parechovirus

Summary

Summary: A genus in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting humans and rodents. The type species is Human parechovirus.

Top Publications

  1. Noordhoek G, Weel J, Poelstra E, Hooghiemstra M, Brandenburg A. Clinical validation of a new real-time PCR assay for detection of enteroviruses and parechoviruses, and implications for diagnostic procedures. J Clin Virol. 2008;41:75-80 pubmed
    ..Enteroviruses (EV) and parechoviruses (HPeV) are the most common causes of aseptic meningitis, encephalitis and sepsis-like syndrome in neonates. Detection by nucleic acid amplification methods improves patient management...
  2. Tauriainen S, Martiskainen M, Oikarinen S, Lönnrot M, Viskari H, Ilonen J, et al. Human parechovirus 1 infections in young children--no association with type 1 diabetes. J Med Virol. 2007;79:457-62 pubmed
    ..Enteroviruses and one parechovirus species, the Ljungan virus, have been associated with type 1 diabetes in humans and rodents...
  3. Baumgarte S, de Souza Luna L, Grywna K, Panning M, Drexler J, Karsten C, et al. Prevalence, types, and RNA concentrations of human parechoviruses, including a sixth parechovirus type, in stool samples from patients with acute enteritis. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:242-8 pubmed
    b>Parechovirus epidemiology and disease association are not fully understood. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) for all human parechoviruses (HPeV) was applied on stool samples from two groups of patients...
  4. McLeish N, Witteveldt J, Clasper L, McIntyre C, McWilliam Leitch E, Hardie A, et al. Development and assay of RNA transcripts of enterovirus species A to D, rhinovirus species a to C, and human parechovirus: assessment of assay sensitivity and specificity of real-time screening and typing methods. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:2910-7 pubmed publisher
    ..a diverse range of enteroviruses (EVs; species A to D), human rhinoviruses (HRVs; species A to C), and human parechovirus (HPeV) in a multicenter assay evaluation using a series of full-length prequantified RNA transcripts...
  5. Zhong H, Lin Y, Su L, Cao L, Xu M, Xu J. Prevalence of human parechoviruses in central nervous system infections in children: a retrospective study in Shanghai, China. J Med Virol. 2013;85:320-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provided data on the molecular epidemiology of HPeV infections in CNS-related diseases in Shanghai, China and suggest that the screening for HPeV by PCR should be included in the routine viral testing of CSF...
  6. Chieochansin T, Vichiwattana P, Korkong S, Theamboonlers A, Poovorawan Y. Molecular epidemiology, genome characterization, and recombination event of human parechovirus. Virology. 2011;421:159-66 pubmed publisher
    Human Parechovirus (HPeV), a member of the Picornaviridae family, is an infectious agent mostly affecting children. There are 16 recognized genotypes which have globally spread...
  7. Niklasson B, Samsioe A, Papadogiannakis N, Kawecki A, Hörnfeldt B, Saade G, et al. Association of zoonotic Ljungan virus with intrauterine fetal deaths. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2007;79:488-93 pubmed
    ..LV was also detected in the placenta in 5 of the 10 IUFD cases, but in none of 20 placentas from normal pregnancies. LV may play an important role in IUFDs. ..
  8. Harvala H, Robertson I, McWilliam Leitch E, Benschop K, Wolthers K, Templeton K, et al. Epidemiology and clinical associations of human parechovirus respiratory infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:3446-53 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the screening and typing methods developed will be of value in further HPeV testing, including testing for meningitis cases and other suspected HPeV-associated disease presentations. ..
  9. Al Sunaidi M, Williams C, Hughes P, Schnurr D, Stanway G. Analysis of a new human parechovirus allows the definition of parechovirus types and the identification of RNA structural domains. J Virol. 2007;81:1013-21 pubmed
    Human parechoviruses (HPeV), members of the Parechovirus genus of Picornaviridae, are frequent pathogens but have been comparatively poorly studied, and little is known of their diversity, evolution, and molecular biology...

More Information

Publications83

  1. Sedmak G, Nix W, Jentzen J, Haupt T, Davis J, Bhattacharyya S, et al. Infant deaths associated with human parechovirus infection in Wisconsin. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;50:357-61 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA extracted from these 4 isolates and associated autopsy specimens was tested using parechovirus-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing assays...
