alphavirus

Summary

Summary: A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.

Top Publications

  1. Desvignes L, Quentel C, Lamour F, le V. Pathogenesis and immune response in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr experimentally infected with salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2002;12:77-95 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrated that an experimental infection of Atlantic salmon parr with SPDV provoked a stimulation of both specific and non-specific immunity with regards to the viraemia and the histopathology...
  2. Kielian M. Structural surprises from the flaviviruses and alphaviruses. Mol Cell. 2002;9:454-6 pubmed
    Recent structural studies demonstrate that the alphavirus and flavivirus fusion proteins, although very similar in overall fold, are arranged very differently in the two virions...
  3. Neuvonen M, Kazlauskas A, Martikainen M, Hinkkanen A, Ahola T, Saksela K. SH3 domain-mediated recruitment of host cell amphiphysins by alphavirus nsP3 promotes viral RNA replication. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002383 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon alphavirus infection the intracellular distribution of amphiphysin was dramatically altered and colocalized with nsP3...
  4. Saxton Shaw K, Ledermann J, Borland E, Stovall J, Mossel E, Singh A, et al. O'nyong nyong virus molecular determinants of unique vector specificity reside in non-structural protein 3. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e1931 pubmed publisher
    ..ONNV is the only alphavirus transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes, but specific molecular determinants of infection of this unique vector ..
  5. Pfeffer M, Kinney R, Kaaden O. The alphavirus 3'-nontranslated region: size heterogeneity and arrangement of repeated sequence elements. Virology. 1998;240:100-8 pubmed
    The 3'-nontranslated region (NTR) of representative strains of all known alphavirus species was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. For 23 of them, the 3'-NTR sequence was determined...
  6. Cirimotich C, Scott J, Phillips A, Geiss B, Olson K. Suppression of RNA interference increases alphavirus replication and virus-associated mortality in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. BMC Microbiol. 2009;9:49 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study was to use a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae; genus Alphavirus) that expresses B2 protein of Flock House virus (FHV; family Nodaviridae; genus Alphanodavirus), a protein that ..
  7. Sjöberg M, Garoff H. Interactions between the transmembrane segments of the alphavirus E1 and E2 proteins play a role in virus budding and fusion. J Virol. 2003;77:3441-50 pubmed
    The alphavirus envelope is built by heterodimers of the membrane proteins E1 and E2. The complex is formed as a p62E1 precursor in the endoplasmic reticulum...
  8. Andersen L, Bratland A, Hodneland K, Nylund A. Tissue tropism of salmonid alphaviruses (subtypes SAV1 and SAV3) in experimentally challenged Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Arch Virol. 2007;152:1871-83 pubmed
    ..Considering the short production cycle of farmed salmonids, this suggests that surviving Atlantic salmon may become life-long asymptomatic carriers of SAV after an infection. ..
  9. Jeandel P, Josse R, Durand J. [Exotic viral arthritis: role of alphavirus]. Med Trop (Mars). 2004;64:81-8 pubmed
    Only six of the many alphavirus known to affect humans can cause articular manifestations...

More Information

Publications108 found, 100 shown here

  1. Hooper J, Ferro A, Golden J, Silvera P, Dudek J, Alterson K, et al. Molecular smallpox vaccine delivered by alphavirus replicons elicits protective immunity in mice and non-human primates. Vaccine. 2009;28:494-511 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, there is a need for new, safe, and effective orthopoxvirus vaccines. Alphavirus replicon vectors, derived from strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, are being used to develop ..
  2. Lundstrom K. Alphavirus vectors for vaccine production and gene therapy. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2003;2:447-59 pubmed
    b>Alphavirus vectors demonstrate high expression of heterologous proteins in a broad range of host cells. Replication-deficient as well as replication-competent variants exist...
  3. Brown C, Strickler S, Moore A, Knutie S, Padhi A, Brown M, et al. Winter ecology of Buggy Creek virus (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) in the Central Great Plains. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010;10:355-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus) is an unusual arbovirus that is vectored primarily by the swallow bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae: Oeciacus vicarius) ..
  4. Kamrud K, Coffield V, Owens G, Goodman C, Alterson K, Custer M, et al. In vitro and in vivo characterization of microRNA-targeted alphavirus replicon and helper RNAs. J Virol. 2010;84:7713-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Alphavirus-based replicon vector systems (family Togaviridae) have been developed as expression vectors with demonstrated potential in vaccine development against both infectious diseases and cancer...
