bluetongue virus

Summary

Summary: The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.

Top Publications

  1. Santman Berends I, van Wuijckhuise L, Vellema P, van Rijn P. Vertical transmission of bluetongue virus serotype 8 virus in Dutch dairy herds in 2007. Vet Microbiol. 2010;141:31-5 pubmed publisher
    In February 2008, evidence was found for transplacental infection of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in PCR negative, seropositive heifers in Northern Ireland originating from the Netherlands...
  2. Szmaragd C, Wilson A, Carpenter S, Wood J, Mellor P, Gubbins S. The spread of bluetongue virus serotype 8 in Great Britain and its control by vaccination. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9353 pubmed publisher
    ..However, low levels of vaccination against BTV-8 or the introduction of other serotypes could result in further, potentially severe outbreaks in future. ..
  3. Celma C, Boyce M, van Rijn P, Eschbaumer M, Wernike K, Hoffmann B, et al. Rapid generation of replication-deficient monovalent and multivalent vaccines for bluetongue virus: protection against virulent virus challenge in cattle and sheep. J Virol. 2013;87:9856-64 pubmed publisher
    Since 1998, 9 of the 26 serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) have spread throughout Europe, and serotype 8 has suddenly emerged in northern Europe, causing considerable economic losses, direct (mortality and morbidity) but also indirect, ..
  4. Worwa G, Hilbe M, Chaignat V, Hofmann M, Griot C, Ehrensperger F, et al. Virological and pathological findings in Bluetongue virus serotype 8 infected sheep. Vet Microbiol. 2010;144:264-73 pubmed publisher
    ..and the English breed Poll Dorset were experimentally infected with a northern European field strain of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8)...
  5. Sánchez Cordón P, Rodriguez Sanchez B, Risalde M, Molina V, Pedrera M, Sanchez Vizcaino J, et al. Immunohistochemical detection of bluetongue virus in fixed tissue. J Comp Pathol. 2010;143:20-8 pubmed publisher
    ..protein is the most abundant of the major core proteins and is highly conserved in all serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV)...
  6. Calvete C, Estrada R, Miranda M, Borras D, Calvo J, Lucientes J. Ecological correlates of bluetongue virus in Spain: predicted spatial occurrence and its relationship with the observed abundance of the potential Culicoides spp. vector. Vet J. 2009;182:235-43 pubmed publisher
    ..in predicted BTV-4 presence areas. The results suggest that the spatial expansion of BTV-4 took place only as far as those areas in which C. imicola populations efficiently transmitted the virus...
  7. Napp S, Gubbins S, Calistri P, Allepuz A, Alba A, García Bocanegra I, et al. Quantitative assessment of the probability of bluetongue virus overwintering by horizontal transmission: application to Germany. Vet Res. 2011;42:4 pubmed publisher
    Even though bluetongue virus (BTV) transmission is apparently interrupted during winter, bluetongue outbreaks often reappear in the next season (overwintering)...
  8. Ruiz Fons F, Reyes García A, Alcaide V, Gortazar C. Spatial and temporal evolution of bluetongue virus in wild ruminants, Spain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:951-3 pubmed publisher
    We confirmed the emergence of bluetongue virus (BTV) in 5 wild ruminant species in Spain. BTV seroprevalence was high and dispersed with time, with a south-to-north gradient...
  9. Listes E, Monaco F, Labrovic A, Paladini C, Leone A, Di Gialleonardo L, et al. First evidence of bluetongue virus serotype 16 in Croatia. Vet Microbiol. 2009;138:92-7 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications109 found, 100 shown here

  1. Calvo Pinilla E, Rodríguez Calvo T, Anguita J, Sevilla N, Ortego J. Establishment of a bluetongue virus infection model in mice that are deficient in the alpha/beta interferon receptor. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5171 pubmed publisher
    Bluetongue (BT) is a noncontagious, insect-transmitted disease of ruminants caused by the bluetongue virus (BTV). A laboratory animal model would greatly facilitate the studies of pathogenesis, immune response and vaccination against BTV...
  2. Yin H, Zhang H, Shi L, Yang S, Zhang G, Wang S, et al. Detection and quantitation of bluetongue virus serotypes by a TaqMan probe-based real-time RT-PCR and differentiation from epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus. J Virol Methods. 2010;168:237-41 pubmed publisher
    Twenty-four serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) have been recognized world wide. Reliable and quantitative assays of virus universal detection are essential for fighting against BT...
  3. Ninio C, Augot D, Dufour B, Depaquit J. Emergence of Culicoides obsoletus from indoor and outdoor breeding sites. Vet Parasitol. 2011;183:125-9 pubmed publisher
    Culicoides obsoletus (Diptera: Ceratopogondae) is considered as the probable main vector of Bluetongue virus (BTV) in northern Europe. Its breeding sites are poorly documented at the present time. We report numerous emergences of C...