  2. Eis Hübinger A, Eckerle I, Helmer A, Reber U, Dresbach T, Buderus S, et al. Two cases of sepsis-like illness in infants caused by human parechovirus traced back to elder siblings with mild gastroenteritis and respiratory symptoms. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:715-8 pubmed publisher
    Sepsis and sepsis-like illness in neonates and infants are serious emergencies. Recently, human parechovirus type 3 (HPeV-3) has been identified as a further etiologic agent of these conditions...
  3. Levorson R, Jantausch B, Wiedermann B, Spiegel H, Campos J. Human parechovirus-3 infection: emerging pathogen in neonatal sepsis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:545-7 pubmed publisher
    Human parechovirus-3 (HPeV-3) is an emerging pathogen that has been described as a cause of neonatal sepsis. Human parechoviruses are a family of viruses closely related to enteroviruses; however, enteroviral PCR will not detect HPeVs...
  4. Harvala H, Simmonds P. Human parechoviruses: biology, epidemiology and clinical significance. J Clin Virol. 2009;45:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..By this means, we will learn much more about the clinical relevance of HPeVs and the association of different HPeV types with specific disease presentations. ..
  5. Samsioe A, Sjoholm A, Niklasson B, Klitz W. Fetal death persists through recurrent pregnancies in mice following Ljungan virus infection. Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol. 2008;83:507-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Laboratory mice infected with Ljungan virus (LV) early in pregnancy suffer from perinatal death. Here we investigate the persistence of that effect through the outcome of consecutive pregnancies in LV-infected mice...
  6. Ito M, Yamashita T, Tsuzuki H, Takeda N, Sakae K. Isolation and identification of a novel human parechovirus. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:391-8 pubmed
    ..not be neutralized by antisera against human picornaviruses such as human enterovirus, Aichi virus or human parechovirus. The virion contained three capsid proteins with molecular masses of 38, 30.3 and 30 kDa...
  7. Chen H, Yao Y, Liu X, Xiao N, Xiao Y, Huang Y, et al. Molecular detection of human parechovirus in children with acute gastroenteritis in Guangzhou, China. Arch Virol. 2014;159:971-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, this study clearly demonstrated that HPeV circulating in Guangzhou, China, is genetically diverse, including six genotypes, and it provides useful epidemiological data on the features of HPeV infection in this area. ..
  8. Pham N, Chan It W, Khamrin P, Nishimura S, Kikuta H, Sugita K, et al. Detection of human parechovirus in stool samples collected from children with acute gastroenteritis in Japan during 2007-2008. J Med Virol. 2011;83:331-6 pubmed publisher
    ..7%) were subjected to screening for human parechovirus. Human parechovirus (HPeV) was detected by RT-PCR using a primer pair to amplify 5'UTR region of its genome and ..
  9. Niklasson B, Nyholm E, Feinstein R, Samsioe A, Hörnfeldt B. Diabetes and myocarditis in voles and lemmings at cyclic peak densities--induced by Ljungan virus?. Oecologia. 2006;150:1-7 pubmed
    ..Increased stress at peak densities is thought to be an important trigger for the development of disease, as the occurrence of disease in laboratory mice has been found to be triggered by introducing stress to LV-infected animals. ..
  10. Krous H, Langlois N. Ljungan virus: a commentary on its association with fetal and infant morbidity and mortality in animals and humans. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2010;88:947-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed role of LV infection in SIDS is unconvincing. Further research is necessary to clarify the role of LV infection in animal and human disease. ..
  11. Kapoor A, Victoria J, Simmonds P, Wang C, Shafer R, Nims R, et al. A highly divergent picornavirus in a marine mammal. J Virol. 2008;82:311-20 pubmed publisher
    ..ribosome entry site, and the polyprotein lacked an apparent L peptide, both properties associated with the Parechovirus genus...
  12. Triantafilou K, Vakakis E, Orthopoulos G, Ahmed M, Schumann C, Lepper P, et al. TLR8 and TLR7 are involved in the host's immune response to human parechovirus 1. Eur J Immunol. 2005;35:2416-23 pubmed
    ..In this study we show that mainly TLR8 and also TLR7 act as the host sensors for human parechovirus 1, a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus...
  13. Abed Y, Wolf D, Dagan R, Boivin G. Development of a serological assay based on a synthetic peptide selected from the VP0 capsid protein for detection of human parechoviruses. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:2037-9 pubmed
    ..Seroprevalence for HPeVs was 70% in children of < or = 5 years of age and 95% in adults. For children from whom serial sera were sampled, seropositivity increased from 22% to 88% between 2 and 24 months of age. ..
