poliovirus

Summary

Summary: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.

Top Publications

  1. Duintjer Tebbens R, Pallansch M, Kalkowska D, Wassilak S, Cochi S, Thompson K. Characterizing poliovirus transmission and evolution: insights from modeling experiences with wild and vaccine-related polioviruses. Risk Anal. 2013;33:703-49 pubmed publisher
    ..decisions related to achieving and maintaining polio eradication, we expanded our previously developed dynamic poliovirus transmission model using information from an expert literature review process and including additional immunity ..
  2. Jenkins H, Aylward R, Gasasira A, Donnelly C, Mwanza M, Corander J, et al. Implications of a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus in Nigeria. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:2360-9 pubmed publisher
    The largest recorded outbreak of a circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV), detected in Nigeria, provides a unique opportunity to analyze the pathogenicity of the virus, the clinical severity of the disease, and the effectiveness ..
  3. Castello A, Alvarez E, Carrasco L. The multifaceted poliovirus 2A protease: regulation of gene expression by picornavirus proteases. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2011;2011:369648 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the case of poliovirus, which abrogates cellular translation soon after virus internalization...
  4. O Reilly K, Chauvin C, Aylward R, Maher C, Okiror S, Wolff C, et al. A statistical model of the international spread of wild poliovirus in Africa used to predict and prevent outbreaks. PLoS Med. 2011;8:e1001109 pubmed publisher
    Outbreaks of poliomyelitis in African countries that were previously free of wild-type poliovirus cost the Global Polio Eradication Initiative US$850 million during 2003-2009, and have limited the ability of the program to focus on ..
  5. Kew O. Reaching the last one per cent: progress and challenges in global polio eradication. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:188-98 pubmed publisher
    ..and Nigeria have been offset by continued endemicity in Pakistan and Afghanistan, and repeated reseeding of wild poliovirus into polio-free areas has led to large outbreaks and re-established transmission...
  6. Troy S, Ferreyra Reyes L, Huang C, Mahmud N, Lee Y, Canizales Quintero S, et al. Use of a novel real-time PCR assay to detect oral polio vaccine shedding and reversion in stool and sewage samples after a mexican national immunization day. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:1777-83 pubmed publisher
    ..With longer replication, OPV can mutate into vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV), which causes poliomyelitis outbreaks similar to those caused by wild poliovirus...
  7. Wassilak S, Pate M, Wannemuehler K, Jenks J, Burns C, Chenoweth P, et al. Outbreak of type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus in Nigeria: emergence and widespread circulation in an underimmunized population. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:898-909 pubmed publisher
    Wild poliovirus has remained endemic in northern Nigeria because of low coverage achieved in the routine immunization program and in supplementary immunization activities (SIAs)...
  8. Kidd S, Goodson J, Aramburu J, Morais A, Gaye A, Wannemuehler K, et al. Poliomyelitis outbreaks in Angola genetically linked to India: risk factors and implications for prevention of outbreaks due to wild poliovirus importations. Vaccine. 2011;29:3760-6 pubmed publisher
    We conducted an investigation of two outbreaks of poliomyelitis in Angola during 2007-2008 due to wild poliovirus (WPV) genetically linked to India...
  9. Dougherty J, White J, Lloyd R. Poliovirus-mediated disruption of cytoplasmic processing bodies. J Virol. 2011;85:64-75 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Poliovirus (PV) is a plus-strand RNA virus containing a genome that is a functional mRNA; thus, we investigated if PV ..