  4. Sternberg Lewerin S, Hallgren G, Mieziewska K, Berndtsson L, Chirico J, Elvander M. Infection with bluetongue virus serotype 8 in Sweden in 2008. Vet Rec. 2010;167:165-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Transplacental infection was detected in one case. ..
  5. Garcia Saenz A, McCarter P, Baylis M. The influence of host number on the attraction of biting midges, Culicoides spp., to light traps. Med Vet Entomol. 2011;25:113-5 pubmed publisher
  6. Shoorijeh S, Ramin A, MacLachlan N, Osburn B, Tamadon A, Behzadi M, et al. High seroprevalence of bluetongue virus infection in sheep flocks in West Azerbaijan, Iran. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;33:243-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The virus serotypes and vector insects that occur within the region remain unknown. ..
  7. Franceschi V, Capocefalo A, Calvo Pinilla E, Redaelli M, Mucignat Caretta C, Mertens P, et al. Immunization of knock-out ?/? interferon receptor mice against lethal bluetongue infection with a BoHV-4-based vector expressing BTV-8 VP2 antigen. Vaccine. 2011;29:3074-82 pubmed publisher
    ..study, BoHV-4-based vector cloned as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) was engineered to express the bluetongue virus (BTV) immune-dominant glycoprotein VP2 provided of a heterologous signal peptide to its amino terminal and a ..
  8. van Rijn P, Heutink R, Boonstra J, Kramps H, van Gennip R. Sustained high-throughput polymerase chain reaction diagnostics during the European epidemic of Bluetongue virus serotype 8. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2012;24:469-78 pubmed publisher
    A real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR test) based on genome segment 10 of Bluetongue virus (BTV) was developed...
  9. Acevedo P, Ruiz Fons F, Estrada R, Márquez A, Miranda M, Gortazar C, et al. A broad assessment of factors determining Culicoides imicola abundance: modelling the present and forecasting its future in climate change scenarios. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14236 pubmed publisher
    ..What may be expected regarding the future scenario for orbiviruses in mainland Spain, is that higher predicted C. imicola abundance may significantly change the rate of transmission of orbiviruses. ..
  10. Top S, Foucras G, Deplanche M, Rives G, Calvalido J, Comtet L, et al. Myxomavirus as a vector for the immunisation of sheep: protection study against challenge with bluetongue virus. Vaccine. 2012;30:1609-16 pubmed publisher
    ..and partially protected sheep against disease after challenge with a highly virulent strain of serotype-8 bluetongue virus (BTV-8)...
  11. Nusinovici S, Seegers H, Joly A, Beaudeau F, Fourichon C. Increase in the occurrence of abortions associated with exposure to the Bluetongue virus serotype 8 in naïve dairy herds. Theriogenology. 2012;78:1140-51 pubmed publisher
    The transplacental transmission capacity demonstrated for Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in cattle probably is associated with an increased occurrence of abortions...
  12. Mardulyn P, Goffredo M, Conte A, Hendrickx G, Meiswinkel R, Balenghien T, et al. Climate change and the spread of vector-borne diseases: using approximate Bayesian computation to compare invasion scenarios for the bluetongue virus vector Culicoides imicola in Italy. Mol Ecol. 2013;22:2456-66 pubmed publisher
    ..imicola may have supported the emergence of BT in southern Europe. Overall, this study illustrates the potential of molecular genetic markers for exploring the assumed link between climate change and the spread of diseases. ..
  13. Lysyk T, Danyk T. Effect of temperature on life history parameters of adult Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in relation to geographic origin and vectorial capacity for bluetongue virus. J Med Entomol. 2007;44:741-51 pubmed
    ..sonorensis. Using life history estimates derived from Weibull model had little effect on estimating vectorial capacity, whereas using estimates derived from the exponential model slightly overestimated vectorial capacity...
  14. Dal Pozzo F, Saegerman C, Thiry E. Bovine infection with bluetongue virus with special emphasis on European serotype 8. Vet J. 2009;182:142-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arthropod-borne virus infecting domestic and wild ruminants. Infection in cattle is commonly asymptomatic and characterised by a long viraemia...
  15. Nomikou K, Dovas C, Maan S, Anthony S, Samuel A, Papanastassopoulou M, et al. Evolution and phylogenetic analysis of full-length VP3 genes of Eastern Mediterranean bluetongue virus isolates. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6437 pubmed publisher
    b>Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the 'type' species of the genus Orbivirus within the family Reoviridae. The BTV genome is composed of ten linear segments of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), each of which codes for one of ten distinct viral proteins...
  16. Hartemink N, Purse B, Meiswinkel R, Brown H, de Koeijer A, Elbers A, et al. Mapping the basic reproduction number (R?) for vector-borne diseases: a case study on bluetongue virus. Epidemics. 2009;1:153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We develop a methodology to create R? maps for vector-borne diseases, using bluetongue virus as a case study...