  14. Kolehmainen P, Oikarinen S, Koskiniemi M, Simell O, Ilonen J, Knip M, et al. Human parechoviruses are frequently detected in stool of healthy Finnish children. J Clin Virol. 2012;54:156-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are common viruses mainly infecting young children. Most infections are mild, but HPeV3 causes severe CNS infections in new-born infants...
  15. Eyssette Guerreau S, Boize P, Thibault M, Sarda H. [Neonatal parechovirus infection, fever, irritability and myositis]. Arch Pediatr. 2013;20:772-4 pubmed publisher
    Human parechovirus (HPeV) is associated with central nervous system infection and sepsis-like illness in newborn infants. The most frequent signs are fever, seizures, irritability, rash, and encephalitis...
  16. Tolf C, Gullberg M, Ekström J, Jonsson N, Michael Lindberg A. Identification of amino acid residues of Ljungan virus VP0 and VP1 associated with cytolytic replication in cultured cells. Arch Virol. 2009;154:1271-84 pubmed publisher
  17. Krogerus C, Samuilova O, Pöyry T, Jokitalo E, Hyypia T. Intracellular localization and effects of individually expressed human parechovirus 1 non-structural proteins. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:831-41 pubmed
    Human parechovirus 1 (HPEV-1) has many unique features compared with other picornaviruses and it has been shown that the replication complex formed during HPEV-1 infection is different from that of other picornaviruses...
  18. Pham N, Trinh Q, Khamrin P, Maneekarn N, Shimizu H, Okitsu S, et al. Diversity of human parechoviruses isolated from stool samples collected from Thai children with acute gastroenteritis. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:115-9 pubmed publisher
    ..with acute gastroenteritis in Chiang Mai, Thailand, from January to December 2005 were screened for human parechovirus (HPeV)...
  19. Westerhuis B, Koen G, Wildenbeest J, Pajkrt D, de Jong M, Benschop K, et al. Specific cell tropism and neutralization of human parechovirus types 1 and 3: implications for pathogenesis and therapy development. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:2363-70 pubmed publisher
  20. Piralla A, Furione M, Rovida F, Marchi A, Stronati M, Gerna G, et al. Human parechovirus infections in patients admitted to hospital in Northern Italy, 2008-2010. J Med Virol. 2012;84:686-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Although not circulating at high frequency and unlikely to cause respiratory syndrome, HPeV was associated with severe clinical syndromes in a minority of newborns...
  21. Williams C, Panayiotou M, Girling G, Peard C, Oikarinen S, Hyoty H, et al. Evolution and conservation in human parechovirus genomes. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1702-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that in addition to the cis-acting replication element, RNA secondary structure domains in coding regions play a key role in picornavirus replication...
  22. Pham N, Takanashi S, Tran D, Trinh Q, Abeysekera C, Abeygunawardene A, et al. Human parechovirus infection in children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in Sri Lanka. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:364-6 pubmed publisher
    ..3%) were positive for human parechovirus (HPeV)...
  23. Harvala H, McLeish N, Kondracka J, McIntyre C, McWilliam Leitch E, Templeton K, et al. Comparison of human parechovirus and enterovirus detection frequencies in cerebrospinal fluid samples collected over a 5-year period in edinburgh: HPeV type 3 identified as the most common picornavirus type. J Med Virol. 2011;83:889-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The highly sensitive virus typing methods applied in this study will assist further EV and HPeV screening of sepsis and meningitis cases as well as in future molecular epidemiological studies and population surveillance...
  24. Wildenbeest J, Wolthers K, Straver B, Pajkrt D. Successful IVIG treatment of human parechovirus-associated dilated cardiomyopathy in an infant. Pediatrics. 2013;132:e243-7 pubmed publisher
    ..More research combining virological and clinical data is needed to see whether this hypothesis is true. ..
  25. Verboon Maciolek M, Groenendaal F, Hahn C, Hellmann J, van Loon A, Boivin G, et al. Human parechovirus causes encephalitis with white matter injury in neonates. Ann Neurol. 2008;64:266-73 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the role of human parechoviruses (HPeVs) as a cause of neonatal cerebral infection and to report neuroimaging findings of newborn infants with encephalitis caused by HPeVs...
