togaviridae

Summary

Summary: A family of RNA viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of two genera: ALPHAVIRUS (group A arboviruses), and RUBIVIRUS. Virions are spherical, 60-70 nm in diameter, with a lipoprotein envelope tightly applied to the icosahedral nucleocapsid.

Top Publications

  1. Brown C, Bomberger Brown M, Padhi A, Foster J, Moore A, Pfeffer M, et al. Host and vector movement affects genetic diversity and spatial structure of Buggy Creek virus (Togaviridae). Mol Ecol. 2008;17:2164-73 pubmed publisher
  2. O Brien V, Brown C. Seasonal variation and age-related correlates of Buggy Creek virus (Togaviridae) infection in nestling house sparrows. J Wildl Dis. 2012;48:138-47 pubmed
    ..Buggy Creek virus (BCRV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus) is an arbovirus associated with colonially nesting Cliff Swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and ..
  3. Diaz L, Diaz M, Almiron W, Contigiani M. Infection by UNA virus (Alphavirus; Togaviridae) and risk factor analysis in black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) from Paraguay and Argentina. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:1039-41 pubmed
    ..According to the statistical analysis performed, the monkey's age was a significant risk factor, but not the origin or sex. This is the first report of Alouatta caraya infection by UNAV and the first record of its activity in Paraguay...
  4. Karlsen M, Tingbø T, Solbakk I, Evensen Ø, Furevik A, Aas Eng A. Efficacy and safety of an inactivated vaccine against Salmonid alphavirus (family Togaviridae). Vaccine. 2012;30:5688-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The results confirm that efficient and safe protection against SAV infection and development of PD is possible using an inactivated virus vaccine, both alone and as a component in a polyvalent vaccine. ..
  5. Lo Presti A, Cella E, Angeletti S, Ciccozzi M. Molecular epidemiology, evolution and phylogeny of Chikungunya virus: An updating review. Infect Genet Evol. 2016;41:270-278 pubmed publisher
    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus belonging to the Togaviridae family, causing a febrile illness associated with severe arthralgia and rash...
  6. Taylor A, Liu X, Zaid A, Goh L, Hobson Peters J, Hall R, et al. Mutation of the N-Terminal Region of Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein: Implications for Vaccine Design. MBio. 2017;8: pubmed publisher
    Mosquito-transmitted chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans...
  7. Varjak M, Dietrich I, Sreenu V, Till B, Merits A, Kohl A, et al. Spindle-E Acts Antivirally Against Alphaviruses in Mosquito Cells. Viruses. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    Mosquitoes transmit several human- and animal-pathogenic alphaviruses (Togaviridae family)...
  8. Nair S, Abraham R, Sundaram S, Sreekumar E. Interferon regulated gene (IRG) expression-signature in a mouse model of chikungunya virus neurovirulence. J Neurovirol. 2017;23:886-902 pubmed publisher
    ..identified in disease caused by re-emerging strains of CHIKV, an alphavirus with positive-strand RNA in the Togaviridae family...
  9. Roundy C, Azar S, Rossi S, Weaver S, Vasilakis N. Insect-Specific Viruses: A Historical Overview and Recent Developments. Adv Virus Res. 2017;98:119-146 pubmed publisher
    ..associated with human arboviral pathogens, including but not limited to the families Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, Reoviridae, and Bunyaviridae...

More Information

Publications87

  1. Sankar S, Ramamurthy M, Nandagopal B, Sridharan G. In Silico Validation of D7 Salivary Protein-derived B- and T-cell Epitopes of Aedes aegypti as Potential Vaccine to Prevent Transmission of Flaviviruses and Togaviruses to Humans. Bioinformation. 2017;13:366-375 pubmed publisher
    ..Likewise, two T cell epitopes MTSKNELDV one from D7L and the other YILCKASAF from D7S with affinity to the predominant MHC class-I supertypes were identified towards evaluation as potential vaccine...
  2. Jacobs S, Taylor A, Herrero L, Mahalingam S, Fazakerley J. Mutation of a Conserved Nuclear Export Sequence in Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Disrupts Host Cell Nuclear Import. Viruses. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..CHIKV is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family...