  17. Gloster J, Burgin L, Witham C, Athanassiadou M, Mellor P. Bluetongue in the United Kingdom and northern Europe in 2007 and key issues for 2008. Vet Rec. 2008;162:298-302 pubmed
    ..Here, John Gloster and colleagues investigate the meteorological parameters that allowed this incursion into the UK and discuss key issues related to the disease's possible re-establishment in 2008...
  18. Gould E, Higgs S. Impact of climate change and other factors on emerging arbovirus diseases. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009;103:109-21 pubmed publisher
    ..frequency of Rift Valley fever epidemics in the Arabian Peninsula, and very recently, the emergence of Bluetongue virus in northern Europe...
  19. Matsuo E, Roy P. Bluetongue virus VP6 acts early in the replication cycle and can form the basis of chimeric virus formation. J Virol. 2009;83:8842-8 pubmed publisher
    A minor core protein, VP6, of bluetongue virus (BTV) possesses nucleoside triphosphatase, RNA binding, and helicase activities...
  20. Maan S, Maan N, van Rijn P, van Gennip R, Sanders A, Wright I, et al. Full genome characterisation of bluetongue virus serotype 6 from the Netherlands 2008 and comparison to other field and vaccine strains. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10323 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection was also detected on a fourth farm (Oldenzaal) in the same area while testing for export...
  21. Agren E, Burgin L, Lewerin S, Gloster J, Elvander M. Possible means of introduction of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) to Sweden in August 2008: comparison of results from two models for atmospheric transport of the Culicoides vector. Vet Rec. 2010;167:484-8 pubmed publisher
    In September 2008, bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) infection was detected for the first time in Sweden, in a dairy herd on the west coast...
  22. Bruckner L, Fricker R, Hug M, Hotz R, Muntwyler J, Iten C, et al. [Vaccination against bluetongue: safety and immune response in the field]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2009;151:101-8 pubmed publisher
    Bluetongue, caused by the bluetongue virus serotype 8 has rapidly spread through Europe since 2006. The first cases in Switzerland were detected in October 2007...
  23. Kaufmann C, Schaffner F, Mathis A. [Monitoring of biting midges (Culicoides spp.), the potential vectors of the bluetongue virus, in the 12 climatic regions of Switzerland]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2009;151:205-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, there are no regions of the populated areas in Switzerland which are free of midges, but the vector competence regarding BTV of the various midges needs to be urgently clarified. ..
  24. Meiswinkel R, Baldet T, De Deken R, Takken W, Delecolle J, Mellor P. The 2006 outbreak of bluetongue in northern Europe--the entomological perspective. Prev Vet Med. 2008;87:55-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The re-emergence of BT over a wide front in 2007 raises anew questions as to precisely how the virus overwinters and asks also that we scrutinise our monitoring systems in terms of their sensitivity and early warning capability. ..
  25. Mehlhorn H, Walldorf V, Klimpel S, Schmahl G, Al Quraishy S, Walldorf U, et al. Entomological survey on vectors of Bluetongue virus in Northrhine-Westfalia (Germany) during 2007 and 2008. Parasitol Res. 2009;105:321-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, there exists no midge-free period that would interrupt the transmission cycle of bluetongue virus. This makes it necessary that vaccination programs and insecticidal treatment have to consider this and must ..
  26. Lorca Oró C, Lopez Olvera J, Fernández Sirera L, Solanes D, Navarro N, García Bocanegra I, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of commercial vaccines against bluetongue virus serotypes 1 and 8 in experimentally infected red deer (Cervus elaphus). Vet Microbiol. 2012;154:240-6 pubmed publisher
    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) is a widespread and abundant species susceptible to bluetongue virus (BTV) infection. Inclusion of red deer vaccination among BTV control measures should be considered...
  27. Ruscanu S, Pascale F, Bourge M, Hemati B, Elhmouzi Younes J, Urien C, et al. The double-stranded RNA bluetongue virus induces type I interferon in plasmacytoid dendritic cells via a MYD88-dependent TLR7/8-independent signaling pathway. J Virol. 2012;86:5817-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We present here novel information about the production of IFN-?/? induced by bluetongue virus (BTV), a vector-borne dsRNA Orbivirus of ruminants, in sheep primary DCs...
  28. Worwa G, Thur B, Griot C, Hofmann M, MacLachlan J, Chaignat V. [Bluetongue disease in Swiss sheep breeds: clinical signs after experimental infection with bluetongue virus serotype 8]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2008;150:491-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Regardless of breed, the majority of infected animals showed fever, swelling of the head as well as erosions of the mouth and subcutaneous haemorrhages...
