Summary: A genus of polyhedral plant viruses of the family COMOVIRIDAE causing ringspots and spotting on leaves or sometimes symptomless infection. Transmission occurs by seeds, soil nematodes, or experimentally by mechanical inoculation. Tobacco ringspot virus is the type species.

Top Publications

  1. Zadeh A, Foster G. Cloning and sequencing of the coat protein gene of tobacco ringspot virus isolates from UK and Iran. Acta Virol. 2001;45:319-26 pubmed
    ..CP) gene and the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of genomic RNA 2 of Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV, the genus Nepovirus, subgroup a) isolates from the UK and Iran were cloned from total viral RNA and sequenced...
  2. Siddiqui S, Sarmiento C, Kiisma M, Koivumäki S, Lemmetty A, Truve E, et al. Effects of viral silencing suppressors on tobacco ringspot virus infection in two Nicotiana species. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1502-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Very strong and consistent systemic infections were observed in HcPro- and AC2-expressing plants. ..
  3. Ritzenthaler C, Laporte C, Gaire F, Dunoyer P, Schmitt C, Duval S, et al. Grapevine fanleaf virus replication occurs on endoplasmic reticulum-derived membranes. J Virol. 2002;76:8808-19 pubmed
    Infection by Grapevine fanleaf nepovirus (GFLV), a bipartite RNA virus of positive polarity belonging to the Comoviridae family, causes extensive cytopathic modifications of the host endomembrane system that eventually culminate in the ..
  4. Wang A, Han S, Sanfaçon H. Topogenesis in membranes of the NTB-VPg protein of Tomato ringspot nepovirus: definition of the C-terminal transmembrane domain. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:535-45 pubmed
    The putative NTP-binding protein (NTB) of Tomato ringspot nepovirus (ToRSV) contains a hydrophobic region at its C terminus consisting of two adjacent stretches of hydrophobic amino acids separated by a few amino acids...
  5. Wetzel T, Bassler A, Amren M, Krczal G. A RT/PCR-partial restriction enzymatic mapping (PREM) method for the molecular characterisation of the large satellite RNAs of Arabis mosaic virus isolates. J Virol Methods. 2006;132:97-103 pubmed
    ..Conserved domains were found in the amino and carboxy-termini between the sequences of the proteins encoded by the satellites of the different isolates of ArMV...
  6. Zhang G, Sanfaçon H. Characterization of membrane association domains within the Tomato ringspot nepovirus X2 protein, an endoplasmic reticulum-targeted polytopic membrane protein. J Virol. 2006;80:10847-57 pubmed
    ..We have previously shown that the putative nucleoside triphosphate-binding protein (NTB) of Tomato ringspot nepovirus is an integral membrane protein with two ER-targeting sequences and have suggested that it anchors the viral ..
  7. Le Gall O, Sanfaçon H, Ikegami M, Iwanami T, Jones T, Karasev A, et al. Cheravirus and Sadwavirus: two unassigned genera of plant positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses formerly considered atypical members of the genus Nepovirus (family Comoviridae). Arch Virol. 2007;152:1767-74 pubmed
    The genus Nepovirus (family Comoviridae) was known both for a good level of homogeneity and for the presence of atypical members. In particular, the atypical members of the genus differed by the number of capsid protein (CP) subunits...
  8. Karetnikov A, Lehto K. Translation mechanisms involving long-distance base pairing interactions between the 5' and 3' non-translated regions and internal ribosomal entry are conserved for both genomic RNAs of Blackcurrant reversion nepovirus. Virology. 2008;371:292-308 pubmed
    ..Previously, we have demonstrated that the RNA2 3' NTR of Blackcurrant reversion nepovirus (BRV) contains a CITE, which must base pair with the 5' NTR to facilitate translation...
  9. Wetzel T, Chisholm J, Bassler A, Sanfaçon H. Characterization of proteinase cleavage sites in the N-terminal region of the RNA1-encoded polyprotein from Arabis mosaic virus (subgroup A nepovirus). Virology. 2008;375:159-69 pubmed publisher
    Arabis mosaic virus is a subgroup A nepovirus. The RNA1-encoded polyprotein (P1) contains the domains for the NTP-binding protein (NTB), VPg, proteinase (Pro) and polymerase at its C-terminus...