  3. Espósito D, da Fonseca B. Complete Genome Sequence of Mayaro Virus (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) Strain BeAr 20290 from Brazil. Genome Announc. 2015;3: pubmed publisher
    ..The sequence presented here includes all nonstructural and structural proteins and the 5'- and 3'-untranslated (UTR) regions. ..
  4. Wong G, Qiu X. Type I interferon receptor knockout mice as models for infection of highly pathogenic viruses with outbreak potential. Zool Res. 2018;39:3-14 pubmed publisher
    ..i>Flaviviridae, Filoviridae, Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Henipaviridae, and Togaviridae...
  5. Phillips A, Rico A, Stauft C, Hammond S, Aboellail T, Tjalkens R, et al. Entry Sites of Venezuelan and Western Equine Encephalitis Viruses in the Mouse Central Nervous System following Peripheral Infection. J Virol. 2016;90:5785-96 pubmed publisher
    Venezuelan and western equine encephalitis viruses (VEEV and WEEV; Alphavirus; Togaviridae) are mosquito-borne pathogens causing central nervous system (CNS) disease in humans and equids...
  6. Herath T, Ferguson H, Weidmann M, Bron J, Thompson K, Adams A, et al. Pathogenesis of experimental salmonid alphavirus infection in vivo: an ultrastructural insight. Vet Res. 2016;47:7 pubmed publisher
    Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus belonging to the family Togaviridae. It causes economically devastating disease in cultured salmonids...
  7. Camini F, da Silva Caetano C, Almeida L, de Brito Magalhães C. Implications of oxidative stress on viral pathogenesis. Arch Virol. 2017;162:907-917 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the modulation of reactive species production and oxidative stress potentially represents a novel pharmacological approach for reducing the consequences of viral pathogenesis. ..
  8. Laiton Donato K, Usme Ciro J, Rico A, Pardo L, Martinez C, Salas D, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of Chikungunya virus in Colombia: Evidence of purifying selection in the E1 gene. Biomedica. 2015;36:25-34 pubmed publisher
    ..virus (CHIKV) is a single-stranded positive sense RNA virus that belongs to the Alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae. Its genome is 11...
  9. Zhou Y, Xue S, Chen Y, Yang J. Probing Ca2+-binding capability of viral proteins with the EF-hand motif by grafting approach. Methods Mol Biol. 2013;963:37-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This protocol will be valuable for the prediction and identification of unknown Ca(2+)-binding sites in virus. ..
  10. Adışen E, Önder M. Viral infections of the folds (intertriginous areas). Clin Dermatol. 2015;33:429-36 pubmed publisher
    ..most commonly known agents for the cutaneous viral diseases, but other virus families, such as Adenoviridae, Togaviridae, Parvoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, and Hepadnaviridae, can also infect the skin...
  11. Mota M, Terzian A, Silva M, Estofolete C, Nogueira M. Mosquito-transmitted viruses - the great Brazilian challenge. Braz J Microbiol. 2016;47 Suppl 1:38-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These viruses form a very diverse group, and in Brazil, arboviruses belonging to the families Flaviviridae and Togaviridae are predominant...
  12. Sakata M, Mori Y. [The life cycle of Rubella Virus]. Uirusu. 2014;64:137-46 pubmed publisher
    Rubella virus (RV), an infectious agent of rubella, is the sole member of the genus Rubivirus in the family of Togaviridae. RV has a positive-stranded sense RNA as a genome...
  13. Fehr A, Jankevicius G, Ahel I, Perlman S. Viral Macrodomains: Unique Mediators of Viral Replication and Pathogenesis. Trends Microbiol. 2018;26:598-610 pubmed publisher
    Viruses from the Coronaviridae, Togaviridae, and Hepeviridae families ​all contain genes that encode a conserved protein domain, called a macrodomain; however, the role of this domain during infection has remained enigmatic...
  14. Amorim R, de Meneses M, Borges J, da Silva Pinheiro L, Caldas L, Cirne Santos C, et al. Thieno[2,3-b]pyridine derivatives: a new class of antiviral drugs against Mayaro virus. Arch Virol. 2017;162:1577-1587 pubmed publisher
    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is an arthropod-borne virus and a member of the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Its infection leads to an acute illness accompanied by long-lasting arthralgia...