  29. Calvete C, Calvo J, Calavia R, Miranda M, Borras D, Estrada R, et al. Culicoides species and transmission of bluetongue virus in Spain. Vet Rec. 2008;162:255 pubmed
  30. Carpenter S, Wilson A, Mellor P. Culicoides and the emergence of bluetongue virus in northern Europe. Trends Microbiol. 2009;17:172-8 pubmed publisher
    In June 2006, bluetongue virus, an arboviral pathogen of ruminants, appeared in northern Europe for the first time, successfully overwintered and subsequently caused substantial losses to the farming sector in 2007 and 2008...
  31. Vanbinst T, Vandenbussche F, Vandemeulebroucke E, De Leeuw I, Deblauwe I, De Deken G, et al. Bluetongue virus detection by real-time RT-PCR in Culicoides captured during the 2006 epizootic in Belgium and development of an internal control. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2009;56:170-7 pubmed publisher
    ..5 midges per pool) were analysed with real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) targeting bluetongue virus (BTV) segment 5...
  32. Lopez Olvera J, Falconi C, Fernandez Pacheco P, Fernandez Pinero J, Sanchez M, Palma A, et al. Experimental infection of European red deer (Cervus elaphus) with bluetongue virus serotypes 1 and 8. Vet Microbiol. 2010;145:148-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Measures to control or eradicate bluetongue virus (BTV) from Europe have been implemented, including movement restrictions and vaccination of domestic BTV-..
  33. Durand B, Zanella G, Biteau Coroller F, Locatelli C, Baurier F, Simon C, et al. Anatomy of bluetongue virus serotype 8 epizootic wave, France, 2007-2008. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1861-8 pubmed publisher
    The introduction of bluetongue virus serotype 8 into northern Europe at the end of summer 2006 initiated one of the most widespread epizootics of bluetongue infection ever to occur...
  34. Desmecht D, Bergh R, Sartelet A, Leclerc M, Mignot C, Misse F, et al. Evidence for transplacental transmission of the current wild-type strain of bluetongue virus serotype 8 in cattle. Vet Rec. 2008;163:50-2 pubmed
  35. Dal Pozzo F, De Clercq K, Guyot H, Vandemeulebroucke E, Sarradin P, Vandenbussche F, et al. Experimental reproduction of bluetongue virus serotype 8 clinical disease in calves. Vet Microbiol. 2009;136:352-8 pubmed publisher
    Cattle are commonly subclinically infected following natural or experimental infection with bluetongue virus (BTV)...
  36. Graesbøll K, Bødker R, Enøe C, Christiansen L. Simulating spread of Bluetongue Virus by flying vectors between hosts on pasture. Sci Rep. 2012;2:863 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that restricted grazing during outbreaks can reduce the number of infected hosts and the size of the affected area. The model can be implemented on other vector-borne diseases of grazing animals. ..
  37. Thuenemann E, Meyers A, Verwey J, Rybicki E, Lomonossoff G. A method for rapid production of heteromultimeric protein complexes in plants: assembly of protective bluetongue virus-like particles. Plant Biotechnol J. 2013;11:839-46 pubmed publisher
    ..This work describes the efficient plant-based production and assembly of Bluetongue virus-like particles (VLPs), requiring the simultaneous expression of four distinct proteins in varying amounts...
  38. Pérez J, García Ballester J, Lopez Olvera J, Serrano E. Monitoring bluetongue virus vectors in Andalusia (SW Europe): Culicoides species composition and factors affecting capture rates of the biting midge Culicoides imicola. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:1267-75 pubmed publisher
    ..As previously remarked by other authors, standardized capture methods and protocols for trap use are needed to ensure that results obtained in different geographical areas and/or periods are comparable...
  39. Mehlhorn H, Walldorf V, Klimpel S, Schmahl G. Outbreak of bluetongue disease (BTD) in Germany and the danger for Europe. Parasitol Res. 2008;103 Suppl 1:S79-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Effects of global warming-of course-will support persistence of such outbreaks of diseases due to offering of spreading of imported viruses, bacteria and/or parasites...
  40. Wilson W, Bernard K, Israel B, Mecham J. Bluetongue virus serotype 17 sequence variation associated with neutralization. DNA Seq. 2008;19:237-40 pubmed
    b>Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an insect-transmitted orbivirus of importance to the cattle and sheep industry. The VP2 protein, encoded by L2, contains neutralizing epitopes...
  41. Elbers A, van der Spek A, van Rijn P. Epidemiologic characteristics of bluetongue virus serotype 8 laboratory-confirmed outbreaks in The Netherlands in 2007 and a comparison with the situation in 2006. Prev Vet Med. 2009;92:1-8 pubmed publisher
    A major epidemic of bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) occurred in Western Europe in 2006. During 2007 it became evident that BTV-8 had survived the winter and a re-emerging epidemic quickly developed...