More Information

Publications65

  1. Yang X, Smidansky E, Maksimchuk K, Lum D, Welch J, Arnold J, et al. Motif D of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases determines efficiency and fidelity of nucleotide addition. Structure. 2012;20:1519-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that motif D of RdRps and, by inference, RTs is the functional equivalent to the fidelity helix of other polymerases...
  2. Grassly N, Jafari H, Bahl S, Durrani S, Wenger J, Sutter R, et al. Asymptomatic wild-type poliovirus infection in India among children with previous oral poliovirus vaccination. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:1535-43 pubmed publisher
    Mucosal immunity induced by oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) is imperfect and potentially allows immunized individuals to participate in asymptomatic wild-type poliovirus transmission in settings with efficient fecal-oral transmission of ..
  3. Fitzgerald K, Chase A, Cathcart A, Tran G, Semler B. Viral proteinase requirements for the nucleocytoplasmic relocalization of cellular splicing factor SRp20 during picornavirus infections. J Virol. 2013;87:2390-400 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently described the cytoplasmic relocalization of cellular splicing factor SRp20 during poliovirus infection...
  4. Savolainen Kopra C, Blomqvist S. Mechanisms of genetic variation in polioviruses. Rev Med Virol. 2010;20:358-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic variation in polioviruses may also be increased by sharing of genetic data of two different poliovirus lineages by means of homologous recombination...
  5. Abid N, Islam O, Bosan A, Iqbal T, Darwish A, Bile K. Pakistan's fight against poliomyelitis: introducing innovative strategies to address challenges and attain the goal of eradication. East Mediterr Health J. 2010;16 Suppl:S5-14 pubmed
    ..This will provide Pakistan a strong and imminent opportunity to interrupt polio virus circulation...
  6. Liu Y, Wang C, Mueller S, Paul A, Wimmer E, Jiang P. Direct interaction between two viral proteins, the nonstructural protein 2C and the capsid protein VP3, is required for enterovirus morphogenesis. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001066 pubmed publisher
    ..of morphogenesis of plus-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the genus Enterovirus of Picornaviridae, including poliovirus (PV), is not understood. Numerous attempts to identify an RNA encapsidation signal have failed...
  7. Redondo N, Sanz M, Welnowska E, Carrasco L. Translation without eIF2 promoted by poliovirus 2A protease. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25699 pubmed publisher
    b>Poliovirus RNA utilizes eIF2 for the initiation of translation in cell free systems. Remarkably, we now describe that poliovirus translation takes place at late times of infection when eIF2 is inactivated by phosphorylation...
  8. Tan S, Tan X, Sun X, Lu G, Chen C, Yan J, et al. VP2 dominated CD4+ T cell responses against enterovirus 71 and cross-reactivity against coxsackievirus A16 and polioviruses in a healthy population. J Immunol. 2013;191:1637-47 pubmed publisher
    ..efficient cross-reactivity against CV-A16 might broadly exist among individuals, whereas influences derived from poliovirus vaccination would be limited...
  9. Baba M, Oderinde B, Patrick P, Jarmai M. Sabin and wild polioviruses from apparently healthy primary school children in northeastern Nigeria. J Med Virol. 2012;84:358-64 pubmed publisher
    ..success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) in Nigeria, Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, wild poliovirus still occurs due to persistently high proportions of under and unimmunized children...
  10. John J, Abraham A, Muliyil J, John T, Deshpande J, Kang G. Gap in the prevalence of neutralising antibodies to polioviruses in antenatal women in southern India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2011;105:179-80 pubmed publisher
    With the disappearance of circulating wild poliovirus and improved sanitation, protective antibody levels may wane over time following oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) administration...
  11. Nathanson N, Kew O. From emergence to eradication: the epidemiology of poliomyelitis deconstructed. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172:1213-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Beginning in 1955, the creation of poliovirus vaccines led to a stepwise reduction in poliomyelitis, culminating in the unpredicted elimination of wild ..