  15. Martínez Medina M, Cañedo Dorame I. [First case of chikungunya fever in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico]. Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc. 2017;55:123-127 pubmed
    ..It is a virus within the alphavirus genus of the Togaviridae family, it is usually transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes...
  16. Carvalho N, Mendonca R, Oliveira M, Curti S, Barbosa T, Silva P, et al. Antiviral activity of hemolymph of Podalia against rubella virus. Cytotechnology. 2017;69:31-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Rubella virus (genus Rubivirus, family Togaviridae) is a single stranded RNA virus of positive genome polarity...
  17. Utt A, Quirin T, Saul S, Hellström K, Ahola T, Merits A. Versatile Trans-Replication Systems for Chikungunya Virus Allow Functional Analysis and Tagging of Every Replicase Protein. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0151616 pubmed publisher
    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV; genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae) has recently caused several major outbreaks affecting millions of people...
  18. Padhi A, Moore A, Brown M, Foster J, Pfeffer M, Gaines K, et al. Phylogeographical structure and evolutionary history of two Buggy Creek virus lineages in the western Great Plains of North America. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2122-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The phylogeography and evolution of BCRV could be better understood once we determine the nature of the ecological differences between the lineages...
  19. Trinh Q, Pham N, Takada K, Komine Aizawa S, Hayakawa S. Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein-Independent Rubella Infection of Keratinocytes and Resistance of First-Trimester Trophoblast Cells to Rubella Virus In Vitro. Viruses. 2018;10: pubmed publisher
    Rubella virus (RuV), which belongs to the family Togaviridae and genus Rubivirus, causes systemic infection in children and young adults and congenital rubella syndrome in developing fetuses if the infection occurs during ..
  20. Goodman C, Russell B, Velez J, Laven J, Nicholson W, Bagarozzi D, et al. Development of an algorithm for production of inactivated arbovirus antigens in cell culture. J Virol Methods. 2014;208:66-78 pubmed publisher
    ..culture antigen production algorithm for nine arboviruses from the three main arbovirus families, Flaviviridae, Togaviridae, and Bunyaviridae, is described here...
  21. Diciommo D, Duckett A, Burcescu I, Bremner R, Gallie B. Retinoblastoma protein purification and transduction of retina and retinoblastoma cells using improved alphavirus vectors. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:3320-9 pubmed
    ..To develop and use improved Semliki Forest vectors (SFVs) for functional and structural analyses of the retinoblastoma protein (RB) in developing retina and retinoblastoma cells...
  22. Albina E, Buffereau J. [Development and use of an immunoenzyme technique for the routine diagnosis of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome]. Rev Sci Tech. 1993;12:523-35 pubmed
    ..The test has been used for routine diagnosis of PRRS. The results obtained during nine months from over 21,000 samples have confirmed the value of the test for diagnosis and epidemiological surveillance of the disease...
  23. Shuto S, Obara T, Saito Y, Andrei G, Snoeck R, De Clercq E, et al. New neplanocin analogues. 6. Synthesis and potent antiviral activity of 6'-homoneplanocin A1. J Med Chem. 1996;39:2392-9 pubmed
    ..HNPA appears to be a promising candidate drug for the treatment of these viruses...
  24. Junt T, Heraud J, Lelarge J, Labeau B, Talarmin A. Determination of natural versus laboratory human infection with Mayaro virus by molecular analysis. Epidemiol Infect. 1999;123:511-3 pubmed
    A laboratory worker developed clinical signs of infection with Mayaro virus (Togaviridae), an arbovirus of South and Central America, 6 days after preparation of Mayaro viral antigen and 10 days after a trip to a rain forest...
  25. Lutwama J, Kayondo J, Savage H, Burkot T, Miller B. Epidemic O'Nyong-Nyong fever in southcentral Uganda, 1996-1997: entomologic studies in Bbaale village, Rakai District. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999;61:158-62 pubmed
    ..This virus was isolated for the first time from a culicine species, Mansonia (Mansonioides) uniformis Theobald. Bwamba virus and Nyando virus were also isolated from An. funestus...