More Information

Publications125 found, 100 shown here

  1. Isogai M, Tatuto N, Ujiie C, Watanabe M, Yoshikawa N. Identification and characterization of blueberry latent spherical virus, a new member of subgroup C in the genus Nepovirus. Arch Virol. 2012;157:297-303 pubmed publisher
    A new member of the genus Nepovirus was isolated from blueberry in Japan. The virus was associated with latent infection of blueberry trees and provisionally named blueberry latent spherical virus (BLSV)...
  2. Lamprecht R, Maree H, Stephan D, Burger J. Complete nucleotide sequence of a South African isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus. Virus Genes. 2012;45:406-10 pubmed
    ..Recombination analysis software has indicated that the GFLV-SAPCS3 5'-UTR might have evolved from a recombinational event between GFLV-F13-type and ArMV-Ta-type isolate...
  3. Hans F, Pinck M, Pinck L. Location of the replication determinants of the satellite RNA associated with grapevine fanleaf nepovirus (strain F13). Biochimie. 1993;75:597-603 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the in vitro translation products from transcripts of RNA3 clones of different lengths indicates that the double band formed by P3 could result from phosphorylation of a part of this protein...
  4. Wetzel T, Meunier L, Jaeger U, Reustle G, Krczal G. Complete nucleotide sequences of the RNAs 2 of German isolates of grapevine fanleaf and Arabis mosaic nepoviruses. Virus Res. 2001;75:139-45 pubmed
  5. Andret Link P, Schmitt Keichinger C, Demangeat G, Komar V, Fuchs M. The specific transmission of Grapevine fanleaf virus by its nematode vector Xiphinema index is solely determined by the viral coat protein. Virology. 2004;320:12-22 pubmed
    ..that are different within the 9 C-terminal 2BMP residues between GFLV and Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), another nepovirus which is transmitted by Xiphinema diversicaudatum but not by X. index, were subjected to mutational analysis...
  6. Zhang S, Zhang G, Yang L, Chisholm J, Sanfaçon H. Evidence that insertion of Tomato ringspot nepovirus NTB-VPg protein in endoplasmic reticulum membranes is directed by two domains: a C-terminal transmembrane helix and an N-terminal amphipathic helix. J Virol. 2005;79:11752-65 pubmed
    The NTB-VPg protein of Tomato ringspot nepovirus is an integral membrane protein found in association with endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived membranes active in virus replication...
  7. Jovel J, Walker M, Sanfaçon H. Recovery of Nicotiana benthamiana plants from a necrotic response induced by a nepovirus is associated with RNA silencing but not with reduced virus titer. J Virol. 2007;81:12285-97 pubmed
    ..For example, recovery of Nicotiana clevelandii from a nepovirus (tomato black ring virus) is associated with a decreased viral RNA concentration and sequence-specific ..
  8. Mekuria T, Gutha L, Martin R, Naidu R. Genome diversity and intra- and interspecies recombination events in Grapevine fanleaf virus. Phytopathology. 2009;99:1394-402 pubmed publisher
    ..These results confirm interspecies recombination in RNA2 of grapevine-infecting nepoviruses as an important strategy for GFLV evolution...
  9. Schellenberger P, Demangeat G, Lemaire O, Ritzenthaler C, Bergdoll M, Olieric V, et al. Strategies for the crystallization of viruses: using phase diagrams and gels to produce 3D crystals of Grapevine fanleaf virus. J Struct Biol. 2011;174:344-51 pubmed publisher
    The small icosahedral plant RNA nepovirus Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) is specifically transmitted by a nematode and causes major damage to vineyards worldwide...
  10. Latvala Kilby S, Lemmetty A, Lehto K. Molecular characterization of a satellite RNA associated with blackcurrant reversion nepovirus. Arch Virol. 2000;145:51-61 pubmed
    A satellite RNA (satRNA) associated with blackcurrant reversion nepovirus (BRV) was isolated and its nucleotide sequence was determined from cDNA clones...
  11. Laporte C, Vetter G, Loudes A, Robinson D, Hillmer S, Stussi Garaud C, et al. Involvement of the secretory pathway and the cytoskeleton in intracellular targeting and tubule assembly of Grapevine fanleaf virus movement protein in tobacco BY-2 cells. Plant Cell. 2003;15:2058-75 pubmed
  12. Wetzel T, Beck A, Wegener U, Krczal G. Complete nucleotide sequence of the RNA 1 of a grapevine isolate of Arabis mosaic virus. Arch Virol. 2004;149:989-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Amino acid sequence comparisons between the polyproteins encoded by the RNAs 1 of ArMV-NW and other nepoviruses showed 75% identity with the GFLV-F13, and up to 36% with other nepoviruses...