  12. Jegouic S, Joffret M, Blanchard C, Riquet F, Perret C, Pelletier I, et al. Recombination between polioviruses and co-circulating Coxsackie A viruses: role in the emergence of pathogenic vaccine-derived polioviruses. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000412 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study was to investigate whether these CA17 isolates can act as recombination partners of poliovirus and subsequently to evaluate the major effects of recombination events on the phenotype of the recombinants...
  13. Zhang J, Wang M, Liu W, Zhou J, Chen H, Ma L, et al. Analysis of codon usage and nucleotide composition bias in polioviruses. Virol J. 2011;8:146 pubmed publisher
    b>Poliovirus, the causative agent of poliomyelitis, is a human enterovirus and a member of the family of Picornaviridae and among the most rapidly evolving viruses known...
  14. Jahan N, Wimmer E, Mueller S. A host-specific, temperature-sensitive translation defect determines the attenuation phenotype of a human rhinovirus/poliovirus chimera, PV1(RIPO). J Virol. 2011;85:7225-35 pubmed publisher
    By using a rhinosvirus/poliovirus type 1 chimera, PV1(RIPO), with the cognate internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of human rhinovirus type 2 (HRV2), we set out to shed light on the mechanism by which this variant expresses its attenuated ..
  15. Campagnola G, Gong P, Peersen O. High-throughput screening identification of poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitors. Antiviral Res. 2011;91:241-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work we have carried out a high-throughput screen of 154,267 compounds to identify poliovirus polymerase inhibitors using a fluorescence based RNA elongation assay...
  16. Nagy P, Pogany J. The dependence of viral RNA replication on co-opted host factors. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2011;10:137-49 pubmed publisher
    ..This Review presents the recent progress that has been made in understanding the role of co-opted host proteins and membranes during (+)RNA virus replication, and discusses common themes employed by different viruses...
  17. Oh H, Pathak H, Goodfellow I, Arnold J, Cameron C. Insight into poliovirus genome replication and encapsidation obtained from studies of 3B-3C cleavage site mutants. J Virol. 2009;83:9370-87 pubmed publisher
    A poliovirus (PV) mutant (termed GG), which is incapable of producing 3AB, VPg, and 3CD proteins due to a defective cleavage site between the 3B and 3C proteins, replicated, producing 3BC-linked RNA rather than the VPg-linked RNA produced ..
  18. Grassly N, Jafari H, Bahl S, Durrani S, Wenger J, Sutter R, et al. Mucosal immunity after vaccination with monovalent and trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine in India. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:794-801 pubmed publisher
    Persistent wild-poliovirus transmission, particularly in India, has raised questions about the degree of mucosal immunity induced by oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in tropical countries.
  19. Oberste M, Moore D, Anderson B, Pallansch M, Pevear D, Collett M. In vitro antiviral activity of V-073 against polioviruses. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009;53:4501-3 pubmed publisher
    ..003 to 0.126 microM. Ninety percent of the polioviruses tested were inhibited at EC(50)s of < or = 0.076 microM (MIC90 = 32 ng/ml). V-073 is a promising antiviral candidate for the posteradication management of poliovirus incidents.
  20. Zhang Y, Wang H, Zhu S, Li Y, Song L, Liu Y, et al. Characterization of a rare natural intertypic type 2/type 3 penta-recombinant vaccine-derived poliovirus isolated from a child with acute flaccid paralysis. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:421-9 pubmed publisher
    A type 2 vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) (strain CHN1025), with a 1.1 % (10/903) difference from Sabin strain in the VP1 coding region, was isolated from a child with poliomyelitis caused by a poliovirus variant infection...
  21. Simonen M, Roivainen M, Iber J, Burns C, Hovi T. Outbreak of poliomyelitis in Finland in 1984-85 - Re-analysis of viral sequences using the current standard approach. Virus Res. 2010;147:91-7 pubmed publisher
    In 1984, a wild type 3 poliovirus (PV3/FIN84) spread all over Finland causing nine cases of paralytic poliomyelitis and one case of aseptic meningitis. The outbreak was ended in 1985 with an intensive vaccination campaign...
  22. Liu G, Wang L, Chang X. [Surveillance on poliomyelitis neutralization antibody level in the border areas in Jilin province]. Zhongguo Yi Miao He Mian Yi. 2009;15:249-50 pubmed
    ..This project is designed for understand poliomyelitis (Polio) neutralization antibody level in the the border areas in Jilin province...