  26. Paglini S. [Fractions from mouse brain which non-specifically inhibit the hemagglutination of various togaviruses]. Rev Argent Microbiol. 1983;15:73-81 pubmed
    ..Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the fractions are proteic in nature. Glyco- and lipoproteins were only present in the fraction with the inhibitory property. Only neutral lipids were demonstrated...
  27. Fontenille D, Mathiot C, Rodhain F, Coulanges P. [Arbovirus infections on the island of Nosy-Be; serologic and entomologic findings]. Arch Inst Pasteur Madagascar. 1988;54:101-15 pubmed
    ..Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are both present. Arbovirus isolation attempts from 394 mosquito pools failed; only Mengo virus was isolated from four pools of Erethmapodites quinquevittatus and one pool of Aedes (Skusea) sp...
  28. Fagan E, Ellis D, Tovey G, Lloyd G, Smith H, Portmann B, et al. Toga virus-like particles in acute liver failure attributed to sporadic non-A, non-B hepatitis and recurrence after liver transplantation. J Med Virol. 1992;38:71-7 pubmed
    ..The agent may be novel because pre- and post-grafting sera were negative for antibodies against representative panels of arboviruses and in first and second generation antibody tests for hepatitis C virus...
  29. Matejusova I, Lester K, Li Z, Bravo J, Bland F, Collet B. Comparison of complete polyprotein sequences of two isolates of salmon alphavirus (SAV) type I and their behaviour in a salmonid cell line. Arch Virol. 2013;158:2143-6 pubmed publisher
    Salmon pancreas disease virus is an alphavirus (family Togaviridae) affecting mainly Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)...
  30. Tee S, Horadagoda N, Mogg T. Kunjin flaviviral encephalomyelitis in an Arabian gelding in New South Wales, Australia. Aust Vet J. 2012;90:321-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This case report describes an Arabian gelding exhibiting neurological signs of flavivirus encephalomyelitis, the diagnostic investigation and confirmation of an unreported case of Kunjin virus equine encephalomyelitis in Australia...
  31. Mori Y, Otsuki N, Sakata M, Okamoto K. [Virology of the family Togaviridae]. Uirusu. 2011;61:211-9 pubmed
    ..medicine, veterinary medicine or public health belong to the genera alphavirus and rubivirus within the family Togaviridae. 29 species of alphaviruses have been reported, and most of them are arboviruses...
  32. Nalca A, Fellows P, Whitehouse C. Vaccines and animal models for arboviral encephalitides. Antiviral Res. 2003;60:153-74 pubmed
    ..The most significant arboviruses causing human illness belong to genera in three viral families, Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Bunyaviridae...
  33. Brahem A, Demarquez N, Beyrie M, Vuillaume A, Fleury H. A highly virulent togavirus-like agent associated with the fulminating disease of guinea fowl. Avian Dis. 1992;36:143-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, other enveloped particles have been occasionally detected in gut contents of both infected and uninfected birds; the improbability of the viral nature of these interfering particles is discussed...
  34. Kuno G. Universal diagnostic RT-PCR protocol for arboviruses. J Virol Methods. 1998;72:27-41 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the best pair or pairs of primers need to be selected for each virus for the second stage of the strategy...
  35. Woldehiwet Z, Sharma R. Alterations in lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood of sheep persistently infected with border disease virus. Vet Microbiol. 1990;22:153-60 pubmed
    ..001). Peripheral lymphocytes obtained from persistently infected sheep showed significantly reduced blastogenesis induced by PHA than those obtained from normal sheep (P less than 0.001)...
  36. Magar R, Robinson Y, Dubuc C, Larochelle R. Isolation and experimental oral transmission in pigs of a porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolate. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1995;380:139-44 pubmed
    ..The results of this experimental transmission study indicate that pigs may become infected by PRRSV following oral as well as intranasal exposure...
  37. Horling J, Vene S, Franzen C, Niklasson B. Detection of Ockelbo virus RNA in skin biopsies by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol. 1993;31:2004-9 pubmed
    ..Acute- and convalescent-phase sera as well as lymphocytes collected during the convalescent phase were negative by the polymerase chain reaction. No infectious virus could be recovered from any of the specimens...