  13. Vigne E, Marmonier A, Fuchs M. Multiple interspecies recombination events within RNA2 of Grapevine fanleaf virus and Arabis mosaic virus. Arch Virol. 2008;153:1771-6 pubmed publisher
  14. Schellenberger P, Andret Link P, Schmitt Keichinger C, Bergdoll M, Marmonier A, Vigne E, et al. A stretch of 11 amino acids in the betaB-betaC loop of the coat protein of grapevine fanleaf virus is essential for transmission by the nematode Xiphinema index. J Virol. 2010;84:7924-33 pubmed publisher
    Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) and Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV) from the genus Nepovirus, family Secoviridae, cause a severe degeneration of grapevines...
  15. Oliver J, Vigne E, Fuchs M. Genetic structure and molecular variability of Grapevine fanleaf virus populations. Virus Res. 2010;152:30-40 pubmed publisher
    To gain insights into the evolutionary mechanisms of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) from the genus Nepovirus, family Secoviridae, the sequences of the complete coding region of RNA2, including genes 2A(HP), 2B(MP) and 2C(CP), and partial ..
  16. Elbeaino T, Digiaro M, Fallanaj F, Kuzmanovic S, Martelli G. Complete nucleotide sequence and genome organisation of grapevine Bulgarian latent virus. Arch Virol. 2011;156:875-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Both RNAs have a poly(A) tail and a NCR at the 3' and 5' termini, respectively. The results of this study confirm the classification of GBLV as a member of a distinct species in subgroup C of the genus Nepovirus.
  17. Schellenberger P, Sauter C, Lorber B, Bron P, Trapani S, Bergdoll M, et al. Structural insights into viral determinants of nematode mediated Grapevine fanleaf virus transmission. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002034 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide a first structural insight into the interactions between a plant virus and a nematode vector...
  18. Rott M, Gilchrist A, Lee L, Rochon D. Nucleotide sequence of tomato ringspot virus RNA1. J Gen Virol. 1995;76 ( Pt 2):465-73 pubmed publisher
    The nucleotide sequence of tomato ringspot nepovirus (TomRSV) RNA1 has been determined...
  19. Elbeaino T, Digiaro M, Ghebremeskel S, Martelli G. Grapevine deformation virus: completion of the sequence and evidence on its origin from recombination events between Grapevine fanleaf virus and Arabis mosaic virus. Virus Res. 2012;166:136-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This strongly suggests that GDefV originated from the interspecific recombination between isolates of GFLV and ArMV...
  20. Karetnikov A, Lehto K. The RNA2 5' leader of Blackcurrant reversion virus mediates efficient in vivo translation through an internal ribosomal entry site mechanism. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:286-97 pubmed
    ..Similar mRNA-rRNA base-pairing potential was also predicted for the 5' leaders of other nepoviruses. ..
  21. Ikegami M, Kawashima H, Natsuaki T, Sugimura N. Complete nucleotide sequence of the genome organization of RNA2 of patchouli mild mosaic virus, a new favavirus. Arch Virol. 1998;143:2431-4 pubmed
    ..Comparison of PaMMV RNA 2 with comoviral and nepoviral RNA 2 showed no sequence similarity. These results as well as previous serological studies strongly suggest that PaMMV is a member in the genus Fabavirus...
  22. Khateri H, Moarrefzadeh N, Mosahebi G, Koohi Habibi M. Virus diseases in the tobacco fields of Guilan and Western Azerbaijan provinces of Iran. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2008;73:307-10 pubmed
    ..Azerbaijan, the above mentioned viruses were present in all sampling regions. The lack of TMV infection on Burley 21 is due to the presence of N gene, conferring resistance in this variety...
  23. Pribylova J, Spak J, Kubelková D. Mixed infection of black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) plants with Blackcurrant reversion associated virus and rhabdovirus-like particles with symptoms of black currant reversion disease. Acta Virol. 2002;46:253-6 pubmed
    ..Clusters of particles either within the nucleus or in the perinuclear space were membrane-bound. We bring evidence on the occurrence of the severe (R) form of BCRD and the first evidence of BRAV in the Czech Republic. ..
  24. Chisholm J, Zhang G, Wang A, Sanfaçon H. Peripheral association of a polyprotein precursor form of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Tomato ringspot virus with the membrane-bound viral replication complex. Virology. 2007;368:133-44 pubmed
    ..However, the VPg, Pro and Pol domains did not target to membranes in the absence of viral infection. We propose a model in which VPg-Pro-Pol' is brought to the site of replication through interaction with a viral membrane protein. ..