  26. Benschop K, Schinkel J, Minnaar R, Pajkrt D, Spanjerberg L, Kraakman H, et al. Human parechovirus infections in Dutch children and the association between serotype and disease severity. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:204-10 pubmed
    ..HPeV3 infection has been associated with transient paralysis and neonatal infection and has until now only been reported in Japan and Canada...
  27. Li L, Victoria J, Kapoor A, Naeem A, Shaukat S, Sharif S, et al. Genomic characterization of novel human parechovirus type. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:288-91 pubmed
    Using a simple metagenomic approach, we identified a divergent human parechovirus (HPeV) in the stool of a child in Pakistan...
  28. Joki Korpela P, Hyypia T. Parechoviruses, a novel group of human picornaviruses. Ann Med. 2001;33:466-71 pubmed
    ..The type member is human parechovirus 1 (HPEV1), which frequently infects humans, in particular small children...
  29. Samsioe A, Papadogiannakis N, Hultman T, Sjoholm A, Klitz W, Niklasson B. Ljungan virus present in intrauterine fetal death diagnosed by both immunohistochemistry and PCR. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2009;85:227-9 pubmed publisher
  30. Harvala H, Robertson I, Chieochansin T, McWilliam Leitch E, Templeton K, Simmonds P. Specific association of human parechovirus type 3 with sepsis and fever in young infants, as identified by direct typing of cerebrospinal fluid samples. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:1753-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined the relative importance of these viruses and the specific HPeV types involved in the development of central nervous system-associated disease...
  31. Wolthers K, Benschop K, Schinkel J, Molenkamp R, Bergevoet R, Spijkerman I, et al. Human parechoviruses as an important viral cause of sepsislike illness and meningitis in young children. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:358-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Six HPeV genotypes are currently known, of which HPeV3 is associated with neonatal sepsis and meningitis...
  32. Tolf C, Ekström J, Gullberg M, Arbrandt G, Niklasson B, Frisk G, et al. Characterization of polyclonal antibodies against the capsid proteins of Ljungan virus. J Virol Methods. 2008;150:34-40 pubmed publisher
    ..No activity of the antibodies was observed against the closely related human parechovirus type 1...
  33. Zhang D, Jin Y, Li D, Cheng W, Xu Z, Yu J, et al. Prevalence of human parechovirus in Chinese children hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:1563-9 pubmed publisher
    ..One potential new HPeV genotype was identified, but needs to be confirmed further by the picoma study group. However, the present study does not support a causative role of HPeV1 and HPeV3 in acute gastroenteritis...
  34. Benschop K, Schinkel J, Luken M, van den Broek P, Beersma M, Menelik N, et al. Fourth human parechovirus serotype. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1572-5 pubmed
    We identified a novel human parechovirus (HPeV) type (K251176-02) from a neonate with fever. Analysis of the complete genome showed K251176-02 to be a new HPeV genotype...
  35. Benschop K, Minnaar R, Koen G, van Eijk H, Dijkman K, Westerhuis B, et al. Detection of human enterovirus and human parechovirus (HPeV) genotypes from clinical stool samples: polymerase chain reaction and direct molecular typing, culture characteristics, and serotyping. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;68:166-73 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the genotyping method used here could identify only 47% of the HEV/HPeV strains. Further optimization and validation of direct genotyping are needed, and clinical relevance of HEV/HPeV detection in stool needs to be determined...
  36. Shan T, Wang C, Cui L, Delwart E, Yuan C, Zhao W, et al. Human parechovirus infections in monkeys with diarrhea, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1168-9 pubmed publisher
    Information about human parechovirus (HPeV) infection in animals is scant. Using 5' untranslated region reverse transcription-PCR, we detected HPeV in feces of monkeys with diarrhea and sequenced the complete genome of 1 isolate (SH6)...
  37. Bennett S, Harvala H, Witteveldt J, McWilliam Leitch E, McLeish N, Templeton K, et al. Rapid simultaneous detection of enterovirus and parechovirus RNAs in clinical samples by one-step real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:2620-4 pubmed publisher
  38. Ljubin Sternak S, Juretić E, Santak M, Pleša M, Forcic D, Vilibic Cavlek T, et al. Clinical and molecular characterization of a parechovirus type 1 outbreak in neonates in Croatia. J Med Virol. 2011;83:137-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Human parechovirus type 1 (HPeV1) was isolated from seven patients, one of whom was asymptomatic...