  5. Yang S, Wo J, Li M, Mi F, Yu C, Lv G, et al. Construction and cellular immune response induction of HA-based alphavirus replicon vaccines against human-avian influenza (H5N1). Vaccine. 2009;27:7451-8 pubmed publisher
    ..One potential strategy for improving the immunogenicity of vaccines involves the use of alphavirus replicons and VP22, a herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) protein...
  6. Gould E, Coutard B, Malet H, Morin B, Jamal S, Weaver S, et al. Understanding the alphaviruses: recent research on important emerging pathogens and progress towards their control. Antiviral Res. 2010;87:111-24 pubmed publisher
    ..geographic distribution of Chikungunya virus, we review progress in understanding the structure and function of alphavirus replicative enzymes achieved under the VIZIER programme and the development of new disease control strategies.
  7. Frolov I, Hardy R, Rice C. Cis-acting RNA elements at the 5' end of Sindbis virus genome RNA regulate minus- and plus-strand RNA synthesis. RNA. 2001;7:1638-51 pubmed
    b>Alphavirus genome replication is a multistep asymmetric process. Several lines of evidence suggest that the template preference of the RNA replicase is regulated by proteolytic cleavage of the viral nonstructural polyprotein...
  8. Hodneland K, Bratland A, Christie K, Endresen C, Nylund A. New subtype of salmonid alphavirus (SAV), Togaviridae, from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in Norway. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;66:113-20 pubmed
    ..also suffer from a disease called pancreas disease (PD), and this disease is also believed to be caused by an alphavirus. However, this virus has not yet been characterised at the molecular level...
  9. Naish S, Hu W, Mengersen K, Tong S. Spatio-temporal patterns of Barmah Forest virus disease in Queensland, Australia. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25688 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigated the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease in Queensland, Australia using geographical information system (GIS) tools and geostatistical analysis...
  10. Moore A, Edwards E, Brown M, Komar N, Brown C. Ecological correlates of buggy creek virus infection in Oeciacus vicarius, southwestern Nebraska, 2004. J Med Entomol. 2007;44:42-9 pubmed
    Buggy Creek virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, BCRV) is an alphavirus within the western equine encephalitis virus complex whose primary vector is the swallow bug, Oeciacus vicarius Horvath (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), an ..
  11. Riezebos Brilman A, de Mare A, Bungener L, Huckriede A, Wilschut J, Daemen T. Recombinant alphaviruses as vectors for anti-tumour and anti-microbial immunotherapy. J Clin Virol. 2006;35:233-43 pubmed
    ..The efficacy of alphavirus vectors in inducing immune responses will be illustrated by a more detailed description of immunization studies ..
  12. Gehrke R, Heinz F, Davis N, Mandl C. Heterologous gene expression by infectious and replicon vectors derived from tick-borne encephalitis virus and direct comparison of this flavivirus system with an alphavirus replicon. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:1045-53 pubmed
    ..of expression were measured by fluorescence-activated cell-sorting analysis and compared to an established alphavirus replicon vector derived from Venezuelan equine encephaltis virus (VEEV), expressing EGFP under the control of ..
  13. White L, Parsons M, Whitmore A, Williams B, de Silva A, Johnston R. An immunogenic and protective alphavirus replicon particle-based dengue vaccine overcomes maternal antibody interference in weanling mice. J Virol. 2007;81:10329-39 pubmed
  14. Naish S, Hu W, Nicholls N, Mackenzie J, Dale P, McMichael A, et al. Socio-environmental predictors of Barmah forest virus transmission in coastal areas, Queensland, Australia. Trop Med Int Health. 2009;14:247-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The model developed in this study may have applications in the control and prevention of BFV disease in these areas. ..
  15. de Thoisy B, Gardon J, Salas R, Morvan J, Kazanji M. Mayaro virus in wild mammals, French Guiana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:1326-9 pubmed
  16. Bratland A, Nylund A. Studies on the possibility of vertical transmission of Norwegian salmonid Alphavirus in production of Atlantic salmon in Norway. J Aquat Anim Health. 2009;21:173-8 pubmed publisher
    Disease associated with salmonid Alphavirus (SAV) infection is a significant problem for farm production of salmonids in Europe...
  17. Olsen C, Pemula A, Braaen S, Sankaran K, Rimstad E. Salmonid alphavirus replicon is functional in fish, mammalian and insect cells and in vivo in shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei). Vaccine. 2013;31:5672-9 pubmed publisher
    The Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is the etiological agent of pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Sleeping disease in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)...
