SFV) noncytopathic vector we introduced mutations previously described to turn Sindbis virus noncytopathic ..
  4. Pohjala L, Barai V, Azhayev A, Lapinjoki S, Ahola T. A luciferase-based screening method for inhibitors of alphavirus replication applied to nucleoside analogues. Antiviral Res. 2008;78:215-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here a quantitative assay to screen for inhibitors of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replication, and demonstrate the effects of 29 nucleosides on SFV and Sindbis virus replication...
  5. Vihinen H, Ahola T, Tuittila M, Merits A, Kaariainen L. Elimination of phosphorylation sites of Semliki Forest virus replicase protein nsP3. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:5745-52 pubmed
    ..Here we have completed mapping of the individual phosphorylation sites on Semliki Forest virus nsP3 (482 amino acids) by point mutational analysis of threonine residues...
  6. Kalvodova L, Sampaio J, Cordo S, Ejsing C, Shevchenko A, Simons K. The lipidomes of vesicular stomatitis virus, semliki forest virus, and the host plasma membrane analyzed by quantitative shotgun mass spectrometry. J Virol. 2009;83:7996-8003 pubmed publisher
    ..baby hamster kidney cells can be infected by two different viruses, namely, vesicular stomatitis virus and Semliki Forest virus, from the Rhabdoviridae and Togaviridae families, respectively...
  7. Spuul P, Balistreri G, Kääriäinen L, Ahola T. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-, actin-, and microtubule-dependent transport of Semliki Forest Virus replication complexes from the plasma membrane to modified lysosomes. J Virol. 2010;84:7543-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Time course studies with Semliki Forest virus (SFV)-infected cells were combined with live-cell imaging and electron microscopy to reveal that the ..
  8. Siu R, Fragkoudis R, Simmonds P, Donald C, Chase Topping M, Barry G, et al. Antiviral RNA interference responses induced by Semliki Forest virus infection of mosquito cells: characterization, origin, and frequency-dependent functions of virus-derived small interfering RNAs. J Virol. 2011;85:2907-17 pubmed publisher
    ..4 mosquito cells infected with Semliki Forest virus (SFV) (Togaviridae; Alphavirus)...
  9. Laakkonen P, Ahola T, Kaariainen L. The effects of palmitoylation on membrane association of Semliki forest virus RNA capping enzyme. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:28567-71 pubmed
    The nonstructural protein Nsp1 of Semliki Forest virus has guanine-7-methyltransferase and guanylyltransferase-like activities, required in the capping of viral mRNAs...

More Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Liu C, Besanceney C, Song Y, Kielian M. Pseudorevertants of a Semliki forest virus fusion-blocking mutation reveal a critical interchain interaction in the core trimer. J Virol. 2010;84:11624-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is an enveloped alphavirus that infects cells by a low-pH-triggered membrane fusion reaction mediated by the viral E1 protein...
  2. Nordström E, Forsell M, Barnfield C, Bonin E, Hanke T, Sundstrom M, et al. Enhanced immunogenicity using an alphavirus replicon DNA vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:349-54 pubmed
    ..In this study, a Semliki Forest virus replicon DNA vaccine designed for human clinical trials, DREP...
  3. Koschinski A, Wengler G, Wengler G, Repp H. Rare earth ions block the ion pores generated by the class II fusion proteins of alphaviruses and allow analysis of the biological functions of these pores. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:3311-20 pubmed
    ..was made to identify inhibitors for the ion pores generated by the fusion proteins of the alphaviruses Semliki Forest virus and Sindbis virus...
  4. Markosyan R, Kielian M, Cohen F. Fusion induced by a class II viral fusion protein, semliki forest virus E1, is dependent on the voltage of the target cell. J Virol. 2007;81:11218-25 pubmed publisher
    Cells expressing the low pH-triggered class II viral fusion protein E1 of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) were fused to target cells. Fusion was monitored by electrical capacitance and aqueous dye measurements...
  5. Perri S, Driver D, Gardner J, Sherrill S, Belli B, Dubensky T, et al. Replicon vectors derived from Sindbis virus and Semliki forest virus that establish persistent replication in host cells. J Virol. 2000;74:9802-7 pubmed
    ..We report here the isolation of additional variants of both SIN and Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicons encoding the neomycin resistance gene that can establish persistent replication in BHK ..
  6. Oñate A, Donoso G, Moraga Cid G, Folch H, Céspedes S, Andrews E. An RNA vaccine based on recombinant Semliki Forest virus particles expressing the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase protein of Brucella abortus induces protective immunity in BALB/c mice. Infect Immun. 2005;73:3294-300 pubmed
    We constructed infectious but replication-deficient Semliki Forest virus (SFV) particles carrying recombinant RNA encoding Brucella abortus Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD)...