  39. Niklasson B, Samsioe A, Papadogiannakis N, Gustafsson S, Klitz W. Zoonotic Ljungan virus associated with central nervous system malformations in terminated pregnancy. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2009;85:542-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The LV has also been associated with intrauterine fetal death in humans. We investigated the presence of LV in a series of human hydrocephaly and anencephaly cases from elective abortions...
  40. Nix W, Maher K, Johansson E, Niklasson B, Lindberg A, Pallansch M, et al. Detection of all known parechoviruses by real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:2519-24 pubmed publisher
    The Parechovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family contains two species, Human parechovirus (HPeV) and Ljungan virus (LV)...
  41. Han T, Kim C, Park S, Chung J, Hwang E. Detection of human parechoviruses in children with gastroenteritis in South Korea. Arch Virol. 2011;156:1471-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Two HPeV-4 strains showed discordant phylogenic relationships in the 3D gene, suggesting that recombination had occurred. This is the first study reporting the detection of HPeVs in children with GE in Korea...
  42. de Vries M, Pyrc K, Berkhout R, Vermeulen Oost W, Dijkman R, Jebbink M, et al. Human parechovirus type 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 detection in picornavirus cultures. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:759-62 pubmed
    ..Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) were frequently identified, among which were the uncommon isolates HPeV-4, HPeV-5, and HPeV-6. The HPeV-5 isolate could be amplified only by VIDISCA and not by VP1 RT-PCR...
  43. Alam M, Khurshid A, Shaukat S, Sharif S, Rana M, Angez M, et al. Identification of human parechovirus genotype, HPeV-12, in a paralytic child with diarrhea. J Clin Virol. 2012;55:339-42 pubmed publisher
    ..New genotypes of human parechoviruses have been readily identified after improvement of diverse diagnostic tools. We hereby report the detection of a new genotype, HPeV 12, from a child presented with diarrhea and paralysis...
  44. Sharp J, Harrison C, Puckett K, Selvaraju S, Peñaranda S, Nix W, et al. Characteristics of young infants in whom human parechovirus, enterovirus or neither were detected in cerebrospinal fluid during sepsis evaluations. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32:213-6 pubmed publisher
    Human parechovirus (HPeV) causes central nervous system (CNS) infection in infants. To further understand HPeV CNS infection, we describe its clinical, laboratory and epidemiologic characteristics from a Midwestern US tertiary care center...
  45. Abed Y, Boivin G. Molecular characterization of a Canadian human parechovirus (HPeV)-3 isolate and its relationship to other HPeVs. J Med Virol. 2005;77:566-70 pubmed
    A new member of the Parechovirus genus (HPeV-3) has been recently isolated from a stool specimen of a young Japanese child with transient paralysis (isolate A308/99)...
  46. Legay V, Chomel J, Lina B. Specific RT-PCR procedure for the detection of human parechovirus type 1 genome in clinical samples. J Virol Methods. 2002;102:157-60 pubmed
    Among the new genera of Parechoviruses, human parechovirus type 1, formerly ECHO virus 22, has recently been recognized on the basis of distinctive biological and molecular properties...
  47. Ghazi F, Ataei Z, Dabirmanesh B. Molecular detection of human parechovirus type 1 in stool samples from children with diarrhea. Int J Infect Dis. 2012;16:e673-6 pubmed publisher
    Human parechovirus type 1 (HPeV-1) appears to be associated with gastrointestinal and respiratory infections, and occasionally with central nervous system symptoms...
  48. Ito M, Yamashita T, Tsuzuki H, Kabashima Y, Hasegawa A, Nagaya S, et al. Detection of human parechoviruses from clinical stool samples in Aichi, Japan. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:2683-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A different pattern of clinical manifestations as well as seasonality suggested that there are different mechanisms of pathogenesis between HPeV-1 and HPeV-3 infections...
  49. Nateri A, Hughes P, Stanway G. Terminal RNA replication elements in human parechovirus 1. J Virol. 2002;76:13116-22 pubmed
    To define structural elements critical for RNA replication in human parechovirus 1 (HPeV1), a replicon with chloramphenicol acetyltransferase as a reporter gene and an infectious virus cDNA clone have been used...
