avian orthoreovirus

Summary

Summary: A species of ORTHOREOVIRUS infecting birds, with outcomes ranging from inapparent to lethal depending on the virus strain and age of the host bird. This species does not infect mammals.

Top Publications

  1. Pai W, Shien J, Liu H, Lee L. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against avian reovirus S1133 protein sigmaA synthesized in Escherichia coli. Vet Microbiol. 2003;91:309-23 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that the MAb capture ELISA is a useful methods for the detection of avian reovirus from chickens suspected to have avian reovirus infections...
  2. van Loon A, Kosman W, van Zuilekom H, van Riet S, Frenken M, Schijns E. The contribution of humoral immunity to the control of avian reoviral infection in chickens after vaccination with live reovirus vaccine (strain 2177) at an early age. Avian Pathol. 2003;32:15-23 pubmed
    ..This suggests that cellular immunity is sufficient for protection of broilers with maternal antibodies against reovirus infection following early age vaccination with live reoviral vaccine...
  3. Liu H, Kuo L, Hu Y, Liao M, Lien Y. Development of an ELISA for detection of antibodies to avian reovirus in chickens. J Virol Methods. 2002;102:129-38 pubmed
    ..This combination antigen may thus be the best suited for preparing an ELISA for improving the determination of the immune status of chicken flocks or for detection of chicken infections with avian reovirus...
  4. Bruhn S, Bruckner L, Ottiger H. Application of RT-PCR for the detection of avian reovirus contamination in avian viral vaccines. J Virol Methods. 2005;123:179-86 pubmed
    ..These RT-PCRs have been useful for screening poultry vaccines for extraneous ARV in the quality control of biologicals used in veterinary medicine. ..
  5. Zhang Y, Liu M, Shuidong O, Hu Q, Guo D, Chen H, et al. Detection and identification of avian, duck, and goose reoviruses by RT-PCR: goose and duck reoviruses are part of the same genogroup in the genus Orthoreovirus. Arch Virol. 2006;151:1525-38 pubmed
    ..Overall, this study developed a sensitive and specific technique for the identification ARV, DRV, and GRV, and sequencing analysis has enhanced our understanding of the evolutionary relationship between ARV, DRV, and GRV...
  6. Bodelon G, Labrada L, Martinez Costas J, Benavente J. The avian reovirus genome segment S1 is a functionally tricistronic gene that expresses one structural and two nonstructural proteins in infected cells. Virology. 2001;290:181-91 pubmed
  7. Kant A, Balk F, Born L, van Roozelaar D, Heijmans J, Gielkens A, et al. Classification of Dutch and German avian reoviruses by sequencing the sigma C protein. Vet Res. 2003;34:203-12 pubmed
    ..We did not establish temporal or geographic differences in the avian reoviruses studied...
  8. Grande A, Costas C, Benavente J. Subunit composition and conformational stability of the oligomeric form of the avian reovirus cell-attachment protein sigmaC. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:131-9 pubmed
    ..Finally, our results also reveal that mammalian and avian reovirus cell attachment proteins follow different subunit dissociation pathways...
  9. Sellers H, Linnemann E, Pereira L, Kapczynski D. Phylogenetic analysis of the sigma 2 protein gene of turkey reoviruses. Avian Dis. 2004;48:651-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, as a result of the limited sequence identity with their avian counterparts, turkey reoviruses could potentially be considered a separate virus species within subgroup 2 of the Orthoreovirus genus...

More Information

Publications84

  1. Yin H, Su Y, Lee L. Evidence of nucleotidyl phosphatase activity associated with core protein sigma A of avian reovirus S1133. Virology. 2002;293:379-85 pubmed
    ..The results show that the optimal activities of both proteins were similar and were achieved between pH 7.5 and 8.5...
  2. Zhang X, Tang J, Walker S, O Hara D, Nibert M, Duncan R, et al. Structure of avian orthoreovirus virion by electron cryomicroscopy and image reconstruction. Virology. 2005;343:25-35 pubmed
    ..we used electron cryomicroscopy and image reconstruction to analyze the virions of a fusogenic avian orthoreovirus (ARV). The structure of the ARV virion, determined from data at an effective resolution of 14...