  38. House C, House J, Yedloutschnig R. Inactivation of viral agents in bovine serum by gamma irradiation. Can J Microbiol. 1990;36:737-40 pubmed
    ..25, 0.998; Aino, 0.35, 0.997; bovine ephemeral fever, 0.29, 0.961; swine vesicular disease, 0.50, 0.969; foot-and-mouth disease, 0.53, 0.978; hog cholera, 0.55, 0.974; bluetongue, 0.83, 0.958; and minute virus of mice, 1.07, 0.935...
  39. Pavlovic J, Zurcher T, Haller O, Staeheli P. Resistance to influenza virus and vesicular stomatitis virus conferred by expression of human MxA protein. J Virol. 1990;64:3370-5 pubmed
  40. Juricová Z, Hubalek Z, Halouzka J, Pellantová J, Chytil J. Haemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies against arboviruses of the families Togaviridae and Bunyaviridae in birds caught in southern Moravia, Czechoslovakia. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 1987;34:281-4 pubmed
    ..Antibodies against all studied viruses were detected at different frequencies: SIN 6.4%, TBE 7.1%, WN 9.7%, TAH 16.3%, CVO 12.1%, and BHA 1.0%...
  41. Shahar A, Lustig S, Akov Y, David Y, Schneider P, Levin R. Different pathogenicity of encephalitic togaviruses in organotypic cultures of spinal cord slices. J Neurosci Res. 1990;25:345-52 pubmed
    ..Long-term exposure of non-infected control organotypic cultures of fetal spinal cord slices to mouse interferons had no significant effect on neuronal and glial differentiation, and myelin formation...
  42. Figueiredo L. [The use of Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells in the propagation and classification of arbovirus of the Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae and Rhabdoviridae families]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 1990;23:13-8 pubmed
    C6/36 Aedes albopictus cells were infected with Brazilian arbovirus from the families Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae and Rhabdoviridae...
  43. Pereira H, Rebello M. Inhibition of Mayaro virus replication by cerulenin in Aedes albopictus cells. Acta Virol. 1998;42:383-8 pubmed
    ..The possibility that cerulenin acts by blocking an initial step in the Mayaro virus replication after virus entry and before late viral translation is discussed...
  44. Cavanagh D, Brian D, Brinton M, Enjuanes L, Holmes K, Horzinek M, et al. The Coronaviridae now comprises two genera, coronavirus and torovirus: report of the Coronaviridae Study Group. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1993;342:255-7 pubmed
    ..Following another proposal, the arterivirus genus was removed from the Togaviridae but not assigned to another family...
  45. Diaz L, Spinsanti L, Almiron W, Contigiani M. UNA virus: first report of human infection in Argentina. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2003;45:109-10 pubmed
    Una virus (UNAV), Togaviridae family, is widely distributed in South America, where infections have been detected in mosquitoes and vertebrate hosts (humans, birds and horses)...
  46. Yoon K, Zimmerman J, Swenson S, McGinley M, Eernisse K, Brevik A, et al. Characterization of the humoral immune response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) virus infection. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1995;7:305-12 pubmed
    ..Thereafter, the antibody responses to these 3 viral proteins of PRRS virus continued to be detected throughout the 105-day study period.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  47. Urbanowski M, Ilkow C, Hobman T. Modulation of signaling pathways by RNA virus capsid proteins. Cell Signal. 2008;20:1227-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we describe how the capsid proteins from medically relevant RNA viruses interact with host cell signaling pathways...
  48. Cooper V, Doster A, Hesse R, Harris N. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: NEB-1 PRRSV infection did not potentiate bacterial pathogens. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1995;7:313-20 pubmed
    ..Findings in phase I indicated that NEB-1 PRRSV does not potentiate bacterial disease while inducing consistent clinical signs, viremia, seroconversion, and microscopic lesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  49. Azevedo R, Silva E, Carvalho V, Rodrigues S, Nunes Neto J, Monteiro H, et al. Mayaro fever virus, Brazilian Amazon. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1830-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients had rash, fever, and severe arthralgia lasting up to 7 days. Immunoglobulin M against MAYV was detected by ELISA in 36 persons; 3 MAYV isolates sequenced were characterized as genotype D...