  25. Vigne E, Gottula J, Schmitt Keichinger C, Komar V, Ackerer L, Belval L, et al. A strain-specific segment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of grapevine fanleaf virus determines symptoms in Nicotiana species. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:2803-13 pubmed publisher
    Factors involved in symptom expression of viruses from the genus Nepovirus in the family Secoviridae such as grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) are poorly characterized...
  26. Adams I, Boonham N, Jones R. First Complete Genome Sequence of Arracacha virus A Isolated from a 38-Year-Old Sample from Peru. Genome Announc. 2017;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Its RNA1 and RNA2 both had greatest amino acid identities with those of the subgroup A nepovirus Melon mild mottle virus.
  27. Fattouch S, Acheche H, M hirsi S, Mellouli L, Bejar S, Marrakchi M, et al. RT-PCR-RFLP for genetic diversity analysis of Tunisian Grapevine fanleaf virus isolates in their natural host plants. J Virol Methods. 2005;127:126-32 pubmed
    ..Individual genomes were recovered by cloning the RT-PCR products. The sequences were found to vary from each other by as much as 11%. Cloning from mixed infections showed that Sp2 are also predominant. ..
  28. Hasiów Jaroszewska B, Borodynko N, Figlerowicz M, Pospieszny H. Two types of defective RNAs arising from the tomato black ring virus genome. Arch Virol. 2012;157:569-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The second one included a portion of the coding region for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase flanked by a short fragment of the 5' UTR and the entire 3' UTR. The possible nature and origin of these RNA species is discussed. ..
  29. Han S, Karasev A, Ieki H, Iwanami T. Nucleotide sequence and taxonomy of Cycas necrotic stunt virus. Brief report. Arch Virol. 2002;147:2207-14 pubmed
    ..polyproteins encoded by RNA1 and RNA2 had sets of motifs, which were characteristic of viruses in the genus Nepovirus. The polyproteins showed higher sequence identities to Artichoke Italian latent virus, Grapevine chrome mosaic ..
  30. Sgherri C, Ranieri A, Quartacci M. Antioxidative responses in Vitis vinifera infected by grapevine fanleaf virus. J Plant Physiol. 2013;170:121-8 pubmed publisher
    ..With time, grapevine plants lost their capacity to contrast the spread of grapevine fanleaf virus, but acquired a greater ability to counteract pathogen-induced oxidative stress, being endowed with more reduced antioxidant pools. ..
  31. Feldstein P, Levy L, Randles J, Owens R. Synthesis and two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of mixed populations of circular and linear RNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;25:4850-4 pubmed
    ..Only a single DNA template is required to prepare each pair of circular and linear RNA markers. ..
  32. Jelly N, Schellenbaum P, Walter B, Maillot P. Transient expression of artificial microRNAs targeting Grapevine fanleaf virus and evidence for RNA silencing in grapevine somatic embryos. Transgenic Res. 2012;21:1319-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of amiRNA ectopic expression in grapevine. The constructs we developed could be useful for engineering GFLV-resistant grapes in the future. ..
  33. Bashir N, Zarghani S, Hejazi M. Diversity of Grapevine fanleaf virus isolates from Iran. Virus Res. 2007;128:144-8 pubmed
    ..This is the first report on sequence analysis of nearly full-length CP cDNA clones of GFLV isolates from Iran. ..
  34. Buchhop J, von Bargen S, Büttner C. Differentiation of Cherry leaf roll virus isolates from various host plants by immunocapture-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism according to phylogenetic relations. J Virol Methods. 2009;157:147-54 pubmed publisher
  35. Beclin C, Berthomé R, Palauqui J, Tepfer M, Vaucheret H. Infection of tobacco or Arabidopsis plants by CMV counteracts systemic post-transcriptional silencing of nonviral (trans)genes. Virology. 1998;252:313-7 pubmed
    Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) infection but not tomato black ring nepovirus infection counteracted post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of nitrate reductase (Nia) or beta-glucuronidase (uidA) transgenes in newly developing ..
  36. Moarrefzadeh N, Khateri H, Koohi Habibi M, Mosahebi G, Hosseini A. Evaluating the efficiency of a TPIA method for the detection of two tobacco viruses. Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2006;71:1217-20 pubmed
    ..This method gives more rapid results (within a day) in comparison with DAS-ELISA that needs more time. ..