  50. Abed Y, Boivin G. Human parechovirus types 1, 2 and 3 infections in Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:969-75 pubmed
    ..A new reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay was developed for identification of 28 Canadian human parechovirus (HPeV) isolates, including 20 HPeV-1, 3 HPeV-2, and 5 HPeV-3, recovered from 1985 to 2004...
  51. Calvert J, Chieochansin T, Benschop K, McWilliam Leitch E, Drexler J, Grywna K, et al. Recombination dynamics of human parechoviruses: investigation of type-specific differences in frequency and epidemiological correlates. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:1229-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Future investigation of the epidemiological and biological opportunities and constraints on intertypic recombination will provide more information about its influence on the longer term evolution and pathogenicity of parechoviruses...
  52. Faria N, de Vries M, van Hemert F, Benschop K, van der Hoek L. Rooting human parechovirus evolution in time. BMC Evol Biol. 2009;9:164 pubmed publisher
    ..Using both strict and relaxed clock Bayesian phylogenetics we investigated 1) the substitutions rates of the structural P1 and capsid VP1 regions and 2) evolutionary timescale of currently circulating HPeV lineages...
  53. Benschop K, Molenkamp R, van der Ham A, Wolthers K, Beld M. Rapid detection of human parechoviruses in clinical samples by real-time PCR. J Clin Virol. 2008;41:69-74 pubmed
    ..Rapid identification of an infectious agent in such serious conditions in these patients is essential for adequate decision making regarding treatment and hospital stay...
  54. Legay V, Chomel J, Fernandez E, Lina B, Aymard M, Khalfan S. Encephalomyelitis due to human parechovirus type 1. J Clin Virol. 2002;25:193-5 pubmed
    The implication of a viral agent in encephalomyelitis has been reported for several years. In the present study we wanted to demonstrate the presence of human parechovirus type 1 (HPEV1) in a patient diagnosed with encephalomyelitis.
  55. Watanabe K, Oie M, Higuchi M, Nishikawa M, Fujii M. Isolation and characterization of novel human parechovirus from clinical samples. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:889-95 pubmed
    ..The determined amino acid sequence of the virus indicated that the isolate was a human parechovirus (HPeV), a member of Picornaviridae...
  56. Benschop K, Williams C, Wolthers K, Stanway G, Simmonds P. Widespread recombination within human parechoviruses: analysis of temporal dynamics and constraints. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1030-5 pubmed publisher
  57. van der Sanden S, de Bruin E, Vennema H, Swanink C, Koopmans M, van der Avoort H. Prevalence of human parechovirus in the Netherlands in 2000 to 2007. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:2884-9 pubmed publisher
    Infection with human parechovirus 3 (HPeV3) was described for the first time in Japan in 2004 and reportedly is more often associated with severe disease than infection with HPeV1 or HPeV2...
  58. Seitsonen J, Susi P, Heikkilä O, Sinkovits R, Laurinmäki P, Hyypia T, et al. Interaction of alphaVbeta3 and alphaVbeta6 integrins with human parechovirus 1. J Virol. 2010;84:8509-19 pubmed publisher
    Human parechovirus (HPEV) infections are very common in early childhood and can be severe in neonates...
  59. Gupta S, Fernandez D, Siddiqui A, Tong W, Pohl K, Jungbluth H. Extensive white matter abnormalities associated with neonatal Parechovirus (HPeV) infection. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2010;14:531-4 pubmed publisher
    ..EV) meningoencephalitis as a cause of extensive white matter changes in newborns is well documented but Human Parechovirus (HPeV) associated with a similar picture has only been recently recognized...
  60. Tapia G, Cinek O, Rasmussen T, Grinde B, Stene L, Rønningen K. Longitudinal study of parechovirus infection in infancy and risk of repeated positivity for multiple islet autoantibodies: the MIDIA study. Pediatr Diabetes. 2011;12:58-62 pubmed publisher
    The objective of this study was to investigate a possible association between human parechovirus infections in early infancy, diagnosed in fecal samples, and the development of islet autoimmunity...
  61. Boros A, Uj M, Pankovics P, Reuter G. Detection and characterization of human parechoviruses in archived cell cultures, in Hungary. J Clin Virol. 2010;47:379-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Human parechoviruses (HPeV) belonging to the family Picornaviridae are widespread enteric pathogens and associated with various clinical symptoms in humans...