  18. Moriette C, LeBerre M, Boscher S, Castric J, Bremont M. Characterization and mapping of monoclonal antibodies against the Sleeping disease virus, an aquatic alphavirus. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:3119-27 pubmed
    ..To better characterize this new aquatic alphavirus and to make molecular tools available, a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against SDV non-..
  19. Goldberg S, Bartido S, Gardner J, Guevara Patino J, Montgomery S, Perales M, et al. Comparison of two cancer vaccines targeting tyrosinase: plasmid DNA and recombinant alphavirus replicon particles. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:8114-21 pubmed
    ..Then, using propagation-incompetent alphavirus vectors (virus-like replicon particles, VRP) encoding tyrosinase, we tested different combinations of priming ..
  20. Ventoso I. Adaptive changes in alphavirus mRNA translation allowed colonization of vertebrate hosts. J Virol. 2012;86:9484-94 pubmed publisher
    Members of the Alphavirus genus are arboviruses that alternate replication in mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts...
  21. Hong E, Perera R, Kuhn R. Alphavirus capsid protein helix I controls a checkpoint in nucleocapsid core assembly. J Virol. 2006;80:8848-55 pubmed
    The assembly of the alphavirus nucleocapsid core has been investigated using an in vitro assembly system...
  22. Filone C, Heise M, Doms R, Bertolotti Ciarlet A. Development and characterization of a Rift Valley fever virus cell-cell fusion assay using alphavirus replicon vectors. Virology. 2006;356:155-64 pubmed
    ..However, overexpression of RVFV glycoproteins using an alphavirus replicon vector resulted in the expression of the glycoproteins on the surface of multiple cell types...
  23. Herath T, Bron J, Thompson K, Taggart J, Adams A, Ireland J, et al. Transcriptomic analysis of the host response to early stage salmonid alphavirus (SAV-1) infection in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012;32:796-807 pubmed publisher
    Salmon pancreas disease, caused by salmonid alphavirus (SAV) of the family Togaviridae, is an economically important disease affecting farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Scotland, Norway, and Ireland...
  24. Passmore J, O Grady K, Moran R, Wishart E. An outbreak of Barmah Forest virus disease in Victoria. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2002;26:600-4 pubmed
    ..Further efforts need to be made to educate people of the importance of using repellents and other personal preventative measures. ..
  25. Lundstrom K. Alphavirus-based vaccines. Curr Opin Mol Ther. 2002;4:28-34 pubmed
    b>Alphavirus vectors can be appliedfor vaccine production as naked RNA molecules, DNA plasmids or recombinant replication-deficient viral particles...
  26. Boyd A, Kay B. Assessment of the potential of dogs and cats as urban reservoirs of Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses. Aust Vet J. 2002;80:83-6 pubmed
    ..Although dogs and cats are exposed naturally to these viruses, and can become infected, they are unlikely to be important urban reservoirs of either virus. ..
  27. Varjak M, Zusinaite E, Merits A. Novel functions of the alphavirus nonstructural protein nsP3 C-terminal region. J Virol. 2010;84:2352-64 pubmed publisher
    The functions of the alphavirus-encoded nonstructural protein nsP3 during infection are poorly understood. In contrast, nsP1, nsP2, and nsP4 have known enzymatic activities and functions...
  28. Naish S, Hu W, Mengersen K, Tong S. Spatial and temporal clusters of Barmah Forest virus disease in Queensland, Australia. Trop Med Int Health. 2011;16:884-93 pubmed publisher
  29. Vander Veen R, Loynachan A, Mogler M, Russell B, Harris D, Kamrud K. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an alphavirus replicon-based swine influenza virus hemagglutinin vaccine. Vaccine. 2012;30:1944-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, vaccinated pigs develop both specific humoral and IFN-? immune responses, and young pigs are protected against homologous influenza virus challenge. ..
  30. López Dóriga M, Smail D, Smith R, Domenech A, Castric J, Smith P, et al. Isolation of salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV) in cell culture and its ability to protect against infection by the 'wild-type' agent. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2001;11:505-22 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that the tissue culture-adapted isolate of SPDV could be successfully used to protect against challenge by the wild-type virus and could therefore have potential use as an inactivated vaccine against PD. ..
  31. Naish S, Hu W, Nicholls N, Mackenzie J, McMichael A, Dale P, et al. Weather variability, tides, and Barmah Forest virus disease in the Gladstone region, Australia. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114:678-83 pubmed
    ..However, no significant association was found for other variables. These results may be applied to forecast the occurrence of BFV disease and to use public health resources in BFV control and prevention. ..