  7. Fazakerley J, Boyd A, Mikkola M, Kääriäinen L. A single amino acid change in the nuclear localization sequence of the nsP2 protein affects the neurovirulence of Semliki Forest virus. J Virol. 2002;76:392-6 pubmed
    The replicase protein nsP2 of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) has a 648RRR nuclear localization signal and is transported to the nucleus. SFV-RDR has a single amino acid change which disrupts this sequence and nsP2 nuclear transport...
  8. Wengler G, Koschinski A, Wengler G, Dreyer F. Entry of alphaviruses at the plasma membrane converts the viral surface proteins into an ion-permeable pore that can be detected by electrophysiological analyses of whole-cell membrane currents. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:173-81 pubmed
    ..Available evidence indicates that the alphavirus E1 protein probably forms these pores. Proteins homologous to the alphavirus E1 protein are present in flaviviruses and hepatitis C virus. ..
  9. Kiiver K, Tagen I, Zusinaite E, Tamberg N, Fazakerley J, Merits A. Properties of non-structural protein 1 of Semliki Forest virus and its interference with virus replication. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1457-66 pubmed publisher
    b>Semliki Forest virus (SFV) non-structural protein 1 (nsP1) is a major component of the virus replicase complex. It has previously been studied in cells infected with virus or using transient or stable expression systems...
  10. Neuvonen M, Ahola T. Differential activities of cellular and viral macro domain proteins in binding of ADP-ribose metabolites. J Mol Biol. 2009;385:212-25 pubmed publisher
    ..2] or in mitochondria [macro domain protein 1 (MDO1)], and compared them with viral macro domains from Semliki Forest virus, hepatitis E virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, and with a yeast macro protein, ..
  11. Kiiver K, Merits A, Sarand I. Novel vectors expressing anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 to study cell death in Semliki Forest virus-infected cells. Virus Res. 2008;131:54-64 pubmed
    b>Semliki Forest virus (SFV, Alphavirus) induce rapid shut down of host cell protein synthesis and apoptotic death of infected vertebrate cells. Data on alphavirus-induced apoptosis are controversial...
  12. Tuittila M, Santagati M, Roytta M, Määttä J, Hinkkanen A. Replicase complex genes of Semliki Forest virus confer lethal neurovirulence. J Virol. 2000;74:4579-89 pubmed
    b>Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is a mosquito-transmitted pathogen of small rodents, and infection of adult mice with SFV4, a neurovirulent strain of SFV, leads to lethal encephalitis in a few days, whereas mice infected with the avirulent A7(..
  13. Sieczkarski S, Whittaker G. Differential requirements of Rab5 and Rab7 for endocytosis of influenza and other enveloped viruses. Traffic. 2003;4:333-43 pubmed
    ..We also examined two other enveloped viruses that are also pH-dependent for entry--Semliki Forest virus and vesicular stomatitis virus...
  14. Briolant S, Garin D, Scaramozzino N, Jouan A, Crance J. In vitro inhibition of Chikungunya and Semliki Forest viruses replication by antiviral compounds: synergistic effect of interferon-alpha and ribavirin combination. Antiviral Res. 2004;61:111-7 pubmed
    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Semliki Forest virus (SFV) were used in our laboratory to screen active antiviral compounds against viruses of the Alphavirus genus...
  15. Qin Z, Zheng Y, Kielian M. Role of conserved histidine residues in the low-pH dependence of the Semliki Forest virus fusion protein. J Virol. 2009;83:4670-7 pubmed publisher
    ..For alphaviruses such as Semliki Forest virus (SFV), acidic pH initiates a series of conformational changes in the heterodimeric virus envelope proteins ..
  16. Zhang X, Kielian M. Mutations that promote furin-independent growth of Semliki Forest virus affect p62-E1 interactions and membrane fusion. Virology. 2004;327:287-96 pubmed publisher
    The enveloped alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infects cells via a low pH-triggered membrane fusion reaction mediated by the E1 protein...
  17. Fazakerley J, Cotterill C, Lee G, Graham A. Virus tropism, distribution, persistence and pathology in the corpus callosum of the Semliki Forest virus-infected mouse brain: a novel system to study virus-oligodendrocyte interactions. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2006;32:397-409 pubmed
    ..In the mouse, following extraneural inoculation, the A7(74) strain of the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is efficiently neuroinvasive and central nervous system (CNS) infection leads to predominantly ..
  18. Tan L, Ha D, Hien V, van der Hoek L, Farrar J, de Jong M. Me Tri virus: a Semliki Forest virus strain from Vietnam?. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2132-5 pubmed publisher
    Me Tri virus (MTV) is a member of the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) complex in the genus Alphavirus, first isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes in Vietnam in 1971 and described as a newly recognized alphavirus, based on antigenic ..