  42. Saegerman C, Mellor P, Uyttenhoef A, Hanon J, Kirschvink N, Haubruge E, et al. The most likely time and place of introduction of BTV8 into Belgian ruminants. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9405 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the origin and the time and place of the original introduction have not yet been determined...
  43. Hasler B, Howe K, Di Labio E, Schwermer H, Stärk K. Economic evaluation of the surveillance and intervention programme for bluetongue virus serotype 8 in Switzerland. Prev Vet Med. 2012;103:93-111 pubmed publisher
    ..The Swiss national mitigation programme for bluetongue virus serotype 8 was used as case study to investigate the economic efficiency of mitigation...
  44. Pérez de Diego A, Athmaram T, Stewart M, Rodriguez Sanchez B, Sanchez Vizcaino J, Noad R, et al. Characterization of protection afforded by a bivalent virus-like particle vaccine against bluetongue virus serotypes 1 and 4 in sheep. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26666 pubmed publisher
    b>Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an economically important, arthropod borne, emerging pathogen in Europe, causing disease mainly in sheep and cattle...
  45. Wouda W, Roumen M, Peperkamp N, Vos J, van Garderen E, Muskens J. Hydranencephaly in calves following the bluetongue serotype 8 epidemic in the Netherlands. Vet Rec. 2008;162:422-3 pubmed
  46. Hofmann M, Renzullo S, Mader M, Chaignat V, Worwa G, Thuer B. Genetic characterization of toggenburg orbivirus, a new bluetongue virus, from goats, Switzerland. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1855-61 pubmed publisher
    A novel bluetongue virus (BTV) termed Toggenburg orbivirus (TOV) was detected in goats from Switzerland by using real-time reverse transcription-PCR...
  47. Burgin L, Gloster J, Mellor P. Why were there no outbreaks of bluetongue in the UK during 2008?. Vet Rec. 2009;164:384-7 pubmed
    ..The authors believe that if bluetongue re-establishes itself on the near Continent in 2009, it will be of critical importance that UK livestock are fully protected by vaccination against the disease...
  48. Oura C, Wood J, Sanders A, Bin Tarif A, Henstock M, Edwards L, et al. Seroconversion, neutralising antibodies and protection in bluetongue serotype 8 vaccinated sheep. Vaccine. 2009;27:7326-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) has caused a major outbreak of disease in cattle and sheep in several countries across northern and western Europe from 2006 to 2008...
  49. Enserink M. Animal disease. Exotic disease of farm animals tests Europe's responses. Science. 2008;319:710-1 pubmed publisher
  50. Bhattacharya B, Roy P. Bluetongue virus outer capsid protein VP5 interacts with membrane lipid rafts via a SNARE domain. J Virol. 2008;82:10600-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a nonenveloped double-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Reoviridae. The two outer capsid proteins, VP2 and VP5, are responsible for virus entry...
  51. Umeshappa C, Singh K, Pandey A, Singh R, Nanjundappa R. Cell-mediated immune response and cross-protective efficacy of binary ethylenimine-inactivated bluetongue virus serotype-1 vaccine in sheep. Vaccine. 2010;28:2522-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent invasion of multiple bluetongue virus serotypes (BTV) in various countries warrants immediate development of efficacious vaccine that targets more ..
  52. Garros C, Mathieu B, Balenghien T, Cêtre Sossah C, Delecolle J. Suggesting synonymies? Comments on Kiehl et al. (2009) "the European vectors of Bluetongue virus: are there species complexes, single species or races in Culicoides obsoletus and C. pulicaris detectable by sequencing ITS-1, ITS-2 and 18S-rDNA?&q. Parasitol Res. 2010;107:731-4 pubmed publisher
    ..montanus" and "[Therefore] probably C. scoticus should be considered only as a race of C. obsoletus" are discussed...
  53. Batten C, Harif B, Henstock M, Ghizlane S, Edwards L, Loutfi C, et al. Experimental infection of camels with bluetongue virus. Res Vet Sci. 2011;90:533-5 pubmed publisher
    Three camels aged 4-5 years were experimentally infected with Bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV-1) and were observed for 75 days...
  54. Bhanuprakash V, Indrani B, Hosamani M, Balamurugan V, Singh R. Bluetongue vaccines: the past, present and future. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2009;8:191-204 pubmed publisher
    ..We give an overview of BT vaccines, starting from conventional to recent developments, and their feasibility in controlling BT infection...
  55. Oura C, Wood J, Floyd T, Sanders A, Bin Tarif A, Henstock M, et al. Colostral antibody protection and interference with immunity in lambs born from sheep vaccinated with an inactivated Bluetongue serotype 8 vaccine. Vaccine. 2010;28:2749-53 pubmed publisher
    Widespread vaccination programmes against Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8), using inactivated vaccines, are being carried out across many countries in northern, western and southern Europe...