  32. Kamrud K, Alterson K, Custer M, Dudek J, Goodman C, Owens G, et al. Development and characterization of promoterless helper RNAs for the production of alphavirus replicon particle. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:1723-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Alphavirus-based replicon systems are frequently used as preclinical vectors and as antigen discovery tools, and they have recently been assessed in clinical vaccine trials...
  33. Brown C, Moore A, Young G, Komar N. Persistence of Buggy Creek virus (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) for two years in unfed swallow bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae: Oeciacus vicarius). J Med Entomol. 2010;47:436-41 pubmed
    ..bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae: Oeciacus vicarius Horvath), the vector for Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus), lives year-round in the mud nests of its host, the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota Vieillot)...
  34. Dore A, Auld J. Barmah Forest viral exanthems. Australas J Dermatol. 2004;45:125-9 pubmed
    ..Each of these patients was reactive for Barmah Forest virus immunoglobulin (Ig)M, and on repeat testing four were reactive for Barmah Forest virus IgG. ..
  35. Torres J, Russell K, Vasquez C, Barrera R, Tesh R, Salas R, et al. Family cluster of Mayaro fever, Venezuela. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:1304-6 pubmed
    ..Laboratory testing demonstrated Mayaro virus as the cause of the cluster. These results documented the first human cases of Mayaro virus in Venezuela. ..
  36. Posey D, O Rourke T, Roehrig J, Lanciotti R, Weinberg M, Maloney S. O'Nyong-nyong fever in West Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;73:32 pubmed
  37. Sindac J, Yestrepsky B, Barraza S, Bolduc K, Blakely P, Keep R, et al. Novel inhibitors of neurotropic alphavirus replication that improve host survival in a mouse model of acute viral encephalitis. J Med Chem. 2012;55:3535-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results represent a substantial advancement in the early preclinical development of a promising class of novel antiviral drugs against virulent neurotropic alphaviruses. ..
  38. Gahlawat S, Ellis A, Collet B. Expression of interferon and interferon--induced genes in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar cell lines SHK-1 and TO following infection with Salmon AlphaVirus SAV. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2009;26:672-5 pubmed publisher
    Salmon AlphaVirus (SAV) is the aetiological agent of Salmon Pancreas Disease (SPD), a serious disease in farmed Atlantic salmon...
  39. Heise M, Simpson D, Johnston R. A single amino acid change in nsP1 attenuates neurovirulence of the Sindbis-group alphavirus S.A.AR86. J Virol. 2000;74:4207-13 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a role for alphavirus nonstructural protein genes in adult mouse neurovirulence.
  40. Boughton C, Hawkes R, Naim H. Illness caused by a Barmah Forest-like virus in New South Wales. Med J Aust. 1988;148:146-7 pubmed
    Barmah Forest virus, a recently-discovered arbovirus which belongs to the alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae, has been shown to cause infections in humans in New South Wales...
  41. Burness A, Pardoe I, Faragher S, Vrati S, Dalgarno L. Genetic stability of Ross River virus during epidemic spread in nonimmune humans. Virology. 1988;167:639-43 pubmed
    ..We identify three features of the Ross River virus replication and transmission cycle which may limit the rate of evolution of arthropod-borne viruses in the field...
  42. Weaver S, Kang W, Shirako Y, Rumenapf T, Strauss E, Strauss J. Recombinational history and molecular evolution of western equine encephalomyelitis complex alphaviruses. J Virol. 1997;71:613-23 pubmed
    Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) virus (Togaviridae: Alphavirus) was shown previously to have arisen by recombination between eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE)- and Sindbis-like viruses (C. S. Hahn, S. Lustig, E. G...
  43. Heise M, Simpson D, Johnston R. Sindbis-group alphavirus replication in periosteum and endosteum of long bones in adult mice. J Virol. 2000;74:9294-9 pubmed
    ..Mechanisms underlying alphavirus-induced arthralgia and arthritis are not clearly understood, though direct viral replication within or around ..
  44. Weston J, Villoing S, Br mont M, Castric J, Pfeffer M, Jewhurst V, et al. Comparison of two aquatic alphaviruses, salmon pancreas disease virus and sleeping disease virus, by using genome sequence analysis, monoclonal reactivity, and cross-infection. J Virol. 2002;76:6155-63 pubmed
    ..SPDV and SDV exhibit minor biological differences, we conclude on the basis of the close genetic similarity that SPDV and SDV are closely related isolates of the same virus species for which the name Salmonid alphavirus is proposed.