  3. Kuntz Simon G, Le Gall Reculé G, de Boisseson C, Jestin V. Muscovy duck reovirus sigmaC protein is atypically encoded by the smallest genome segment. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:1189-200 pubmed
    ..This work provides evidence for the diversity of the polycistronic S class genes of reoviruses isolated from birds and raises the question of the relative classification of DRV in the Orthoreovirus genus...
  4. Hsiao J, Martinez Costas J, Benavente J, Vakharia V. Cloning, expression, and characterization of avian reovirus guanylyltransferase. Virology. 2002;296:288-99 pubmed
  5. Tourís Otero F, Cortez San Martin M, Martinez Costas J, Benavente J. Avian reovirus morphogenesis occurs within viral factories and begins with the selective recruitment of sigmaNS and lambdaA to microNS inclusions. J Mol Biol. 2004;341:361-74 pubmed
  6. González López C, Martinez Costas J, Esteban M, Benavente J. Evidence that avian reovirus sigmaA protein is an inhibitor of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:1629-39 pubmed
    ..From these results we conclude that sigmaA is capable of reversing the interferon-induced antiviral state by down-regulating PKR activity in a manner similar to other virus-encoded dsRNA-binding proteins...
  7. Noad L, Shou J, Coombs K, Duncan R. Sequences of avian reovirus M1, M2 and M3 genes and predicted structure/function of the encoded mu proteins. Virus Res. 2006;116:45-57 pubmed
    ..Alignments of the ARV and MRV muNS proteins revealed a low overall amino acid identity ( approximately 25%), although several regions were relatively conserved...
  8. Benavente J, Martinez Costas J. Avian reovirus: structure and biology. Virus Res. 2007;123:105-19 pubmed
    ..Finally, avian reoviruses are highly resistant to interferon, and therefore they may be useful for investigating the mechanisms and strategies that viruses utilize to counteract the antiviral actions of interferons...
  9. Guardado Calvo P, Vazquez Iglesias L, Martinez Costas J, Llamas Saiz A, Schoehn G, Fox G, et al. Crystal structure of the avian reovirus inner capsid protein sigmaA. J Virol. 2008;82:11208-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The minimal length of double-stranded RNA required for sigmaA binding was observed to be 14 to 18 bp...
  10. Hollmen T, Franson J, Kilpi M, Docherty D, Hansen W, Hario M. Isolation and characterization of a reovirus from common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Finland. Avian Dis. 2002;46:478-84 pubmed
    ..These findings raise the question of potential involvement of the virus in poor duckling survival and eider population declines observed in several breeding areas along coastal Finland since the mid-1980s...
  11. Shen P, Chiou Y, Liu H, Song C, Su Y, Lee L. Genetic variation of the lambdaA and lambdaC protein encoding genes of avian reoviruses. Res Vet Sci. 2007;83:394-402 pubmed
    ..Also, reassortment of gene segments L1 and L3 has been observed between viruses...
  12. Shmulevitz M, Yameen Z, Dawe S, Shou J, O Hara D, Holmes I, et al. Sequential partially overlapping gene arrangement in the tricistronic S1 genome segments of avian reovirus and Nelson Bay reovirus: implications for translation initiation. J Virol. 2002;76:609-18 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that translation initiation complexes can bypass over 600 nucleotides and two functional overlapping upstream ORFs in order to access the distal final sigmaC start site...
  13. Pu J, Liu X, Guo Y, Cao Y, Zhao J, Zhang G. Seroprevalence of avian reovirus in egg-laying chicken flocks in China. Avian Dis. 2008;52:675-9 pubmed
    ..97% nucleotide identity. The potential significance of vaccination against ARV in egg-laying chicken flocks in China is also discussed. ..
  14. Spackman E, Kapczynski D, Sellers H. Multiplex real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the detection of three viruses associated with poult enteritis complex: turkey astrovirus, turkey coronavirus, and turkey reovirus. Avian Dis. 2005;49:86-91 pubmed
    ..ARV detection by RRT-PCR was compared with virus isolation and had similar sensitivity. ..
  15. van Loon A, Suurland B, van der Marel P. A reovirus challenge model applicable in commercial broilers after live vaccination. Avian Pathol. 2002;31:13-21 pubmed
    ..Protection in these birds might therefore have been induced by cellular immunity. ..