  19. Yu Y, Guo J, An H, Zhang S, Wang S, Yu W, et al. Potent tetravalent replicon vaccines against botulinum neurotoxins using DNA-based Semliki Forest virus replicon vectors. Vaccine. 2013;31:2427-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies demonstrate the utility of combining dual-expression DNA replicon or replicon particle vaccines into multi-agent formulations as potent tetravalent vaccines for eliciting protective responses to four serotypes of BoNTs. ..
  20. Garcia S, Billecocq A, Crance J, Munderloh U, Garin D, Bouloy M. Nairovirus RNA sequences expressed by a Semliki Forest virus replicon induce RNA interference in tick cells. J Virol. 2005;79:8942-7 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these results strongly suggest that pathogen-derived resistance can be established in the tick cells via a mechanism of RNA interference. ..
  21. Liao M, Kielian M. Functions of the stem region of the Semliki Forest virus fusion protein during virus fusion and assembly. J Virol. 2006;80:11362-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutagenesis studies of the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) here demonstrated that there was a strong requirement for the E1 stem in virus assembly and budding, ..
  22. Akhrymuk I, Kulemzin S, Frolova E. Evasion of the innate immune response: the Old World alphavirus nsP2 protein induces rapid degradation of Rpb1, a catalytic subunit of RNA polymerase II. J Virol. 2012;86:7180-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicates that the nsP2-induced degradation of Rpb1 is a critical mechanism utilized by the Old World alphaviruses to subvert the cellular antiviral response...
  23. Quetglas J, Rodriguez Madoz J, Bezunartea J, Ruiz Guillen M, Casales E, Medina Echeverz J, et al. Eradication of liver-implanted tumors by Semliki Forest virus expressing IL-12 requires efficient long-term immune responses. J Immunol. 2013;190:2994-3004 pubmed publisher
    b>Semliki Forest virus vectors expressing IL-12 (SFV-IL-12) were shown to induce potent antitumor responses against s.c. MC38 colon adenocarcinomas in immunocompetent mice...
  24. Sjöberg E, Suomalainen M, Garoff H. A significantly improved Semliki Forest virus expression system based on translation enhancer segments from the viral capsid gene. Biotechnology (N Y). 1994;12:1127-31 pubmed
    ..gene expression in a variety of mammalian cell types that is based on an efficiently replicating Semliki Forest virus (SFV) variant in which an RNA encoding a foreign protein replaces the RNA that normally encodes the viruses'..
  25. Muller U, Steinhoff U, Reis L, Hemmi S, Pavlovic J, Zinkernagel R, et al. Functional role of type I and type II interferons in antiviral defense. Science. 1994;264:1918-21 pubmed
    ..Comparison of mice lacking either type I or type II IFN receptors showed that, at least in response to some viruses, both IFN systems are essential for antiviral defense and are functionally nonredundant. ..
  26. Lundstrom K, Rotmann D, Hermann D, Schneider E, Ehrengruber M. Novel mutant Semliki Forest virus vectors: gene expression and localization studies in neuronal cells. Histochem Cell Biol. 2001;115:83-91 pubmed
    b>Semliki Forest virus vectors (SFV) are suitable for high-level transgene expression in neuronal tissue, both in vitro and in vivo...
  27. Lulla V, Merits A, Sarin P, K ri inen L, Ker nen S, Ahola T. Identification of mutations causing temperature-sensitive defects in Semliki Forest virus RNA synthesis. J Virol. 2006;80:3108-11 pubmed publisher
    We have sequenced the nonstructural protein coding region of Semliki Forest virus temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant strains ts1, ts6, ts9, ts10, ts11, ts13, and ts14...
  28. Garoff H, Frischauf A, Simons K, Lehrach H, Delius H. Nucleotide sequence of cdna coding for Semliki Forest virus membrane glycoproteins. Nature. 1980;288:236-41 pubmed
    The genes coding for the three membrane polypeptides of Semliki Forest virus have been sequenced and the primary structures of the proteins deduced...
  29. Garcia S, Billecocq A, Crance J, Prins M, Garin D, Bouloy M. Viral suppressors of RNA interference impair RNA silencing induced by a Semliki Forest virus replicon in tick cells. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1985-9 pubmed
    It was recently shown that infection of ISE6 tick cells by a recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV) expressing a heterologous gene induced small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and silencing of the gene...
  30. Barry G, Fragkoudis R, Ferguson M, Lulla A, Merits A, Kohl A, et al. Semliki forest virus-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress accelerates apoptotic death of mammalian cells. J Virol. 2010;84:7369-77 pubmed publisher
    The alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and its derived vectors induce apoptosis in mammalian cells...