  56. Allepuz A, García Bocanegra I, Napp S, Casal J, Arenas A, Saez M, et al. Monitoring bluetongue disease (BTV-1) epidemic in southern Spain during 2007. Prev Vet Med. 2010;96:263-71 pubmed publisher
    On the 25th of July 2007, bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 1 was detected in Andalusia, southern Spain for the first time...
  57. Oura C, Edwards L, Batten C. Evaluation of the humoral immune response in adult dairy cattle three years after vaccination with a bluetongue serotype 8 inactivated vaccine. Vaccine. 2012;30:112-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This extended duration of protection may have contributed towards the rapid and efficient eradication of BTV-8 from many European countries, despite reducing levels of vaccine coverage...
  58. De Clercq K, De Leeuw I, Verheyden B, Vandemeulebroucke E, Vanbinst T, Herr C, et al. Transplacental infection and apparently immunotolerance induced by a wild-type bluetongue virus serotype 8 natural infection. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2008;55:352-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, virus isolation was successful for two newborn calves, emphasizing the need for restricting trade to BT-free regions of pregnant dams possibly infected during gestation, even if they are BTV RT-qPCR negative...
  59. Eschbaumer M, Hoffmann B, Moss A, Savini G, Leone A, König P, et al. Emergence of bluetongue virus serotype 6 in Europe--German field data and experimental infection of cattle. Vet Microbiol. 2010;143:189-95 pubmed publisher
    In late 2008, bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 6 (BTV-6), which had never occurred in Europe before, was first detected in the Netherlands and Germany...
  60. Valas S, Le Ven A, Croise B, Maquigneau M, Perrin C. Interference of vaccination against bluetongue virus serotypes 1 and 8 with serological diagnosis of small-ruminant lentivirus infection. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:513-7 pubmed publisher
    The effects of the recent vaccinations against bluetongue virus serotype 1 (BTV-1) and BTV-8 in Europe on the reliability of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) currently used for diagnosis of small-ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) ..
  61. Meiswinkel R, van Rijn P, Leijs P, Goffredo M. Potential new Culicoides vector of bluetongue virus in northern Europe. Vet Rec. 2007;161:564-5 pubmed
  62. Gerbier G, Baldet T, A Tran -, Hendrickx G, Guis H, Mintiens K, et al. Modelling local dispersal of bluetongue virus serotype 8 using random walk. Prev Vet Med. 2008;87:119-30 pubmed publisher
    ..For a contagious disease, the main method is back tracing. For a vector-borne disease such as the Bluetongue virus serotype 8 epizootic that occurred in 2006 in North-Western Europe, the efficiency of tracing is limited ..
  63. Mortola E, Larsen A. [Bluetongue virus infection: signaling pathway activated during apoptosis]. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2009;41:134-40 pubmed
  64. Stewart M, Bhatia Y, Athmaran T, Noad R, Gastaldi C, Dubois E, et al. Validation of a novel approach for the rapid production of immunogenic virus-like particles for bluetongue virus. Vaccine. 2010;28:3047-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Bluetongue virus causes an emerging disease of ruminants, principally affecting sheep and cattle...
  65. Velthuis A, Saatkamp H, Mourits M, de Koeijer A, Elbers A. Financial consequences of the Dutch bluetongue serotype 8 epidemics of 2006 and 2007. Prev Vet Med. 2010;93:294-304 pubmed publisher
    ..The cattle sector suffered 88% and 85% of the net costs for the BT2006 and BT2007, respectively; the highest of all sectors...
  66. Becker M, Reeves W, Dejean S, Emery M, Ostlund E, Foil L. Detection of bluetongue virus RNA in field-collected Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) following the discovery of bluetongue virus serotype 1 in white-tailed deer and cattle in Louisiana. J Med Entomol. 2010;47:269-73 pubmed
    In November 2004, bluetongue virus (family Reoviridae, genus Orbivirus, BTV) serotype 1 (BTV-1) was detected for the first time in the United States from a hunter-killed deer in St. Mary Parish, LA...
  67. Breard E, Belbis G, Hamers C, Moulin V, Lilin T, Moreau F, et al. Evaluation of humoral response and protective efficacy of two inactivated vaccines against bluetongue virus after vaccination of goats. Vaccine. 2011;29:2495-502 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the efficacy of two inactivated vaccines against bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) used in Europe since 2008, BTVPUR ALSAP(®) 8 (MERIAL) and BOVILIS(®) BTV8 (Intervet/SP-..
  68. Umeshappa C, Singh K, Channappanavar R, Sharma K, Nanjundappa R, Saxena M, et al. A comparison of intradermal and intravenous inoculation of bluetongue virus serotype 23 in sheep for clinico-pathology, and viral and immune responses. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011;141:230-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Using laboratory-passaged moderately virulent bluetongue virus serotype 23 (BTV-23), one of the most prevalent Indian serotype, we investigated the pathogenesis of BT in ..