  16. Banyai K, Palya V, Benko M, Bene J, Havasi V, Melegh B, et al. The goose reovirus genome segment encoding the minor outer capsid protein, sigma1/sigmaC, is bicistronic and shares structural similarities with its counterpart in Muscovy duck reovirus. Virus Genes. 2005;31:285-91 pubmed
  17. Swanson G, Meyers J, Huang D. Restricted growth of avirulent avian reovirus strain 2177 in macrophage derived HD11 cells. Virus Res. 2001;81:103-11 pubmed
    ..These features may contribute to the lower virulence of the strain 2177 in their natural host in vivo...
  18. Neelima S, Ram G, Kataria J, Goswami T. Avian reovirus induces an inhibitory effect on lymphoproliferation in chickens. Vet Res Commun. 2003;27:73-85 pubmed
    ..ARV infection also significantly inhibited IL-2 production on day 5. There was a significant increase in nitric oxide production by the splenic mononuclear cells of chickens inoculated with either strain of ARV. ..
  19. Huang P, Li Y, Su Y, Lee L, Liu H. Epitope mapping and functional analysis of sigma A and sigma NS proteins of avian reovirus. Virology. 2005;332:584-95 pubmed
    ..The sigmaNS of ARV with ssRNA-binding activity could be blocked by monoclonal antibody 1F9. The epitope B on sigmaNS is required for ssRNA binding because its deletion fully abolished the ssRNA binding activity of sigmaNS. ..
  20. Zhang Y, Guo D, Geng H, Liu M, Hu Q, Wang J, et al. Characterization of M-class genome segments of muscovy duck reovirus S14. Virus Res. 2007;125:42-53 pubmed
    ..Arch. Virol. 151, 1525-1538] genome segments suggests that DRV and ARV share a recent common ancestor and that the two lineages have subsequently undergone host dependent evolution. ..
  21. Wellehan J, Childress A, Marschang R, Johnson A, Lamirande E, Roberts J, et al. Consensus nested PCR amplification and sequencing of diverse reptilian, avian, and mammalian orthoreoviruses. Vet Microbiol. 2009;133:34-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This PCR method may be useful for obtaining templates for initial sequencing of novel orthoreoviruses from diverse vertebrate hosts...
  22. Wu Y, Liu H, Shien J, Chiou S, Lee L. Characterization of interleukin-1beta mRNA expression in chicken macrophages in response to avian reovirus. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1059-68 pubmed publisher
  23. Zheng X, Wang D, Ning K, Liang T, Wang M, Jiang M, et al. A duck reovirus variant with a unique deletion in the sigma C gene exhibiting high pathogenicity in Pekin ducklings. Virus Res. 2016;215:37-41 pubmed publisher
    ..HN5d contains 10 dsRNA genome segments, a typical feature of avian orthoreovirus. Following cloning, sequencing, and sequence analysis of the genome segments, a unique deletion of 18 amino ..
  24. Kozak R, Hattin L, Biondi M, Corredor J, Walsh S, Xue Zhong M, et al. Replication and Oncolytic Activity of an Avian Orthoreovirus in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells. Viruses. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..We isolated an avian orthoreovirus (ARV-PB1), and tested it against a panel of hepatocellular carcinoma cells...
  25. Van de Zande S, Kuhn E. Central nervous system signs in chickens caused by a new avian reovirus strain: a pathogenesis study. Vet Microbiol. 2007;120:42-9 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the pathogenesis of ERS infection in chickens bears some resemblance with that of the mammalian reoviruses serotype 1 in mice...
  26. Li S, Lin C, Chen Y, Lee L, Liu H. Development of a reliable assay protocol for identification of diseases (RAPID)-bioactive amplification with probing for detection of avian reovirus. J Virol Methods. 2008;149:35-41 pubmed publisher
    ..All of ARV serotypes and genotypes tested could be detected by this kit proving that the kit is suitable for clinical application. ..
  27. Goldenberg D, Pasmanik Chor M, Pirak M, Kass N, Lublin A, Yeheskel A, et al. Genetic and antigenic characterization of sigma C protein from avian reovirus. Avian Pathol. 2010;39:189-99 pubmed publisher
    ..These peptides were further studied for structural and functional properties, and for antigenic characterization. The results of this study shed light on peptide selection for a broad and efficient vaccine. ..