  50. Borgia G, Cicciarello S, Lambiase A, Nasti G, Tallarino A, Reynaud L, et al. Aetiological association of virus like particles with hepatitis C. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1990;66:1231-5 pubmed
    ..Immunoelectron microscopy assay revealed small aggregates of viral particles. Size and morphological criteria suggest that these particles can be classified as Togaviridae.
  51. Yamamoto K, Kitano T, Arai Y, Yoshii K, Hasobe M, Saneyoshi M. Inhibitory effect of a new antibiotic, guanine 7-N-oxide, on the replication of several RNA viruses. Antiviral Res. 1990;14:173-8 pubmed
    ..G-7-Ox showed broad anti-RNA viral activity against all viruses tested, except for poliovirus. Inhibition of persistent SV5 infection by G-7-Ox indicates that its antiviral activity is independent of cytotoxicity...
  52. Kuo L, Harty J, Erickson L, Palmer G, Plagemann P. A nested set of eight RNAs is formed in macrophages infected with lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus. J Virol. 1991;65:5118-23 pubmed
    ..However, EAV and LDV differ from the latter in the size of their genomes, virion size and structure, nature of the structural proteins, and symmetry of the nucleocapsids...
  53. Nylund A, Plarre H, Hodneland K, Devold M, Aspehaug V, Aarseth M, et al. Haemorrhagic smolt syndrome (HSS) in Norway: pathology and associated virus-like particles. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;54:15-27 pubmed
    ..The Type I particle seems to be an infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN)-like virus, while (based on the number of target cells, particle morphology, budding and uptake into target cells) Type II particle could be a togavirus...
  54. Wang Y, Yang S, Sun Y. [The arboviruses of genus alphavirus family togaviridae were isolated from mosquitoes captured from Yantai]. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi. 2000;14:181-3 pubmed
    ..To isolate arbovirus from mosquitoes caught from Yantai...
  55. Baron T, Albina E, Leforban Y, Madec F, Guilmoto H, Plana Duran J, et al. Report on the first outbreaks of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in France. Diagnosis and viral isolation. Ann Rech Vet. 1992;23:161-6 pubmed
  56. Outhred A, Kok J, Dwyer D. Viral arthritides. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011;9:545-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In general, viral arthritides are self-limiting and treatment is targeted at symptomatic relief. This article focuses on the causes, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of viral arthritides...
  57. Hubalek Z. Mosquito-borne viruses in Europe. Parasitol Res. 2008;103 Suppl 1:S29-43 pubmed publisher
    ..occurring in Europe since the twentieth century now stands at ten; they belong to three families-Togaviridae (Sindbis, Chikungunya), Flaviviridae (West Nile, Usutu, Dengue), and Bunyaviridae (Batai, Tahyna, Snowshoe hare,..
  58. Jørgensen J, Johansen A, Hegseth M, Zou J, Robertsen B, Collet B, et al. A recombinant CHSE-214 cell line expressing an Mx1 promoter-reporter system responds to both interferon type I and type II from salmonids and represents a versatile tool to study the IFN-system in teleost fish. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;23:1294-303 pubmed
    ..A preliminary study presented herein suggests that both infectious pancreas necrosis virus (IPNV) and salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV) may block activation of the Mx promoter in CHSE-Mx10 stimulated with IFN-alpha/beta...
  59. Dominguez G, Wang C, Frey T. Sequence of the genome RNA of rubella virus: evidence for genetic rearrangement during togavirus evolution. Virology. 1990;177:225-38 pubmed
    ..The order of the helicase motif and the nsP3 homology region in the RUB genome is reversed with respect to the alphavirus genome indicating that a genetic rearrangement has occurred during the evolution of these viruses...
  60. Janot C, Botte C. [Hepatitis C virus]. Rev Fr Transfus Hemobiol. 1992;35:155-62 pubmed
    ..Major information were recently appearing about the nucleotide sequences of different isolates coming from US, Europe and Japan; -the preparation of specific tool (ELISA anti-HCV) for detection of circulating HCV antibodies...