  31. Smith Norowitz T, Sobel R, Mokhtarian F. B cells and antibodies in the pathogenesis of myelin injury in Semliki Forest Virus encephalomyelitis. Cell Immunol. 2000;200:27-35 pubmed
    To determine the contribution of B cells to brain myelin injury in Semliki Forest Virus (SFV) encephalomyelitis, normal C57BL/6 (B6) and B-cell-deficient (C57BL/6-tm1Cgn) B6 mice were infected with SFV. The peak of clinical disease, i.e...
  32. Lundstrom K. Semliki Forest virus vectors for gene therapy. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2003;3:771-7 pubmed
    b>Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vectors transduce a broad range of mammalian and non-mammalian cells, generating high levels of transient expression of heterologous proteins...
  33. Keogh B, Sheahan B, Atkins G, Mills K. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases ameliorates blood-brain barrier disruption and neuropathological lesions caused by avirulent Semliki Forest virus infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2003;94:185-90 pubmed
    b>Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection of mice is a useful model of viral neuropathogenesis in animals and avirulent strains such as SFV-A7 induce immune-mediated demyelination and death of neurones by necrosis and apoptosis...
  34. Gorchakov R, Hardy R, Rice C, Frolov I. Selection of functional 5' cis-acting elements promoting efficient sindbis virus genome replication. J Virol. 2004;78:61-75 pubmed
    ..5' end in defective-interfering (DI) and genome RNAs with sequences from a distantly related alphavirus, Semliki Forest virus (SFV), resulted in nonviable chimeras...
  35. Ventoso I, Sanz M, Molina S, Berlanga J, Carrasco L, Esteban M. Translational resistance of late alphavirus mRNA to eIF2alpha phosphorylation: a strategy to overcome the antiviral effect of protein kinase PKR. Genes Dev. 2006;20:87-100 pubmed
    ..Here we report that PKR is highly activated following infection with alphaviruses Sindbis (SV) and Semliki Forest virus (SFV), leading to the almost complete phosphorylation of eIF2alpha...
  36. Roussel A, Lescar J, Vaney M, Wengler G, Wengler G, Rey F. Structure and interactions at the viral surface of the envelope protein E1 of Semliki Forest virus. Structure. 2006;14:75-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is enveloped by a lipid bilayer enclosed within a glycoprotein cage made by glycoproteins E1 and E2...
  37. Seyhan A, Alizadeh B, Lundstrom K, Johnston B. RNA interference-mediated inhibition of Semliki Forest virus replication in mammalian cells. Oligonucleotides. 2007;17:473-84 pubmed
    ..viruses such as alphaviruses, we tested the ability of expressed short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) to inhibit the Semliki Forest virus (SFV), a rapidly replicating positive-strand RNA virus...
  38. Fragkoudis R, Chi Y, Siu R, Barry G, Attarzadeh Yazdi G, Merits A, et al. Semliki Forest virus strongly reduces mosquito host defence signaling. Insect Mol Biol. 2008;17:647-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection of Aedes albopictus-derived U4.4 mosquito cells reduces cellular gene expression...
  39. Ylösmäki E, Martikainen M, Hinkkanen A, Saksela K. Attenuation of Semliki Forest virus neurovirulence by microRNA-mediated detargeting. J Virol. 2013;87:335-44 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is a positive-strand RNA virus and, similar to the related alphaviruses, like Sindbis virus, has ..
  40. Rodriguez Andres J, Rani S, Varjak M, Chase Topping M, Beck M, Ferguson M, et al. Phenoloxidase activity acts as a mosquito innate immune response against infection with Semliki Forest virus. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002977 pubmed publisher
    ..contains a functional PO cascade, which is activated by the bacterium Escherichia coli and the arbovirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) (Togaviridae; Alphavirus). Production of recombinant SFV expressing the PO cascade inhibitor Egf1...
  41. Fazakerley J, Pathak S, Scallan M, Amor S, Dyson H. Replication of the A7(74) strain of Semliki Forest virus is restricted in neurons. Virology. 1993;195:627-37 pubmed
    In neonatal mice the A7(74) and L10 strains of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) are virulent. In 3- to 4-week-old mice the L10 strain is virulent, the A7(74) strain is avirulent...
  42. Kujala P, Ikäheimonen A, Ehsani N, Vihinen H, Auvinen P, Kaariainen L. Biogenesis of the Semliki Forest virus RNA replication complex. J Virol. 2001;75:3873-84 pubmed
    The nonstructural (ns) proteins nsP1 to -4, the components of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) RNA polymerase, were localized in infected cells by confocal microscopy using double labeling with specific antisera against the individual ns ..