  69. Zanella G, Durand B, Sellal E, Breard E, Sailleau C, Zientara S, et al. Bluetongue virus serotype 8: abortion and transplacental transmission in cattle in the Burgundy region, France, 2008-2009. Theriogenology. 2012;77:65-72 pubmed publisher
    During the incursion of bluetongue virus (BTV) serotype 8 in France in 2007, an increase in the number of abortions in cattle was observed, but the cause was not clearly established...
  70. Shaw A, Ratinier M, Nunes S, Nomikou K, Caporale M, Golder M, et al. Reassortment between two serologically unrelated bluetongue virus strains is flexible and can involve any genome segment. J Virol. 2013;87:543-57 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segmented virus and the cause of bluetongue, a major infectious ..
  71. MacLachlan N, Zientara S, Stallknecht D, Boone J, Goekjian V, Sailleau C, et al. Phylogenetic comparison of the S10 genes of recent isolates of bluetongue virus from the United States and French Martinique Island. Virus Res. 2007;129:236-40 pubmed
    The sequences of the S10 genes of 28 recent isolates (1994-2004) of bluetongue virus (BTV) from the United States (US) and French Martinique Island (2006) in the Caribbean Basin were compared in phylogenetic analyses to those of viruses ..
  72. Fernandez Pacheco P, Fernandez Pinero J, Aguero M, Jimenez Clavero M. Bluetongue virus serotype 1 in wild mouflons in Spain. Vet Rec. 2008;162:659-60 pubmed
  73. Batten C, Maan S, Shaw A, Maan N, Mertens P. A European field strain of bluetongue virus derived from two parental vaccine strains by genome segment reassortment. Virus Res. 2008;137:56-63 pubmed publisher
    Since 1998, nine bluetongue virus (BTV) strains from serotypes 1, 2, 4, 8, 9 and 16 have invaded Europe, killing >2 million animals (mainly sheep). Live vaccine strains of BTV-2, 4, 9 and 16 have also been used in the region...
  74. Fassotte C, Delecolle J, Cors R, Defrance T, De Deken R, Haubruge E, et al. Culicoides trapping with Rothamsted suction traps before and during the bluetongue epidemic of 2006 in Belgium. Prev Vet Med. 2008;87:74-83 pubmed publisher
    ..samples revealed the presence of Culicoides, some species of which are considered as potential vectors of the bluetongue virus (BTV)...
  75. Meiswinkel R, Goffredo M, Dijkstra E, van der Ven I, Baldet T, Elbers A. Endophily in Culicoides associated with BTV-infected cattle in the province of Limburg, south-eastern Netherlands, 2006. Prev Vet Med. 2008;87:182-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Because diurnal biting in vector Culicoides may constitute a significant and underestimated component of BTV transmission a novel capture methodology will be required in future and is discussed briefly...
  76. Gethmann J, Huttner K, Heyne H, Probst C, Ziller M, Beer M, et al. Comparative safety study of three inactivated BTV-8 vaccines in sheep and cattle under field conditions. Vaccine. 2009;27:4118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..of bluetongue disease in 2006 and 2007, Germany has started a compulsory vaccination program against bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8)...
  77. Hoffmann B, Bauer B, Bauer C, Bätza H, Beer M, Clausen P, et al. Monitoring of putative vectors of bluetongue virus serotype 8, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1481-4 pubmed publisher
    To identify the vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) in Germany, we monitored Culicoides spp. biting midges during April 2007-May 2008. Molecular characterization of batches of midges that tested positive for BTV suggests C...
  78. Savini G, Cannas A, Casaccia C, Di Gialleonardo L, Leone A, Patta C, et al. Risk factors associated with the occurrence of undesired effects in sheep and goats after field vaccination with modified-live vaccine against bluetongue virus serotypes 2, 4 and 16. Vet Microbiol. 2010;146:44-50 pubmed publisher
    ..On the contrary, presence of BTV genome fractions in the blood of animals at the time of vaccination was found to be protective (RR=0.7, 0.58-0.84) to the occurrence of undesired effect subsequent to BTV vaccination...
  79. van der Sluijs M, Schroer Joosten D, Fid Fourkour A, Vrijenhoek M, Debyser I, Gregg D, et al. Effect of vaccination with an inactivated vaccine on transplacental transmission of BTV-8 in mid term pregnant ewes and heifers. Vaccine. 2012;30:647-55 pubmed publisher
    The effect of vaccination with a commercial inactivated Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) vaccine on the ability of BTV-8 to cross the ruminant placenta was investigated in two experiments...