  45. Zaitseva E, Mittal A, Griffin D, Chernomordik L. Class II fusion protein of alphaviruses drives membrane fusion through the same pathway as class I proteins. J Cell Biol. 2005;169:167-77 pubmed
    ..Do fusion pathways mediated by alphavirus E1 and influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) that exemplify classes II and I differ to reflect the difference in ..
  46. Tong S, Hayes J, Dale P. Spatiotemporal variation of notified Barmah Forest virus infections in Queensland, Australia, 1993-2001. Int J Environ Health Res. 2005;15:89-98 pubmed
    ..5; p < 0.01). These results indicate that there has been an expanded geographic distribution of the notified BFv infections in Queensland over the last decade. Socioecological changes may be causal factors in this expansion...
  47. Bryant J, Crabtree M, Nam V, Yen N, Duc H, Miller B. Isolation of arboviruses from mosquitoes collected in northern Vietnam. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;73:470-3 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, no isolates of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus were obtained. Isolation of Akabane virus, Oya virus, Getah virus, and Sagiyama virus is reported for the first time from Vietnam...
  48. Moriette C, LeBerre M, Lamoureux A, Lai T, Bremont M. Recovery of a recombinant salmonid alphavirus fully attenuated and protective for rainbow trout. J Virol. 2006;80:4088-98 pubmed
    Sleeping disease virus (SDV) is a member of the new Salmonid alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae family. The single-stranded RNA genome of SDV is 11,894 nucleotides long, excluding the 3' poly(A) tail...
  49. Montgomery S, Berglund P, Beard C, Johnston R. Ribosomal protein S6 associates with alphavirus nonstructural protein 2 and mediates expression from alphavirus messages. J Virol. 2006;80:7729-39 pubmed
    ..Although the alphavirus nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) is an essential component of the viral replication complex, it also has critical ..
  50. Foy B, Olson K. Alphavirus transducing systems. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;627:19-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Alphavirus transducing systems (ATSs) are important tools for expressing genes of interest (GOI) in mosquitoes and nonvector insects. ATSs are derived from infectious cDNA clones of mosquito-borne RNA viruses (family Togaviridae)...
  51. Heikkilä J, Vähä Koskela M, Ruotsalainen J, Martikainen M, Stanford M, McCart J, et al. Intravenously administered alphavirus vector VA7 eradicates orthotopic human glioma xenografts in nude mice. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8603 pubmed publisher
    VA7 is a neurotropic alphavirus vector based on an attenuated strain of Semliki Forest virus. We have previously shown that VA7 exhibits oncolytic activity against human melanoma xenografts in immunodeficient mice...
  52. Walczak M, Regts J, van Oosterhout A, Boon L, Wilschut J, Nijman H, et al. Role of regulatory T-cells in immunization strategies involving a recombinant alphavirus vector system. Antivir Ther. 2011;16:207-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Regulatory T-cells (Treg) hamper immune responses elicited by cancer vaccines. Therefore, depletion of Treg is being used to improve the outcome of vaccinations...
  53. Sánchez Seco M, Rosario D, Quiroz E, Guzman G, Tenorio A. A generic nested-RT-PCR followed by sequencing for detection and identification of members of the alphavirus genus. J Virol Methods. 2001;95:153-61 pubmed
    A specific and sensitive nested RT-PCR method was developed for the detection of members of the alphavirus genus. Based on available sequences, degenerated primers were selected in the nsP4 gene...
  54. Boyd A, Hall R, Gemmell R, Kay B. Experimental infection of Australian brushtail possums, Trichosurus vulpecula (Phalangeridae: Marsupialia), with Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses by use of a natural mosquito vector system. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;65:777-82 pubmed
    ..vulpecula may potentially act as a reservoir species for RR in urban areas. However, T. vulpecula infected with BF do not develop viremia sufficient to infect mosquitoes and are unlikely to be important hosts for BF...
  55. Leitner W, Hwang L, DeVeer M, Zhou A, Silverman R, Williams B, et al. Alphavirus-based DNA vaccine breaks immunological tolerance by activating innate antiviral pathways. Nat Med. 2003;9:33-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe a novel, naked DNA vaccine encoding an alphavirus replicon (self-replicating mRNA) and the self/tumor antigen tyrosinase-related protein-1...
  56. Bressanelli S, Stiasny K, Allison S, Stura E, Duquerroy S, Lescar J, et al. Structure of a flavivirus envelope glycoprotein in its low-pH-induced membrane fusion conformation. EMBO J. 2004;23:728-38 pubmed
    ..Comparison with the low-pH-induced form of the alphavirus class II fusion protein reveals striking differences at the end of the molecule bearing the fusion peptides, ..