  28. Xu W, Patrick M, Hazelton P, Coombs K. Avian reovirus temperature-sensitive mutant tsA12 has a lesion in major core protein sigmaA and is defective in assembly. J Virol. 2004;78:11142-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, the ARV tsA12 mutant represents a novel assembly-defective orthoreovirus clone that may prove useful for delineating virus assembly. ..
  29. Costas C, Martinez Costas J, Bodelon G, Benavente J. The second open reading frame of the avian reovirus S1 gene encodes a transcription-dependent and CRM1-independent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein. J Virol. 2005;79:2141-50 pubmed
  30. Ping Yuan L, Hung Jen L, Meng Jiun L, Feng Ling Y, Hsue Yin H, Jeng Woei L, et al. Avian reovirus activates a novel proapoptotic signal by linking Src to p53. Apoptosis. 2006;11:2179-93 pubmed
    ..These studies provide strong evidence that the viral gene expression is required for ARV S1133 to initiate a proapoptotic signal via Src to p53. In addition, sigmaC was able to utilize a p53-dependent pathway to elicit apoptosis. ..
  31. Tang Y, Lu H. Genomic characterization of a novel avian arthritis orthoreovirus variant by next-generation sequencing. Arch Virol. 2015;160:2629-32 pubmed publisher
    By using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, we have identified a divergent avian orthoreovirus (ARV) field variant (Reo/PA/Broiler/15511/13, or PA15511), isolated from broiler chickens with viral arthritis in Pennsylvania in ..
  32. Lin P, Lee J, Liao M, Hsu H, Chiu S, Liu H, et al. Modulation of p53 by mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and protein kinase C delta during avian reovirus S1133-induced apoptosis. Virology. 2009;385:323-34 pubmed publisher
  33. Hsu C, Wang C, Lee L, Shih W, Chang C, Cheng H, et al. Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against avian reovirus sigma C protein and their application in detection of avian reovirus isolates. Avian Pathol. 2006;35:320-6 pubmed
    ..This monoclonal antibody may therefore be useful for the development of an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rapid detection of field isolates. ..
  34. Pantin Jackwood M, Day J, Jackwood M, Spackman E. Enteric viruses detected by molecular methods in commercial chicken and turkey flocks in the United States between 2005 and 2006. Avian Dis. 2008;52:235-44 pubmed
  35. Songserm T, van Roozelaar D, Kant A, Pol J, Pijpers A, ter Huurne A. Enteropathogenicity of Dutch and German avian reoviruses in SPF white leghorn chickens and broilers. Vet Res. 2003;34:285-95 pubmed
    ..Our study indicates that the reovirus alone cannot induce intestinal lesions as found in MAS chickens. Moreover, CD8+ T-cells may play a major role in the pathogenesis and or reovirus clearance in the small intestine...
  36. Motitschke A, Ottiger H, Jungbäck C. Evaluation of the sensitivity of PCR methods for the detection of extraneous agents and comparison with in vivo testing. Biologicals. 2010;38:389-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus these PCR tests fulfil the sensitivity requirements of the Ph. Eur. and could be used as alternative tests for the detection of extraneous agents in final batches of inactivated vaccines...
  37. Heggen Peay C, Cheema M, Ali R, Schat K, Qureshi M. Interactions of poult enteritis and mortality syndrome-associated reovirus with various cell types in vitro. Poult Sci. 2002;81:1661-7 pubmed
  38. Wang L, Cui Z, Sun A, Sun S. [Influence of avian reovirus infection on the Bursa and immune-reactions in chickens]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2007;47:492-7 pubmed
    ..A discussion was made on the interactions between ARV infection and vaccine IBDV or v-IBDV to explain such sophisticated phenomena in the bird experiments...
  39. de Wit M, Horzinek M, Haagmans B, Schijns V. Host-dependent type 1 cytokine responses driven by inactivated viruses may fail to default in the absence of IL-12 or IFN-alpha/beta. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:795-803 pubmed
    ..These findings have a bearing on the understanding of immune responsiveness to virus structures and the design of vaccines containing virus components...