  37. Babu B, Jeyaprakash A, Jones D, Schubert T, Baker C, Washburn B, et al. Development of a rapid, sensitive TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of Rose rosette virus using multiple gene targets. J Virol Methods. 2016;235:41-50 pubmed publisher
    ..other representative viruses infecting roses, belonging to the genera Alfamovirus, Cucumovirus, Ilarvirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, and Tospovirus and one Emaravirus (Wheat mosaic virus)...
  38. Passmore B, van Tol H, Buzayan J, Stabinsky D, Bruening G. Trace amount of satellite RNA associated with tobacco ringspot virus: increase stimulated by nonaccumulating satellite RNA mutants. Virology. 1995;209:470-9 pubmed
    ..Ten other nonaccumulating sTRSV RNA mutants did not induce a detected increase in sTRSV RNA. ..
  39. Thompson J, Leone G, Lindner J, Jelkmann W, Schoen C. Characterization and complete nucleotide sequence of Strawberry mottle virus: a tentative member of a new family of bipartite plant picorna-like viruses. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:229-39 pubmed publisher
    ..protein, protease and polymerase (RdRp), and shares its closest similarity with RNA1 of the tentative nepovirus Satsuma dwarf virus (SDV)...
  40. Shippy R, Siwkowski A, Hampel A. Mutational analysis of loops 1 and 5 of the hairpin ribozyme. Biochemistry. 1998;37:564-70 pubmed
  41. Jonczyk M, Borodynko N, Pospieszny H. Restriction analysis of genetic variability of Polish isolates of Tomato black ring virus. Acta Biochim Pol. 2004;51:673-81 pubmed
    ..On the basis of the restriction patterns, the variable and the conserved regions of the TBRV genome were defined and the relationships between the Polish TBRV isolates established. ..
  42. Wei T, Lu G, Clover G. Novel approaches to mitigate primer interaction and eliminate inhibitors in multiplex PCR, demonstrated using an assay for detection of three strawberry viruses. J Virol Methods. 2008;151:132-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These approaches may be useful as a guideline for the development of multiplex PCR protocols for the detection of other pathogens or organisms associated with plants, humans, animals and the environment. ..
  43. Spitale R, Volpini R, Mungillo M, Krucinska J, Cristalli G, Wedekind J. Single-atom imino substitutions at A9 and A10 reveal distinct effects on the fold and function of the hairpin ribozyme catalytic core. Biochemistry. 2009;48:7777-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the imino moiety of A9 promotes a key water-mediated contact that favors transition-state formation, which suggests an enhanced chemical repertoire for RNA. ..
  44. Kitajima E, Chagas C, Rodrigues J. Brevipalpus-transmitted plant virus and virus-like diseases: cytopathology and some recent cases. Exp Appl Acarol. 2003;30:135-60 pubmed
    ..In a few cases, both types of cytopathological effects have been found in the same tissue and cell. ..
  45. Lopez Fabuel I, Wetzel T, Bertolini E, Bassler A, Vidal E, Torres L, et al. Real-time multiplex RT-PCR for the simultaneous detection of the five main grapevine viruses. J Virol Methods. 2013;188:21-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Real-time multiplex RT-PCR could be used to facilitate a better control of grapevine viruses...
  46. De Souza J, Muller G, Perez W, Cuellar W, Kreuze J. Complete sequence and variability of a new subgroup B nepovirus infecting potato in central Peru. Arch Virol. 2017;162:885-889 pubmed publisher
    The complete bipartite genome (RNA1 and RNA2) of a new nepovirus infecting potato was obtained using small RNA sequencing and assembly complemented by Sanger sequencing...
  47. Komatsu Y, Kanzaki I, Shirai M, Kumagai I, Yamashita S, Ohtsuka E. Functional domain-assembly in hairpin ribozymes. J Biochem. 2000;127:531-6 pubmed
    ..Our experiments and other evidence suggest that the active structure has a bent conformation, and that domain-interactions are essential for the cleavage activity. ..
  48. Passmore B, Bruening G. Similar structure and reactivity of satellite tobacco ringspot virus RNA obtained from infected tissue and by in vitro transcription. Virology. 1993;197:108-15 pubmed
    ..Circles were not detected in encapsidated RNA. We interpret our results in the context of a rolling circle model for satellite RNA replication. ..
  49. Murchie A, Thomson J, Walter F, Lilley D. Folding of the hairpin ribozyme in its natural conformation achieves close physical proximity of the loops. Mol Cell. 1998;1:873-81 pubmed
    ..The ribozyme is active as a four-way junction, and the rate of cleavage may be modulated by the conformation of the four-way junction. ..