  57. Li Y, Wang L, Li S, Chen X, Shen Y, Zhang Z, et al. Seco-pregnane steroids target the subgenomic RNA of alphavirus-like RNA viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:8083-8 pubmed
    ..new pantasugar-glycosides of glaucogenin C of Cynanchum paniculatum, are effective and selective inhibitors to alphavirus-like positive-strand RNA viruses including plant-infecting tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and animal-infecting ..
  58. McLoughlin M, Graham D. Alphavirus infections in salmonids--a review. J Fish Dis. 2007;30:511-31 pubmed
    The first alphavirus to be isolated from fish was recorded in 1995 with the isolation of salmon pancreas disease virus from Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in Ireland...
  59. Attoui H, Sailleau C, Mohd Jaafar F, Belhouchet M, Biagini P, Cantaloube J, et al. Complete nucleotide sequence of Middelburg virus, isolated from the spleen of a horse with severe clinical disease in Zimbabwe. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:3078-88 pubmed
    ..The 3' untranslated region of MIDV-857 also contains a 112 nt duplication. This study reports the first full-length sequence of MIDV, which was obtained from a single RT-PCR product...
  60. Rulli N, Guglielmotti A, Mangano G, Rolph M, Apicella C, Zaid A, et al. Amelioration of alphavirus-induced arthritis and myositis in a mouse model by treatment with bindarit, an inhibitor of monocyte chemotactic proteins. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:2513-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In this regard, we have recently established that monocyte/macrophages are mediators of alphavirus-induced arthritis in mice...
  61. Pan C, Greer C, Hauer D, Legg H, Lee E, Bergen M, et al. A chimeric alphavirus replicon particle vaccine expressing the hemagglutinin and fusion proteins protects juvenile and infant rhesus macaques from measles. J Virol. 2010;84:3798-807 pubmed publisher
    ..The viral and immunological factors associated with long-term control of MV replication require further investigation...
  62. Kongtorp R, Stene A, Andreassen P, Aspehaug V, Graham D, Lyngstad T, et al. Lack of evidence for vertical transmission of SAV 3 using gametes of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., exposed by natural and experimental routes. J Fish Dis. 2010;33:879-88 pubmed publisher
    ..As the spread of salmonid alphavirus (SAV), the causal agent, to naïve populations is of major concern to the farming industry, it is important to ..
  63. Nasar F, Palacios G, Gorchakov R, Guzman H, da Rosa A, Savji N, et al. Eilat virus, a unique alphavirus with host range restricted to insects by RNA replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:14622-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe a unique alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), isolated from a pool of Anopheles coustani mosquitoes from the Negev desert of Israel...
  64. Van Der Heijden M, Bol J. Composition of alphavirus-like replication complexes: involvement of virus and host encoded proteins. Arch Virol. 2002;147:875-98 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the review covers host proteins that have been identified in viral RdRp's and their possible role in RNA synthesis...
  65. Koschinski A, Wengler G, Wengler G, Repp H. Rare earth ions block the ion pores generated by the class II fusion proteins of alphaviruses and allow analysis of the biological functions of these pores. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:3311-20 pubmed
    ..It is shown here that, at a concentration of 0.1 mM, rare earth ions block the ion permeability of alphavirus ion pores in all three situations. Even at a concentration of 0...
  66. Karlsen M, Hodneland K, Endresen C, Nylund A. Genetic stability within the Norwegian subtype of salmonid alphavirus (family Togaviridae). Arch Virol. 2006;151:861-74 pubmed
    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) (family Togaviridae) causes mortality in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.) in Norway, France, UK, and Ireland...
  67. Antoine A, Montpellier C, Cailliau K, Browaeys Poly E, Vilain J, Dubuisson J. The alphavirus 6K protein activates endogenous ionic conductances when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. J Membr Biol. 2007;215:37-48 pubmed
    The Alphavirus Sindbis 6K protein is involved in several functions. It contributes to the processing and membrane insertion of E1 and PE2 viral envelope glycoproteins and to virus budding...
  68. Zhai Y, Wang H, Fu S, Liang G. [Molecular analysis on the capsid gene and 3' untranslation region of three Getah viruses isolated in China]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2007;23:270-5 pubmed
    ..GETV isolated in China presented relation of the year of virus isolation with the phylogenesis distance when compared with the other GETV strains and comprised a genetically highly conserved group...