  40. Bodelon G, Labrada L, Martinez Costas J, Benavente J. Modification of late membrane permeability in avian reovirus-infected cells: viroporin activity of the S1-encoded nonstructural p10 protein. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:17789-96 pubmed
    ..Similar properties have reported previously for immunodeficiency virus type I transmembrane glycoprotein gp41. Thus, like gp41, p10 appears to be a multifunctional protein that plays key roles in virus-host interaction...
  41. de Kloet S. Sequence analysis of four double-stranded RNA genomic segments reveals an orthoreovirus with a unique genotype infecting psittaciformes. Avian Dis. 2008;52:480-6 pubmed
    ..The possibility that the parrot reovirus has evolved from an ancestral, more batlike reovirus is discussed. It is proposed to designate this unique virus as PsRV...
  42. Shih W, Hsu H, Liao M, Lee L, Liu H. Avian reovirus sigmaC protein induces apoptosis in cultured cells. Virology. 2004;321:65-74 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, deletion analysis of the ARV sigmaC protein suggests that the carboxyl-terminus of sigmaC is important in mediating sigmaC-induced apoptosis because its deletion abolished the induction of apoptosis...
  43. Songserm T, Zekarias B, van Roozelaar D, Kok R, Pol J, Pijpers A, et al. Experimental reproduction of malabsorption syndrome with different combinations of reovirus, Escherichia coli, and treated homogenates obtained from broilers. Avian Dis. 2002;46:87-94 pubmed
    ..Escherichia coli is not essential for induction of weight gain depression but can play a role in development of intestinal lesions. Furthermore, intestinal lesions alone will not always result in weight gain depression...
  44. Clarke P, DeBiasi R, Goody R, Hoyt C, Richardson Burns S, Tyler K. Mechanisms of reovirus-induced cell death and tissue injury: role of apoptosis and virus-induced perturbation of host-cell signaling and transcription factor activation. Viral Immunol. 2005;18:89-115 pubmed
    ..The potential of reovirus-induced oncolysis in therapy of human cancers is currently being investigated in phase I/II clinical trials...
  45. Wu H, Williams Y, Gunn K, Singh N, Locy R, Giambrone J. Yeast-derived sigma C protein-induced immunity against avian reovirus. Avian Dis. 2005;49:281-4 pubmed
    ..The commercial vaccine administered once or twice provided 82% protection. Results supported the feasibility of a plant-derived vaccine for use in poultry immunization schemes...
  46. Kuntz Simon G, Blanchard P, Cherbonnel M, Jestin A, Jestin V. Baculovirus-expressed muscovy duck reovirus sigmaC protein induces serum neutralizing antibodies and protection against challenge. Vaccine. 2002;20:3113-22 pubmed
    ..Thus, DRV sigmaC, alone or co-expressed with sigmaB, appeared as a good candidate for vaccination of ducks (96/100 mots)...
  47. Xu W, Coombs K. Avian reovirus L2 genome segment sequences and predicted structure/function of the encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase protein. Virol J. 2008;5:153 pubmed publisher
    ..RdRp sequences have been determined for the prototype mammalian orthoreoviruses and for several other closely-related reoviruses, including aquareoviruses, but have not yet been reported for any avian orthoreoviruses...
  48. Heggen Peay C, Qureshi M, Edens F, Sherry B, Wakenell P, O Connell P, et al. Isolation of a reovirus from poult enteritis and mortality syndrome and its pathogenicity in turkey poults. Avian Dis. 2002;46:32-47 pubmed
    ..ARV-CU98 may contribute directly to PEMS by affecting the intestine, bursa, and liver and may contribute indirectly by increasing susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens that facilitate development of clinical PEMS...
  49. Spackman E, Day J, Pantin Jackwood M. Astrovirus, reovirus, and rotavirus concomitant infection causes decreased weight gain in broad-breasted white poults. Avian Dis. 2010;54:16-21 pubmed
    ..Cloacal shedding of TAstV-2 and TRotV was evaluated by reverse-transcription PCR testing of cloacal swabs and minimal differences were observed among the treatment groups...
  50. Lin H, Chuang S, Chen Y, Shih W, Chang C, Liu H. Avian reovirus-induced apoptosis related to tissue injury. Avian Pathol. 2007;36:155-9 pubmed
    ..Syncytium formation in ARV-infected chicken tissues undergoing apoptosis was apparent, suggesting a correlation between virus replication and apoptosis in chicken tissues...