  43. Phenix K, Wark K, Luke C, Skinner M, Smyth J, Mawhinney K, et al. Recombinant Semliki Forest virus vector exhibits potential for avian virus vaccine development. Vaccine. 2001;19:3116-23 pubmed
    The Semliki Forest virus (SFV) expression system was evaluated as a basis for avian vaccine development...
  44. Alsharifi M, Lobigs M, Regner M, Lee E, Koskinen A, Mullbacher A. Type I interferons trigger systemic, partial lymphocyte activation in response to viral infection. J Immunol. 2005;175:4635-40 pubmed
    ..expression of the early activation markers CD69 and CD86, but not CD25, within 24 h of infection with Semliki Forest virus. Kinetics and magnitude of activation marker expression was dependent on live virus, dose, and correlated ..
  45. Fragkoudis R, Breakwell L, McKimmie C, Boyd A, Barry G, Kohl A, et al. The type I interferon system protects mice from Semliki Forest virus by preventing widespread virus dissemination in extraneural tissues, but does not mediate the restricted replication of avirulent virus in central nervous system neurons. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:3373-84 pubmed
    b>Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection of the mouse provides a powerful model to study the pathogenesis of virus encephalitis. SFV and other alphavirus-based vector systems are increasingly used in biotechnology and medicine...
  46. Pan Y, Zhao Q, Fang L, Luo R, Chen H, Xiao S. Efficient gene delivery into mammalian cells by recombinant baculovirus containing a hybrid cytomegalovirus promoter/Semliki Forest virus replicon. J Gene Med. 2009;11:1030-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Alphavirus, such as Semliki Forest virus (SFV), has also received considerable attention for use as expression vectors because of its self-..
  47. van Duijn L, Kasperaitis M, Ameling C, Voorma H. Additional methylation at the N(2)-position of the cap of 26S Semliki Forest virus late mRNA and initiation of translation. Virus Res. 1986;5:61-6 pubmed
    ..Polysomal 26S mRNA contained less m2,7G- and m2,2,7G-caps than free 26S. The cap analog m2,2,7Gp was slightly less inhibitory than m7Gp in an in vitro translation system...
  48. Lescar J, Roussel A, Wien M, Navaza J, Fuller S, Wengler G, et al. The Fusion glycoprotein shell of Semliki Forest virus: an icosahedral assembly primed for fusogenic activation at endosomal pH. Cell. 2001;105:137-48 pubmed
    b>Semliki Forest virus (SFV) has been extensively studied as a model for analyzing entry of enveloped viruses into target cells...
  49. Brinster C, Chen M, Boucreux D, Paranhos Baccala G, Liljestrom P, Lemmonier F, et al. Hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 3-specific cellular immune responses following single or combined immunization with DNA or recombinant Semliki Forest virus particles. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:369-81 pubmed
    The capacity of recombinant Semliki Forest virus particles (rSFV) expressing the hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 3 (NS3) to induce, in comparison or in combination with an NS3-expressing plasmid, specific cellular and humoral ..
  50. Hassaine G, Wagner R, Kempf J, Cherouati N, Hassaine N, Prual C, et al. Semliki Forest virus vectors for overexpression of 101 G protein-coupled receptors in mammalian host cells. Protein Expr Purif. 2006;45:343-51 pubmed
    b>Semliki Forest virus vectors were applied for the evaluation of 101 G protein-coupled receptors in three mammalian cell lines. Western blotting demonstrated that 95 of the 101 tested GPCRs showed positive signals...
  51. Schulz O, Pichlmair A, Rehwinkel J, Rogers N, Scheuner D, Kato H, et al. Protein kinase R contributes to immunity against specific viruses by regulating interferon mRNA integrity. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;7:354-61 pubmed publisher
    ..response to a subset of RNA viruses including encephalomyocarditis, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis, and Semliki Forest virus, but not influenza or Sendai virus...
  52. Eng K, Panas M, Murphy D, Karlsson Hedestam G, McInerney G. Accumulation of autophagosomes in Semliki Forest virus-infected cells is dependent on expression of the viral glycoproteins. J Virol. 2012;86:5674-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that autophagosomes accumulate in Semliki Forest virus (SFV)-infected cells...
  53. K ri inen L, Takkinen K, Ker nen S, S derlund H. Replication of the genome of alphaviruses. J Cell Sci Suppl. 1987;7:231-50 pubmed
    The genome of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is 11,442 nucleotides with a 5' cap-structure and a 3' poly(A) tail of about 100 residues. The genome of the closely relate Sindbis virus (SIN) is slightly longer (11,703 nucleotides)...