  50. Manganaris G, Economou A, Boubourakas I, Katis N. Elimination of PPV and PNRSV through thermotherapy and meristem-tip culture in nectarine. Plant Cell Rep. 2003;22:195-200 pubmed
    ..The combination of an efficient protocol for virus elimination and the establishment of highly sensitive diagnostics resulted in the production of nectarine plants free from PPV and PNRSV. ..
  51. Zadeh A, Foster G. Transgenic resistance to tobacco ringspot virus. Acta Virol. 2004;48:145-52 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, 100% of seed transmission was blocked in a resistant line, which offers important prospects for engineering TRSV into economically important crops as soybean with 100% seed transmission. ..
  52. Chisholm J, Wieczorek A, Sanfaçon H. Expression and partial purification of recombinant tomato ringspot nepovirus 3C-like proteinase: comparison of the activity of the mature proteinase and the VPg-proteinase precursor. Virus Res. 2001;79:153-64 pubmed
    The 3C-like proteinase (Pro) from Tomato ringspot virus (genus Nepovirus) is responsible for the processing of the RNA1-encoded (P1) and RNA2-encoded (P2) polyproteins...
  53. Valat L, Mode F, Mauro M, Burrus M. Preliminary attempts to biolistic inoculation of grapevine fanleaf virus. J Virol Methods. 2003;108:29-40 pubmed
    Biolistics has been studied to inoculate grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), a Nepovirus, to its natural woody host, Vitis sp., and its herbaceous host, Chenopodium quinoa...
  54. Singh S, Rothnagel R, Prasad B, Buckley B. Expression of tobacco ringspot virus capsid protein and satellite RNA in insect cells and three-dimensional structure of tobacco ringspot virus-like particles. Virology. 1995;213:472-81 pubmed
    ..using electron cryomicrographs of the empty virus-like particles allowed the first structural analyses of any nepovirus capsid. This 22-A resolution reconstruction resembled capsids of other members of the picornavirus superfamily...
  55. Wetzel T, Jardak R, Meunier L, Ghorbel A, Reustle G, Krczal G. Simultaneous RT/PCR detection and differentiation of arabis mosaic and grapevine fanleaf nepoviruses in grapevines with a single pair of primers. J Virol Methods. 2002;101:63-9 pubmed
  56. Sokhandan Bashir N, Melcher U. Population genetic analysis of grapevine fanleaf virus. Arch Virol. 2012;157:1919-29 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that diversity among GFLV geographical populations resulted from possible host adaptation, recombination and founder effects. ..
  57. Bajaj P, Hammann C. Characterization of hairpin ribozyme reactions. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1103:97-111 pubmed publisher
    ..This is followed by a description of the preparation of the suitable RNA molecules for ligation reaction and their kinetic analysis. ..
  58. Narusaka M, Toyoda K, Shiraishi T, Iuchi S, Takano Y, Shirasu K, et al. Leucine zipper motif in RRS1 is crucial for the regulation of Arabidopsis dual resistance protein complex RPS4/RRS1. Sci Rep. 2016;6:18702 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we suggest that the RRS1-LZ motif is crucial for the regulation of the RPS4/RRS1 complex. ..
  59. Lamprecht R, Spaltman M, Stephan D, Wetzel T, Burger J. Complete nucleotide sequence of a South African isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus and its associated satellite RNA. Viruses. 2013;5:1815-23 pubmed publisher
    ..The infectivity of the clones was tested with three nepovirus isolates, GFLV-NW, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV)-NW and GFLV-SAPCS3...
  60. Lin T, Johnson J. Structures of picorna-like plant viruses: implications and applications. Adv Virus Res. 2003;62:167-239 pubmed
  61. Vigne E, Marmonier A, Komar V, Lemaire O, Fuchs M. Genetic structure and variability of virus populations in cross-protected grapevines superinfected by Grapevine fanleaf virus. Virus Res. 2009;144:154-62 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first extensive characterization of the genetic structure and variability of virus isolates in cross-protected plants. ..
  62. Martin R, Polashock J, Tzanetakis I. New and emerging viruses of blueberry and cranberry. Viruses. 2012;4:2831-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of blueberry and cranberry viruses, focusing not only on those that are new but also those that are emerging as serious threats for production in North America and around the world...