  51. Su Y, Shien J, Liu H, Yin H, Lee L. Avian reovirus core protein muA expressed in Escherichia coli possesses both NTPase and RTPase activities. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1797-805 pubmed
    ..The results suggested that both NTPase and RTPase activities of muA might be carried out at the same active site, and that protein muA could play important roles during viral RNA synthesis...
  52. Chen Y, Lin C, Ji W, Li S, Liu H. Proteasome inhibition reduces avian reovirus replication and apoptosis induction in cultured cells. J Virol Methods. 2008;151:95-100 pubmed publisher
    ..MG132 was also shown to suppress ARV sigmaC-induced phosphrylation of p53 on serine 46, caspase 3 activities, and DNA fragmentation leading to complete inhibition of ARV-induced apoptosis...
  53. Tourís Otero F, Martinez Costas J, Vakharia V, Benavente J. Characterization of the nucleic acid-binding activity of the avian reovirus non-structural protein sigma NS. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:1159-69 pubmed
    ..Finally, the properties of the avian reovirus protein sigma NS are compared with those of its mammalian reovirus counterpart...
  54. Chang K, Barsov E, Ferris A, Hughes S. Mutations of a residue within the polyproline-rich region of Env alter the replication rate and level of cytopathic effects in chimeric avian retroviral vectors. J Virol. 2005;79:10258-67 pubmed
    ..Dantrolene treatment did not appear to affect virus production, suggesting that Ca2+ release from the ER had a role in the CPE caused by these viruses...
  55. Lupini C, Cecchinato M, Scagliarini A, Graziani R, Catelli E. In vitro antiviral activity of chestnut and quebracho woods extracts against avian reovirus and metapneumovirus. Res Vet Sci. 2009;87:482-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These preliminary results suggest that the examined vegetable extracts might be good candidates in the control of some avian virus infections. Nevertheless further in vivo experiments are required to confirm these findings...
  56. Ji W, Lin F, Wang Y, Shih W, Lee L, Liu H. Intracellular cleavage of sigmaA protein of avian reovirus. Virus Res. 2010;149:71-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our evidences suggest that besides the outer capsid protein muB, sigmaA may also have post-translational cleavage which has never been reported before even in related mammalian reovirus...
  57. Zhang Y, Guo D, Liu M, Geng H, Hu Q, Liu Y, et al. Characterization of the sigmaB-encoding genes of muscovy duck reovirus: sigmaC-sigmaB-ELISA for antibodies against duck reovirus in ducks. Vet Microbiol. 2007;121:231-41 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the results demonstrated that sigmaB-sigmaC-ELISA was a sensitive and accurate method for detecting antibodies to DRV...
  58. Vora A, Bera S, Grandgenett D. Structural organization of avian retrovirus integrase in assembled intasomes mediating full-site integration. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:18670-8 pubmed
    ..The results suggest the structural organization of IN at the att sites in reconstituted intasomes was similar to that observed in PIC...
  59. Brandariz Nuñez A, Menaya Vargas R, Benavente J, Martinez Costas J. Avian reovirus microNS protein forms homo-oligomeric inclusions in a microtubule-independent fashion, which involves specific regions of its C-terminal domain. J Virol. 2010;84:4289-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results contribute to an understanding of the generation of structured protein aggregates that escape the cellular mechanisms of protein recycling...
  60. Benavente J, Martinez Costas J. Early steps in avian reovirus morphogenesis. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2006;309:67-85 pubmed
    ..Based on data from avian reovirus studies and on results reported for other members of the Reoviridae family, we present a model for avian reovirus gene expression and morphogenesis...
  61. Lin Y, Lee L, Shih W, Hu Y, Liu H. Baculovirus surface display of sigmaC and sigmaB proteins of avian reovirus and immunogenicity of the displayed proteins in a mouse model. Vaccine. 2008;26:6361-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates that the recombinant baculoviruses BacSC-sigmaC and BacSC-sigmaB can be a potential vaccine against ARV infections...
  62. Xu W, Tran A, Patrick M, Coombs K. Assignment of avian reovirus temperature-sensitive mutant recombination groups B, C, and D to genome segments. Virology. 2005;338:227-35 pubmed
    We recently generated a new set of avian orthoreovirus (ARV) temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants after chemical mutagenesis of wild-type strain ARV138 and described mutants in the A recombination group...