  54. Lu Y, Eng C, Shome S, Kielian M. In vivo generation and characterization of a soluble form of the Semliki forest virus fusion protein. J Virol. 2001;75:8329-39 pubmed
    ..b>Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is an enveloped alphavirus that infects cells through low-pH-dependent fusion and buds from the ..
  55. Gibbons D, Kielian M. Molecular dissection of the Semliki Forest virus homotrimer reveals two functionally distinct regions of the fusion protein. J Virol. 2002;76:1194-205 pubmed
    b>Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is an enveloped alphavirus that infects cells via a membrane fusion reaction triggered by the acidic pH of endosomes...
  56. Zhang X, Fugere M, Day R, Kielian M. Furin processing and proteolytic activation of Semliki Forest virus. J Virol. 2003;77:2981-9 pubmed
    The alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infects cells via a low-pH-dependent membrane fusion reaction mediated by the E1 envelope protein. Fusion is regulated by the interaction of E1 with the receptor-binding protein E2...
  57. Koschinski A, Wengler G, Wengler G, Repp H. The membrane proteins of flaviviruses form ion-permeable pores in the target membrane after fusion: identification of the pores and analysis of their possible role in virus infection. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1711-21 pubmed
    Recently, we presented evidence that the E1 fusion protein of the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus forms ion-permeable pores in the target membrane after fusion...
  58. Lulla A, Lulla V, Merits A. Macromolecular assembly-driven processing of the 2/3 cleavage site in the alphavirus replicase polyprotein. J Virol. 2012;86:553-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is a member of the Alphavirus genus, which produces its replicase proteins in the form of a nonstructural (ns) polyprotein precursor P1234...
  59. Ahola T, Laakkonen P, Vihinen H, Kaariainen L. Critical residues of Semliki Forest virus RNA capping enzyme involved in methyltransferase and guanylyltransferase-like activities. J Virol. 1997;71:392-7 pubmed
    The Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicase protein nsP1 has methyltransferase (MT) and guanylyltransferase-like (GT) activities, which are involved in the capping of viral mRNAs...
  60. Caplen N, Zheng Z, Falgout B, Morgan R. Inhibition of viral gene expression and replication in mosquito cells by dsRNA-triggered RNA interference. Mol Ther. 2002;6:243-51 pubmed
    ..the feasibility of blocking viral gene expression and replication, we used two mosquito-borne viruses, Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and the serotype 1 dengue virus (DEN1)...
  61. Karlsson G, Liljestrom P. Live viral vectors: Semliki Forest virus. Methods Mol Med. 2003;87:69-82 pubmed
  62. Breakwell L, Dosenovic P, Karlsson Hedestam G, D Amato M, Liljestrom P, Fazakerley J, et al. Semliki Forest virus nonstructural protein 2 is involved in suppression of the type I interferon response. J Virol. 2007;81:8677-84 pubmed
    ..b>Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection induces rapid and profound silencing of host cell gene expression, a process believed to be ..
  63. Morillas M, Eberl H, Allain F, Glockshuber R, Kuennemann E. Novel enzymatic activity derived from the Semliki Forest virus capsid protein. J Mol Biol. 2008;376:721-35 pubmed publisher
    The N-terminal segment of the Semliki Forest virus polyprotein is an intramolecular serine protease that cleaves itself off after the invariant Trp267 from a viral polyprotein and generates the mature capsid protein...
  64. Ketola A, Hinkkanen A, Yongabi F, Furu P, Määttä A, Liimatainen T, et al. Oncolytic Semliki forest virus vector as a novel candidate against unresectable osteosarcoma. Cancer Res. 2008;68:8342-50 pubmed publisher
    Oncolytic viruses are a promising tool for treatment of cancer. We studied an oncolytic Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vector, VA7, carrying the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (EGFP), as a novel virotherapy candidate against ..
  65. Liu C, Kielian M. E1 mutants identify a critical region in the trimer interface of the Semliki forest virus fusion protein. J Virol. 2009;83:11298-306 pubmed publisher
    The alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) uses a membrane fusion reaction to infect host cells. Fusion of the virus and cell membranes is triggered by low pH in the endosome and is mediated by the viral membrane protein E1...
  66. Quetglas J, Dubrot J, Bezunartea J, Sanmamed M, Hervas Stubbs S, Smerdou C, et al. Immunotherapeutic synergy between anti-CD137 mAb and intratumoral administration of a cytopathic Semliki Forest virus encoding IL-12. Mol Ther. 2012;20:1664-75 pubmed publisher
    Intratumoral injection of Semliki Forest virus encoding interleukin-12 (SFV-IL-12) combines acute expression of IL-12 and stressful apoptosis of infected malignant cells...