  69. Zheng Y, S nchez San Mart n C, Qin Z, Kielian M. The domain I-domain III linker plays an important role in the fusogenic conformational change of the alphavirus membrane fusion protein. J Virol. 2011;85:6334-42 pubmed publisher
    The alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infects cells through a low-pH-dependent membrane fusion reaction mediated by the virus fusion protein E1...
  70. Chang M, Collet B, Nie P, Lester K, Campbell S, Secombes C, et al. Expression and functional characterization of the RIG-I-like receptors MDA5 and LGP2 in Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J Virol. 2011;85:8403-12 pubmed publisher
    ..by poly(I:C), recombinant IFN, or infection by RNA viruses (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus and salmon alphavirus) with a single-stranded positive or negative genome...
  71. Xu C, Mutoloki S, Evensen Ø. Superior protection conferred by inactivated whole virus vaccine over subunit and DNA vaccines against salmonid alphavirus infection in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Vaccine. 2012;30:3918-28 pubmed publisher
    Salmonid alphavirus 3 (SAV-3) is an emerging pathogen in Norwegian salmon farming and causes severe annual losses...
  72. Mackenzie J, Smith D. Mosquito-borne viruses and epidemic polyarthritis. Med J Aust. 1996;164:90-3 pubmed
    ..Occasional cases of polyarticular disease in Australia have been associated with infection by other mosquito-borne arboviruses, but the role of these viruses in human disease remains to be confirmed...
  73. Kelly Hope L, Kay B, Purdie D, Williams G. The risk of Ross River and Barmah Forest virus disease in Queensland: implications for New Zealand. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2002;26:69-77 pubmed
    ..To describe the incidence of Ross River (RR) and Barmah Forest (BF) virus disease in Queensland and determine the risk of importation of RR virus from Queensland into New Zealand (NZ) via viraemic travellers...
  74. Kamrud K, Custer M, Dudek J, Owens G, Alterson K, Lee J, et al. Alphavirus replicon approach to promoterless analysis of IRES elements. Virology. 2007;360:376-87 pubmed
    ..we describe a system for promoterless analysis of putative internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements using an alphavirus (family Togaviridae) replicon vector...
  75. Jansen M, Taksdal T, Wasmuth M, Gjerset B, Brun E, Olsen A, et al. Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and pancreas disease (PD) in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in freshwater and seawater sites in Norway from 2006 to 2008. J Fish Dis. 2010;33:391-402 pubmed publisher
    ..study was initiated in the spring of 2006 to investigate epidemiological aspects and pathogenesis of salmonid alphavirus (SAV) subtype 3 infections and pancreas disease (PD)...
  76. Grywna K, Kupfer B, Panning M, Drexler J, Emmerich P, Drosten C, et al. Detection of all species of the genus Alphavirus by reverse transcription-PCR with diagnostic sensitivity. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3386-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for the detection of all species of the genus Alphavirus qualified for exclusion screening (limit of detection [LOD], 5 to 100 RNA copies per reaction across all ..
  77. Metz S, Feenstra F, Villoing S, van Hulten M, van Lent J, Koumans J, et al. Low temperature-dependent salmonid alphavirus glycoprotein processing and recombinant virus-like particle formation. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25816 pubmed publisher
    ..The etiological agent of PD and SD is salmonid alphavirus (SAV), an unusual member of the Togaviridae (genus Alphavirus). SAV replicates at lower temperatures in fish...
  78. Forrester N, Palacios G, Tesh R, Savji N, Guzman H, Sherman M, et al. Genome-scale phylogeny of the alphavirus genus suggests a marine origin. J Virol. 2012;86:2729-38 pubmed publisher
    The genus Alphavirus comprises a diverse group of viruses, including some that cause severe disease...
  79. Huang Z, Kingsolver M, Avadhanula V, Hardy R. An antiviral role for antimicrobial peptides during the arthropod response to alphavirus replication. J Virol. 2013;87:4272-80 pubmed publisher
    ..antiviral roles of the Drosophila Imd (immune deficiency) and Jak-STAT innate immunity pathways in response to alphavirus replication...
  80. Petterson E, Stormoen M, Evensen Ø, Mikalsen A, Haugland Ø. Natural infection of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) with salmonid alphavirus 3 generates numerous viral deletion mutants. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:1945-54 pubmed publisher
    Salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV) also referred to as salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is a virus causing pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)...