  63. Liu H, Lin P, Wang L, Hsu H, Liao M, Shih W. Activation of small GTPases RhoA and Rac1 is required for avian reovirus p10-induced syncytium formation. Mol Cells. 2008;26:396-403 pubmed
    ..We conclude that p10-mediated syncytium formation proceeds by utilizing RhoA and Rac1-dependent signaling...
  64. Ji W, Chulu J, Lin F, Li S, Lee L, Liu H. Suppression of protein expression of three avian reovirus S-class genome segments by RNA interference. Vet Microbiol. 2008;129:252-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a GFP reporter system, it was discovered that ARV could not inhibit activated RNA interference, suggesting that RNA interference may be used in the suppression of ARV infection...
  65. Huang L, Liao S, Chang C, Liu H. Expression of avian reovirus sigmaC protein in transgenic plants. J Virol Methods. 2006;134:217-22 pubmed
    ..008% and 0.007% of the total soluble protein, respectively. The transgenic alfalfa cells with expression of sigmaC protein pave the way for the development of edible vaccine...
  66. Chulu J, Lee L, Lee Y, Liao S, Lin F, Shih W, et al. Apoptosis induction by avian reovirus through p53 and mitochondria-mediated pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;356:529-35 pubmed
    ..Syncytium formation in ARV-infected BHK-21 cells undergoing apoptosis, was apparent in large syncytia at late infection times, indicating a correlation between virus replication and apoptosis in cultured cells...
  67. Robertson C, Hermann L, Coombs K. Mycophenolic acid inhibits avian reovirus replication. Antiviral Res. 2004;64:55-61 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of ARV replication also was seen in other cell lines, including HD-11 and Vero. Addition of exogenous guanosine to MPA-treated ARV-infected QM5 cells restored viral replicative capacity to nearly normal levels...
  68. Grindstaff J. Maternal antibodies reduce costs of an immune response during development. J Exp Biol. 2008;211:654-60 pubmed publisher
  69. Caterina K, Frasca S, Girshick T, Khan M. Development of a multiplex PCR for detection of avian adenovirus, avian reovirus, infectious bursal disease virus, and chicken anemia virus. Mol Cell Probes. 2004;18:293-8 pubmed
    ..This mPCR detected and differentiated various combinations of RNA/DNA templates from ARV, AAV-I, CAV, and IBDV without reduction of amplification from feces...
  70. Hamar G, Misak F, Palya V, de Foucauld J. A preliminary study on viral decontamination of chicken serum using gamma-irradiation. Biologicals. 2010;38:358-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are required to determine if this process would provide an acceptable solution for the viral 'decontamination' of chicken serum...
  71. van Raaij M, Hermo Parrado X, Guardado Calvo P, Fox G, Llamas Saiz A, Costas C, et al. Crystallization of the C-terminal globular domain of avian reovirus fibre. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2005;61:651-4 pubmed
    ..Therefore, a search is under way for suitable heavy-atom derivatives and attempts are being made to grow protein crystals containing selenomethionine instead of methionine...
  72. Sakai K, Ueno Y, Ueda S, Yada K, Fukushi S, Saijo M, et al. Novel reovirus isolation from an Ostrich (Struthio camelus) in Japan. Vet Microbiol. 2009;134:227-32 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first genetic report of an orthoreovirus isolated from an ostrich...
  73. Shmulevitz M, Corcoran J, Salsman J, Duncan R. Cell-cell fusion induced by the avian reovirus membrane fusion protein is regulated by protein degradation. J Virol. 2004;78:5996-6004 pubmed
  74. Chen P, Liu H, Shien J, Lee L. Antibody responses against avian reovirus nonstructural protein sigmaNS in experimentally virus-infected chickens monitored by a monoclonal antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Res Vet Sci. 2004;76:219-25 pubmed
  75. Shmulevitz M, Epand R, Epand R, Duncan R. Structural and functional properties of an unusual internal fusion peptide in a nonenveloped virus membrane fusion protein. J Virol. 2004;78:2808-18 pubmed
    ..The preservation of a predicted loop structure in the fusion peptide of this unusual nonenveloped virus membrane fusion protein supports an imperative role for a kinked fusion peptide motif in biological membrane fusion...