  63. Zarzyńska Nowak A, Ferriol I, Falk B, Borodynko Filas N, Hasiów Jaroszewska B. Construction of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated tomato black ring virus infectious cDNA clones. Virus Res. 2017;230:59-62 pubmed publisher
    Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, genus Nepovirus) infects a wide range of economically important plants such as tomato, potato, tobacco and cucumber...
  64. Scott S, Zimmerman M, Jones A, Le Gall O. Differences between the coat protein amino acid sequences of English and Scottish serotypes of Raspberry ringspot virus exposed on the surface of virus particles. Virus Res. 2000;68:119-26 pubmed
    ..the amino acid sequences of the CPs of these two serotypes on the 3D model for the CP of a comovirus/nepovirus, showed that eight of the differences identified between the two serotypes occurred on the surface of the ..
  65. Wilson T, Zhao Z, Maxwell K, Kontogiannis L, Lilley D. Importance of specific nucleotides in the folding of the natural form of the hairpin ribozyme. Biochemistry. 2001;40:2291-302 pubmed
    ..This is consistent with a direct role for the nucleobase of G8 in the chemistry of cleavage. ..
  66. Kominek P, Bryxiová M, Glasa M. Partial molecular characterization of a mild isolate of Grapevine fanleaf virus from South Moravia, Czech Republic. Acta Virol. 2006;50:201-5 pubmed
    ..These changes were also reflected in the predicted RNA secondary structure of this region. Particular biological behavior of GFLV HV5 isolate, namely a symptomless infection, could be related to the observed molecular differences. ..
  67. Ratcliff F, Harrison B, Baulcombe D. A similarity between viral defense and gene silencing in plants. Science. 1997;276:1558-60 pubmed
    ..Supporting this idea, it was found that nepovirus infection of nontransgenic plants induces a resistance mechanism that is similar to transgene-induced gene ..
  68. Fuchs M, Schmitt Keichinger C, Sanfaçon H. A Renaissance in Nepovirus Research Provides New Insights Into Their Molecular Interface With Hosts and Vectors. Adv Virus Res. 2017;97:61-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we examine these recent findings, highlight ongoing work, and offer some perspectives for future research. ..
  69. Brown D, MacFarlane S. 'Worms' that transmit viruses. Biologist (London). 2001;48:35-40 pubmed
    ..Both the nematodes and the viruses they carry persist in the soil for a long time with the only remedy being highly toxic chemicals. Fundamental new research may offer the hope of developing safer control strategies. ..
  70. Richardson M, Hostalek L, Dobson M, Hu J, Shippy R, Siwkowski A, et al. Design, targeting, and initial screening of sTRSV-derived hairpin ribozymes for optimum helix 1 length and catalytic efficiency in vitro. Methods Mol Biol. 2004;252:339-58 pubmed
    ..The tetraloop modification of the sTRSV hairpin ribozyme is considered superior to designs based on the native sTRSV hairpin ribozyme, given its potential to yield considerable improvements in stability and catalytic efficiency. ..
  71. Rebenstorf K, Candresse T, Dulucq M, Büttner C, Obermeier C. Host species-dependent population structure of a pollen-borne plant virus, Cherry leaf roll virus. J Virol. 2006;80:2453-62 pubmed
    Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV) belongs to the Nepovirus genus within the family Comoviridae. It has a host range which includes a number of wild tree and shrub species...
  72. Digiaro M, Elbeaino T, Martelli G. Development of degenerate and species-specific primers for the differential and simultaneous RT-PCR detection of grapevine-infecting nepoviruses of subgroups A, B and C. J Virol Methods. 2007;141:34-40 pubmed
    ..Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) and Grapevine deformation virus (GDefV), but not from samples infected by other nepovirus species...
  73. Chi Y, Martick M, Lares M, Kim R, Scott W, Kim S. Capturing hammerhead ribozyme structures in action by modulating general base catalysis. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e234 pubmed publisher
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    ..These results suggest that the new virus represents a novel member of the genus Nepovirus. A new name, Melon mild mottle virus, has been proposed for this new virus.
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    The complete nucleotide sequence of cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV, genus Nepovirus) from a naturally infected cherry tree (Prunus avium cv. Bing) in North America was determined...
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    The nucleotide sequence of RNA1 of grapevine Anatolian ringspot virus (GARSV), a nepovirus of subgroup B, was determined from cDNA clones...
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    ..The coat proteins of the grapevine isolates formed a sister group to all those from other RpRSV isolates, but whether this resulted from divergence or recombination was uncertain. ..