  80. Jabbar T, Calvo Pinilla E, Mateos F, Gubbins S, Bin Tarif A, Bachanek Bankowska K, et al. Protection of IFNAR (-/-) mice against bluetongue virus serotype 8, by heterologous (DNA/rMVA) and homologous (rMVA/rMVA) vaccination, expressing outer-capsid protein VP2. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60574 pubmed publisher
    The protective efficacy of recombinant vaccines expressing serotype 8 bluetongue virus (BTV-8) capsid proteins was tested in a mouse model...
  81. Mertens P, Maan N, Prasad G, Samuel A, Shaw A, Potgieter A, et al. Design of primers and use of RT-PCR assays for typing European bluetongue virus isolates: differentiation of field and vaccine strains. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:2811-23 pubmed
    b>Bluetongue virus (BTV) is the causative agent of bluetongue, a disease of ruminant livestock that occurs almost worldwide between latitudes 3 degrees S and 5 degrees N...
  82. Mumtsidu E, Makhov A, Roessle M, Bathke A, Tucker P. Structural features of the Bluetongue virus NS2 protein. J Struct Biol. 2007;160:157-67 pubmed
    b>Bluetongue virus (BTV) non-structural protein 2 (NS2) belongs to a class of highly conserved proteins found in members of the orbivirus genus of the reoviridae...
  83. Goldarazena A, Romón P, Aduriz G, Balenghien T, Baldet T, Delecolle J. First record of Culicoides imicola, the main vector of bluetongue virus in Europe, in the Basque Country (northern Spain). Vet Rec. 2008;162:820-1 pubmed
  84. Clausen P, Stephan A, Bartsch S, Jandowsky A, Hoffmann Köhler P, Schein E, et al. Seasonal dynamics of biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae, Culicoides spp.) on dairy farms of Central Germany during the 2007/2008 epidemic of bluetongue. Parasitol Res. 2009;105:381-6 pubmed publisher
    ..were involved in the transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV)...
  85. Steinrigl A, Revilla Fernández S, Eichinger M, Koefer J, Winter P. Bluetongue virus RNA detection by RT-qPCR in blood samples of sheep vaccinated with a commercially available inactivated BTV-8 vaccine. Vaccine. 2010;28:5573-81 pubmed publisher
    In 2008, a country-wide bluetongue virus 8 (BTV-8) vaccination campaign has been initiated in Austria, using a single commercial inactivated BTV-8 vaccine...
  86. Nielsen S, Kristensen M. Morphological and molecular identification of species of the Obsoletus group (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Scandinavia. Parasitol Res. 2011;109:1133-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the females of all four species of the Obsoletus group can be separated by a quick morphological method under the stereomicroscope...
  87. Sumner T, Burgin L, Gloster J, Gubbins S. Comparison of pre-emptive and reactive strategies to control an incursion of bluetongue virus serotype 1 to Great Britain by vaccination. Epidemiol Infect. 2013;141:102-14 pubmed publisher
    Bluetongue (BT) is a disease of ruminants caused by bluetongue virus (BTV), which is spread between its hosts by Culicoides midges...
  88. Pioz M, Guis H, Crespin L, Gay E, Calavas D, Durand B, et al. Why did bluetongue spread the way it did? Environmental factors influencing the velocity of bluetongue virus serotype 8 epizootic wave in France. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43360 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the approach presented in this paper can be used with other infectious diseases, and provides a powerful tool to identify environmental features driving the velocity of disease spread...
  89. Matsuo E, Roy P. Minimum requirements for bluetongue virus primary replication in vivo. J Virol. 2013;87:882-9 pubmed publisher
    The replication mechanism of bluetongue virus (BTV) has been studied by an in vivo reverse genetics (RG) system identifying the importance of certain BTV proteins for primary replication of the virus...
  90. Hoffmann B, Eschbaumer M, Beer M. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays specifically detecting bluetongue virus serotypes 1, 6, and 8. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:2992-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a major pathogen of ruminants. Especially serotypes 1, 6, and 8 are of concern to veterinary authorities in central Europe...
  91. Di Gialleonardo L, Migliaccio P, Teodori L, Savini G. The length of BTV-8 viraemia in cattle according to infection doses and diagnostic techniques. Res Vet Sci. 2011;91:316-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Infectious dose did influence neither the length nor the pattern of BTV-8 viraemia and confirmed that real time RT-PCR remains positive although no circulating virus is detectable in the peripheral circulation...
  92. Mathieu B, Delecolle J, Garros C, Balenghien T, Setier Rio M, Candolfi E, et al. Simultaneous quantification of the relative abundance of species complex members: application to Culicoides obsoletus and Culicoides scoticus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), potential vectors of bluetongue virus. Vet Parasitol. 2011;182:297-306 pubmed publisher
    ..and Culicoides scoticus Downes and Kettle (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), are known to be competent vectors for bluetongue virus in the Palaearctic region...