  62. Guo Y, Duan Z, Qian Y. Changes in human parechovirus profiles in hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis after a three-year interval in Lanzhou, China. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68321 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these data suggest temporal variation in the seasonal distribution of HPeV and changing patterns of HPeV genotypes over time in the study region. ..
  63. Krogerus C, Egger D, Samuilova O, Hyypia T, Bienz K. Replication complex of human parechovirus 1. J Virol. 2003;77:8512-23 pubmed
    ..In order to identify the viral RNA replication complex in human parechovirus type 1 (HPEV-1)-infected cells, we located viral protein and RNA in correlation to virus-induced membrane ..
  64. Boivin G, Abed Y, Boucher F. Human parechovirus 3 and neonatal infections. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:103-5 pubmed
    A third serotype of human parechovirus (HPeV) has been recently isolated from stool specimens of a young Japanese child with transient paralysis...
  65. Niklasson B, Samsioe A, Blixt M, Sandler S, Sjoholm A, Lagerquist E, et al. Prenatal viral exposure followed by adult stress produces glucose intolerance in a mouse model. Diabetologia. 2006;49:2192-9 pubmed
    ..Using a mouse model, we tested whether in utero exposure to Ljungan virus (LV) followed by adult exposure to stress produces diabetes. The influence of the timing of viral exposure over the course of pregnancy was also tested...
  66. Donoso Mantke O, Kallies R, Niklasson B, Nitsche A, Niedrig M. A new quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay and melting curve analysis for detection and genotyping of Ljungan virus strains. J Virol Methods. 2007;141:71-7 pubmed
    ..These new methods provide useful tools to investigate the putative role of LV as a pathogen in both rodents and humans...
  67. Harvala H, Wolthers K, Simmonds P. Parechoviruses in children: understanding a new infection. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2010;23:224-30 pubmed
    ..In this review, we will describe both the disease associations and underlying epidemiological and/or biological basis for the often marked differences in disease outcomes between HPeV types...
  68. Pajkrt D, Benschop K, Westerhuis B, Molenkamp R, Spanjerberg L, Wolthers K. Clinical characteristics of human parechoviruses 4-6 infections in young children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:1008-10 pubmed publisher
    ..HPeV1 and 2 have been associated with mild gastrointestinal or respiratory symptoms in young children. HPeV3 is associated with more severe neonatal infection. Little is known about the epidemiology and pathology of HPeV4-6 in children...
  69. Drexler J, Grywna K, Stocker A, Almeida P, Medrado Ribeiro T, Eschbach Bludau M, et al. Novel human parechovirus from Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:310-3 pubmed
    ..1% of 335 stool samples from children <6 years of age with enteritis in Salvador, Brazil. Whole genome sequencing of 1 sample showed a novel HPeV that has been designated as HPeV8...
  70. Benschop K, de Vries M, Minnaar R, Stanway G, van der Hoek L, Wolthers K, et al. Comprehensive full-length sequence analyses of human parechoviruses: diversity and recombination. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:145-54 pubmed publisher
  71. de Souza Luna L, Baumgarte S, Grywna K, Panning M, Drexler J, Drosten C. Identification of a contemporary human parechovirus type 1 by VIDISCA and characterisation of its full genome. Virol J. 2008;5:26 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we used VIDISCA, a virus identification method which has not yet been widely applied, on such an untyped virus isolate...
  72. Selvarangan R, Nzabi M, Selvaraju S, Ketter P, Carpenter C, Harrison C. Human parechovirus 3 causing sepsis-like illness in children from midwestern United States. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:238-42 pubmed publisher
    Human parechovirus (HPeV) infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in children can be associated with severe outcomes such as neonatal sepsis-like illness, meningitis, or paralysis...
  73. Alho A, Marttila J, Ilonen J, Hyypia T. Diagnostic potential of parechovirus capsid proteins. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:2294-9 pubmed
    To study humoral and cellular immunity against human parechovirus type 1 (HPEV1), the viral capsid proteins VP0, VP1, and VP3 were expressed and purified as glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged recombinant proteins...
  74. Tolf C, Gullberg M, Johansson E, Tesh R, Andersson B, Lindberg A. Molecular characterization of a novel Ljungan virus (Parechovirus; Picornaviridae) reveals a fourth genotype and indicates ancestral recombination. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:843-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyses also showed that different regions of the 64-7855 genome have different phylogenetic relationships with other LV strains, indicating that previous recombination events have been involved in the evolution of this virus...