  78. Dardick C. Comparative expression profiling of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves systemically infected with three fruit tree viruses. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2007;20:1004-17 pubmed
    ..viruses that produce distinct symptoms: Plum pox potyvirus (PPV; leaf distortion and mosaic), Tomato ringspot nepovirus (ToRSV; tissue necrosis and general chlorosis), and Prunus necrotic ringspot ilarvirus (PNRSV; subtle chlorotic ..
  79. Lee J, Hartman G, Domier L, Bent A. Identification and map location of TTR1, a single locus in Arabidopsis thaliana that confers tolerance to tobacco ringspot nepovirus. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 1996;9:729-35 pubmed
    The interaction between Arabidopsis and the nepovirus tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) was characterized. Of 97 Arabidopsis lines tested, all were susceptible when inoculated with TRSV grape strain...
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    ..diversicaudatum, Longidorus spp. and Trichodorus spp. was recorded at Palampur. Only Strawberry latent ringspot nepovirus (SLRSV) was detected in Lilium cvs...
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    ..amaranticolor. Altogether, recombinant isolate A17b had similar biological properties to GFLV nonrecombinant isolates...
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    ..The taxonomic position of CLRV as member of the genus Nepovirus was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses employing the amino acid sequences of the conserved Pro-Pol region of ..
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    ..The grapevine fanleaf nepovirus 24K chymotrypsin-like cysteine proteinase, located between the VPg and the RNA polymerase in the RNA-1 encoded ..
  85. Walter N, Burke J. The hairpin ribozyme: structure, assembly and catalysis. Curr Opin Chem Biol. 1998;2:24-30 pubmed
    ..Functional group modification, NMR studies of subdomains and cross-linking experiments, in combination with computer modeling, have led to a proposal for domain interactions in the substrate-ribozyme complex...
  86. Jones A. Black currant reversion disease--the probable causal agent, eriophyid mite vectors, epidemiology and prospects for control. Virus Res. 2000;71:71-84 pubmed
    ..causal agent of reversion disease, Black currant reversion associated virus (BRAV), belongs to the genus Nepovirus, has isometric particles c. 28 nm in diameter that contain a single major polypeptide of c...
  87. Klostermeier D, Millar D. Energetics of hydrogen bond networks in RNA: hydrogen bonds surrounding G+1 and U42 are the major determinants for the tertiary structure stability of the hairpin ribozyme. Biochemistry. 2002;41:14095-102 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that RNAs, similar to proteins, can exploit coupled hydrogen bond networks to stabilize the docking of distant structural domains...
  88. Pruss G, Lawrence C, Bass T, Li Q, Bowman L, Vance V. The potyviral suppressor of RNA silencing confers enhanced resistance to multiple pathogens. Virology. 2004;320:107-20 pubmed
    ..HC-Pro-expressing plants are also more resistant to tomato black ring nepovirus (TBRV) and to the oomycete Peronospora tabacina...
  89. Fermin G, Tennant P, Gonsalves C, Lee D, Gonsalves D. Comparative development and impact of transgenic papayas in Hawaii, Jamaica, and Venezuela. Methods Mol Biol. 2005;286:399-430 pubmed
    ..The three cases are discussed in an effort to provide information on factors, other than technology, that can influence the adoption of a transgenic product...
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    ..The primers detect conserved protein motifs in the RdRp gene and it is anticipated that they have the potential to detect unreported or uncharacterised nepoviruses in subgroups A and B...
  91. Imura Y, Oka H, Kimata K, Nasu M, Nakahama K, Maeda T. Comparisons of complete RNA-2 sequences, pathological and serological features among three Japanese isolates of Arabis mosaic virus. Virus Genes. 2008;37:333-41 pubmed publisher
    ..A phylogenetic analysis of 2A sequences from ArMV isolates revealed ArMV-Bu was not categorized in any cluster. ArMV-Bu is a unique isolate from the point of view of pathological and serological features, and nucleotide sequence...
  92. Liebenberg A, Freeborough M, Visser C, Bellstedt D, Burger J. Genetic variability within the coat protein gene of Grapevine fanleaf virus isolates from South Africa and the evaluation of RT-PCR, DAS-ELISA and ImmunoStrips as virus diagnostic assays. Virus Res. 2009;142:28-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Rapid-direct-one-tube-RT-PCR was found to be the most reliable technique for detection. This is the first report on sequence analysis of full-length 2CCP gene cDNA clones of GFLV isolates from South Africa...