  67. Lundstrom K, Ehrengruber M. Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vectors in neurobiology and gene therapy. Methods Mol Med. 2003;76:503-23 pubmed
  68. Golubtsov A, Kääriäinen L, Caldentey J. Characterization of the cysteine protease domain of Semliki Forest virus replicase protein nsP2 by in vitro mutagenesis. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:1502-8 pubmed
    The function of Semliki Forest Virus nsP2 protease was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis...
  69. Chanel Vos C, Kielian M. Second-site revertants of a Semliki Forest virus fusion-block mutation reveal the dynamics of a class II membrane fusion protein. J Virol. 2006;80:6115-22 pubmed publisher
    The alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infects cells through low-pH-induced membrane fusion mediated by the E1 protein, a class II virus membrane fusion protein...
  70. Vähä Koskela M, Kallio J, Jansson L, Heikkilä J, Zakhartchenko V, Kallajoki M, et al. Oncolytic capacity of attenuated replicative semliki forest virus in human melanoma xenografts in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Cancer Res. 2006;66:7185-94 pubmed
    ..we analyzed the oncolytic potential of the replication-competent vector VA7-EGFP, based on the avirulent Semliki Forest virus (SFV) strain A7(74), to kill cancer cells in culture as well as to target s.c...
  71. Lyons J, Sheahan B, Galbraith S, Mehra R, Atkins G, Fleeton M. Inhibition of angiogenesis by a Semliki Forest virus vector expressing VEGFR-2 reduces tumour growth and metastasis in mice. Gene Ther. 2007;14:503-13 pubmed
    ..induction of immune responses against tumour endothelial cells following immunization with recombinant Semliki Forest virus (rSFV) particles encoding murine vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)...
  72. Vähä Koskela M, Kuusinen T, Holmlund Hampf J, Furu P, Heikkilä J, Hinkkanen A. Semliki Forest virus vectors expressing transforming growth factor beta inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Balb/c mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;355:776-81 pubmed
    ..the construction and characterization of CNS-homing gene delivery/therapy vectors based on avirulent Semliki Forest virus (SFV) expressing either native or mutant transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1)...
  73. Tamberg N, Lulla V, Fragkoudis R, Lulla A, Fazakerley J, Merits A. Insertion of EGFP into the replicase gene of Semliki Forest virus results in a novel, genetically stable marker virus. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1225-30 pubmed
    ..Passage of the marker virus in vitro and in vivo demonstrates good genetic stability. Insertion of different markers into this novel construct has potential for various applications...
  74. Mokhtarian F, Safavi F, Sarafraz Yazdi E. Immunization with a peptide of Semliki Forest virus promotes remyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Brain Res. 2012;1488:92-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous studies have shown that Semliki Forest virus (SFV)-infected ?-knock-out (KO) mice did not exhibit the extensive remyelination, seen in wild type (WT) B6 ..
  75. Takkinen K. Complete nucleotide sequence of the nonstructural protein genes of Semliki Forest virus. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986;14:5667-82 pubmed
    The nucleotide sequence coding for the nonstructural proteins of Semliki Forest virus has been determined from cDNA clones...
  76. Hoffmann M, Verzijl D, Lundstrom K, Simmen U, Alewijnse A, Timmerman H, et al. Recombinant Semliki Forest virus for over-expression and pharmacological characterisation of the histamine H(2) receptor in mammalian cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001;427:105-14 pubmed
    We describe the use of recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vectors for efficient expression of the rat histamine H(2) (rH(2)) receptor in COS-7 (African green monkey kidney cells) cells...
  77. Vasiljeva L, Merits A, Golubtsov A, Sizemskaja V, Kääriäinen L, Ahola T. Regulation of the sequential processing of Semliki Forest virus replicase polyprotein. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:41636-45 pubmed
    ..To understand the mechanisms responsible for this sequential proteolysis, we analyzed in vitro translated Semliki Forest virus polyproteins containing noncleavable processing sites or various deletions...
  78. Forsell M, Li Y, Sundbäck M, Svehla K, Liljestrom P, Mascola J, et al. Biochemical and immunogenic characterization of soluble human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein trimers expressed by semliki forest virus. J Virol. 2005;79:10902-14 pubmed
    ..and immunogenic properties of soluble HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers expressed by recombinant Semliki Forest virus (rSFV)...
  79. Shukla A, Haase W, Reinhart C, Michel H. Biochemical and pharmacological characterization of the human bradykinin subtype 2 receptor produced in mammalian cells using the Semliki Forest virus system. Biol Chem. 2006;387:569-76 pubmed
    ..In this study, human B2R was expressed at high levels in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells using Semliki Forest virus-based vectors...