  81. Powers A, Brault A, Tesh R, Weaver S. Re-emergence of Chikungunya and O'nyong-nyong viruses: evidence for distinct geographical lineages and distant evolutionary relationships. J Gen Virol. 2000;81:471-9 pubmed
    Chikungunya (CHIK) virus is a member of the genus Alphavirus in the family TOGAVIRIDAE: Serologically, it is most closely related to o'nyong-nyong (ONN) virus and is a member of the Semliki Forest antigenic complex...
  82. Strang B, Takeuchi Y, Relander T, Richter J, Bailey R, Sanders D, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vectors with alphavirus envelope glycoproteins produced from stable packaging cells. J Virol. 2005;79:1765-71 pubmed
    b>Alphavirus glycoproteins have broad host ranges. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vectors pseudotyped with their glycoproteins could extend the range of tissues that can be transduced in both humans and animal models...
  83. Vanlandingham D, Tsetsarkin K, Klingler K, Hong C, McElroy K, Lehane M, et al. Determinants of vector specificity of o'nyong nyong and chikungunya viruses in Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;74:663-9 pubmed
    ..gambiae mosquitoes. These data indicate that all of the viral structural proteins are necessary for ONNV to infect An. gambiae mosquitoes...
  84. Christie K, Graham D, McLoughlin M, Villoing S, Todd D, Knappskog D. Experimental infection of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar pre-smolts by i.p. injection with new Irish and Norwegian salmonid alphavirus (SAV) isolates: a comparative study. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;75:13-22 pubmed
    Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L. pre-smolts were experimentally infected with 2 different isolates of salmonid alphavirus (SAV): a Subtype 1 isolate from Ireland and a Subtype 3 isolate from Norway...
  85. Xu C, Guo T, Mutoloki S, Haugland Ø, Marjara I, Evensen Ø. Alpha interferon and not gamma interferon inhibits salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 replication in vitro. J Virol. 2010;84:8903-12 pubmed publisher
    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is an emerging virus in salmonid aquaculture, with SAV-3 being the only subtype found in Norway...
  86. Vander Veen R, Harris D, Kamrud K. Alphavirus replicon vaccines. Anim Health Res Rev. 2012;13:1-9 pubmed publisher
    The alphavirus replicon technology has been utilized for many years to develop vaccines for both veterinary and human applications...
  87. Thim H, Iliev D, Christie K, Villoing S, McLoughlin M, Strandskog G, et al. Immunoprotective activity of a Salmonid Alphavirus Vaccine: comparison of the immune responses induced by inactivated whole virus antigen formulations based on CpG class B oligonucleotides and poly I:C alone or combined with an oil adjuvant. Vaccine. 2012;30:4828-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, a combination of CpGs and poly I:C together with water- or oil-formulated Salmonid Alphavirus (SAV) antigen preparations has been used for a vaccine in Atlantic salmon and tested for protection in SAV ..
  88. Muñoz M, Navarro J. [Mayaro: a re-emerging Arbovirus in Venezuela and Latin America]. Biomedica. 2012;32:286-302 pubmed publisher
    ..The literature available is scarce, diverse and dispersed. Mayaro virus is an alphavirus, phylogenetically related to the Semliki forest antigenic complex...
  89. Weaver S, Barrett A. Transmission cycles, host range, evolution and emergence of arboviral disease. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004;2:789-801 pubmed
    ..We discuss viruses of medical importance, including Venezuelan equine and Japanese encephalitis viruses, dengue viruses and West Nile viruses...
  90. Vanlandingham D, Hong C, Klingler K, Tsetsarkin K, McElroy K, Powers A, et al. Differential infectivities of o'nyong-nyong and chikungunya virus isolates in Anopheles gambiae and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;72:616-21 pubmed
    ..gambiae and Ae. aegypti. The species specificity in vivo was reflected by in vitro experiments using culicine and anopheline-derived cell lines...
  91. Graham D, Fringuelli E, Wilson C, Rowley H, Brown A, Rodger H, et al. Prospective longitudinal studies of salmonid alphavirus infections on two Atlantic salmon farms in Ireland; evidence for viral persistence. J Fish Dis. 2010;33:123-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Both outbreaks occurred during the marine phase of production, with one caused by salmonid alphavirus subtype 1 (SAV1) and the other by SAV4...
  92. Sherman M, Weaver S. Structure of the recombinant alphavirus Western equine encephalitis virus revealed by cryoelectron microscopy. J Virol. 2010;84:9775-82 pubmed publisher
    Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus) is an enveloped RNA virus that is typically transmitted to vertebrate hosts by infected mosquitoes...