  61. Mehta S, Webb H. The effect of gold sodium thiomalate in adult Swiss/A2G mice infected with togaviruses and flaviviruses. J Gen Virol. 1987;68 ( Pt 10):2665-8 pubmed
    ..These changes were associated with an enhanced virus invasion of the brain. Depression of the humoral antibody response was not observed...
  62. Godeny E, Werner M, Brinton M. The 3'terminus of lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus genome RNA does not contain togavirus or flavivirus conserved sequences. Virology. 1989;172:647-50 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the LDV 3' sequence with those of the alpha togaviruses, rubella virus, and the flaviviruses showed that the LDV genome does not contain conserved 3' sequences characteristic of these viruses...
  63. Fazakerley J, Ross A. Computer analysis suggests a role for signal sequences in processing polyproteins of enveloped RNA viruses and as a mechanism of viral fusion. Virus Genes. 1989;2:223-39 pubmed
    ..This suggests a mechanism of viral fusion analogous to that by which proteins are translocated through the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum at synthesis...
  64. Carvalho M, Mezêncio J, Rebello M, Freitas M. Modulation in response to temperature of Mayaro virus proteosynthesis in Aedes Albopictus cells. Acta Virol. 1989;33:235-45 pubmed
    ..In addition, preferential synthesis of three major virus proteins of 62 kD, 50 kD and 34 kD was observed, when infected cells incubated at 37 degrees C were shifted down to 28 degrees C...
  65. Cook R, Gann S, Mumford J. The effects of vaccination with tissue culture-derived viral vaccines on detection of antibodies to equine arteritis virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Vet Microbiol. 1989;20:181-9 pubmed
    ..Non-viral protein contaminants were found to be closely associated with EAV in that they co-purified with the virus during gradient centrifugation...
  66. Ito Y, Tsurudome M, Bando H, Komada H, Nishio M. Incomplete replication of human parainfluenza virus type 2 in mouse L929 cells. Arch Virol. 1989;108:137-44 pubmed
    ..Synthesis of virus-specific polypeptides, particularly glycoprotein(s), was suppressed in HPIV-2-infected L929 cells. The HN mRNA could scarcely be detected in virus-infected L929 cells...
  67. Lundstrom J, Vene S, Espmark A, Engvall M, Niklasson B. Geographical and temporal distribution of Ockelbo disease in Sweden. Epidemiol Infect. 1991;106:567-74 pubmed
  68. Karlin S, Brendel V. Charge configurations in viral proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:9396-400 pubmed
    ..This contrast might reflect the role of protein charge structures in facilitating competitive virus-host interactions involving the cellular transcription, translation, protein sorting, and transport apparatus...
  69. Sampieri L, Sartori T, Paglini S. [Propagation of Pixuna virus in rat embryo cultures]. Rev Argent Microbiol. 1984;16:45-8 pubmed
    ..D-glucosamine did not affect the infectivity titer of the Pixuna virus when 11 day-old embryo cultures were used. In these cultures the eclipse phase was observed between 15 and 90 min post-absorption (Figure 1)...
  70. Mezencio J, Rebello M. Mayaro virus proteins. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1993;88:299-304 pubmed
    ..The 34 KDa protein was the first viral protein synthesized at 5 hours post-infection in both cell lines studied...
  71. Kibenge F, Whyte S, Hammell K, Rainnie D, Kibenge M, Martin C. A dual infection of infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) virus and a togavirus-like virus in ISA of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in New Brunswick, Canada. Dis Aquat Organ. 2000;42:11-5 pubmed
    ..This study confirms that the original ISA outbreaks in New Brunswick, Canada, were caused solely by ISAV...
  72. Taylor A, O Leary J, Pollock S, Zitzmann N. Conservation of hydrophobicity within viral envelope glycoproteins reveals a putative hepatitis C virus fusion peptide. Protein Pept Lett. 2009;16:815-22 pubmed
    ..conservation in the TD region was identified in the E and E1 glycoproteins of members of the Flaviviridae and Togaviridae families, respectively...
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