  80. Deuber S, Pavlovic J. Virulence of a mouse-adapted Semliki Forest virus strain is associated with reduced susceptibility to interferon. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1952-9 pubmed
    ..This study characterized the distinct IFN sensitivities of two closely related Semliki Forest virus (SFV) strains in cell culture...
  81. Lulla V, Sawicki D, Sawicki S, Lulla A, Merits A, Ahola T. Molecular defects caused by temperature-sensitive mutations in Semliki Forest virus nsP1. J Virol. 2008;82:9236-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Two temperature-sensitive (ts) mutations in Semliki Forest virus (SFV) were previously identified within nsP1: ts10 (E529D) and ts14 (D119N)...
  82. Atkins G, Fleeton M, Sheahan B. Therapeutic and prophylactic applications of alphavirus vectors. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2008;10:e33 pubmed publisher
    ..These positive-stranded RNA vectors, derived from Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, multiply and are expressed in the cytoplasm of ..
  83. Fragkoudis R, Tamberg N, Siu R, Kiiver K, Kohl A, Merits A, et al. Neurons and oligodendrocytes in the mouse brain differ in their ability to replicate Semliki Forest virus. J Neurovirol. 2009;15:57-70 pubmed publisher
    b>Semliki Forest virus (SFV) provides an experimental model of acute virus encephalitis and virus-induced demyelinating disease...
  84. Yu Y, Yu J, Li N, Wang S, Yu W, Sun Z. Individual and bivalent vaccines against botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A and B using DNA-based Semliki Forest virus vectors. Vaccine. 2009;27:6148-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice given either dual-expressing VRP-A/BHc or mixture of VRP-AHc and VRP-BHc were protected from challenge with serotype A/B mixtures. These data justify further testing in other animals or humans...
  85. Vihinen H, Saarinen J. Phosphorylation site analysis of Semliki forest virus nonstructural protein 3. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:27775-83 pubmed
    ..Previously, it has been shown that Semliki Forest virus Nsp3 (482 amino acids) is a phosphoprotein, and, in the present study, we have mapped its major ..
  86. Morris Downes M, Phenix K, Smyth J, Sheahan B, Lileqvist S, Mooney D, et al. Semliki Forest virus-based vaccines: persistence, distribution and pathological analysis in two animal systems. Vaccine. 2001;19:1978-88 pubmed
    ..examined the persistence, distribution and pathological changes following intramuscular administration of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vaccine vectors in mice and chickens...
  87. Vähä Koskela M, Tuittila M, Nygårdas P, Nyman J, Ehrengruber M, Renggli M, et al. A novel neurotropic expression vector based on the avirulent A7(74) strain of Semliki Forest virus. J Neurovirol. 2003;9:1-15 pubmed
    b>Semliki Forest virus (SFV), an enveloped alphavirus of the family Togaviridae, infects a wide range of mammalian host cells. Most strains are neurotropic but differ in virulence...
  88. Chikkanna Gowda C, Sheahan B, Fleeton M, Atkins G. Regression of mouse tumours and inhibition of metastases following administration of a Semliki Forest virus vector with enhanced expression of IL-12. Gene Ther. 2005;12:1253-63 pubmed
    The Semliki Forest virus (SFV) vector is an RNA-based suicide expression vector that has been used experimentally for tumour therapy...
  89. Tamm K, Merits A, Sarand I. Mutations in the nuclear localization signal of nsP2 influencing RNA synthesis, protein expression and cytotoxicity of Semliki Forest virus. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:676-86 pubmed publisher
    The cytotoxicity of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection is caused partly by the non-structural protein nsP2, an essential component of the SFV replicase complex...
  90. Määttä A, Makinen K, Ketola A, Liimatainen T, Yongabi F, Vaha Koskela M, et al. Replication competent Semliki Forest virus prolongs survival in experimental lung cancer. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:1704-11 pubmed publisher
    ..the therapeutic potential of the replication competent vector VA7-EGFP, which is based on the avirulent Semliki Forest virus (SFV) strain A7 (74) carrying the EGFP marker gene in an orthotopic lung cancer tumor model in nude mice...
  91. Rausalu K, Iofik A, Ulper L, Karo Astover L, Lulla V, Merits A. Properties and use of novel replication-competent vectors based on Semliki Forest virus. Virol J. 2009;6:33 pubmed publisher
    b>Semliki Forest virus (SFV) has a positive strand RNA genome and infects different cells of vertebrates and invertebrates...
  92. Barry G, Breakwell L, Fragkoudis R, Attarzadeh Yazdi G, Rodriguez Andres J, Kohl A, et al. PKR acts early in infection to suppress Semliki Forest virus production and strongly enhances the type I interferon response. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1382-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon infection of vertebrate cells in continuous culture, the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) initiates apoptosis and IFN synthesis...