  23. Brunner J, Ertel K, Rozovics J, Semler B. Delayed kinetics of poliovirus RNA synthesis in a human cell line with reduced levels of hnRNP C proteins. Virology. 2010;400:240-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Infection of HeLa cells with poliovirus causes hnRNP C to re-localize from the nucleus, where it is normally retained during interphase, to the ..
  24. Park N, Skern T, Gustin K. Specific cleavage of the nuclear pore complex protein Nup62 by a viral protease. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:28796-805 pubmed publisher
    ..shown that several nucleoporins, including Nup62 are degraded in cells infected with human rhinovirus (HRV) and poliovirus (PV) and that this contributes to the disruption of certain nuclear transport pathways...
  25. Shen H, Sun H, Li G. What is the role of motif D in the nucleotide incorporation catalyzed by the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from poliovirus?. PLoS Comput Biol. 2012;8:e1002851 pubmed publisher
    b>Poliovirus (PV) is a well-characterized RNA virus, and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) from PV (3D(pol)) has been widely employed as an important model for understanding the structure-function relationships of RNA and DNA ..
  26. Lodder W, Buisman A, Rutjes S, Heijne J, Teunis P, de Roda Husman A. Feasibility of quantitative environmental surveillance in poliovirus eradication strategies. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012;78:3800-5 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Poliovirus concentrations were determined by the titration of fecal suspensions on poliovirus-sensitive L20B cells and of ..
  27. Burns C, Shaw J, Jorba J, Bukbuk D, Adu F, Gumede N, et al. Multiple independent emergences of type 2 vaccine-derived polioviruses during a large outbreak in northern Nigeria. J Virol. 2013;87:4907-22 pubmed publisher
    Since 2005, a large poliomyelitis outbreak associated with type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) has occurred in northern Nigeria, where immunization coverage with trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (tOPV) has been low...
  28. Estivariz C, Jafari H, Sutter R, John T, Jain V, Agarwal A, et al. Immunogenicity of supplemental doses of poliovirus vaccine for children aged 6-9 months in Moradabad, India: a community-based, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2012;12:128-35 pubmed publisher
    The continued presence of polio in northern India poses challenges to the interruption of wild poliovirus transmission and the management of poliovirus risks in the post-eradication era...
  29. Lin J, Lee L, Roivainen M, Filman D, Hogle J, Belnap D. Structure of the Fab-labeled "breathing" state of native poliovirus. J Virol. 2012;86:5959-62 pubmed publisher
    At 37°C, the structure of poliovirus is dynamic, and internal polypeptides VP4 and N terminus of VP1 (residues 1 to 53) externalize reversibly...
  30. Kortus M, Kempf B, Haworth K, Barton D, Peersen O. A template RNA entry channel in the fingers domain of the poliovirus polymerase. J Mol Biol. 2012;417:263-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Structures of 3D(pol) from poliovirus, coxsackievirus, human rhinoviruses, and other picornaviruses reveal a putative template RNA entry channel on ..
  31. Belov G, Nair V, Hansen B, Hoyt F, Fischer E, Ehrenfeld E. Complex dynamic development of poliovirus membranous replication complexes. J Virol. 2012;86:302-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we utilize electron tomography and other methods to investigate the remodeling of membranes in poliovirus-infected cells...
  32. Luo H, Zhang Y, Wang X, Yu W, Wen N, Yan D, et al. Identification and control of a poliomyelitis outbreak in Xinjiang, China. N Engl J Med. 2013;369:1981-90 pubmed publisher
    The last case of infection with wild-type poliovirus indigenous to China was reported in 1994, and China was certified as a poliomyelitis-free region in 2000...
  33. Hovi T, Shulman L, van der Avoort H, Deshpande J, Roivainen M, De Gourville E. Role of environmental poliovirus surveillance in global polio eradication and beyond. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:1-13 pubmed publisher
    Environmental poliovirus surveillance (ENV) means monitoring of poliovirus (PV) transmission in human populations by examining environmental specimens supposedly contaminated by human faeces...
  34. Ertel K, Brunner J, Semler B. Mechanistic consequences of hnRNP C binding to both RNA termini of poliovirus negative-strand RNA intermediates. J Virol. 2010;84:4229-42 pubmed publisher
    The poliovirus 3' noncoding region (3' NCR) is necessary for efficient virus replication...
  35. White J, Reineke L, Lloyd R. Poliovirus switches to an eIF2-independent mode of translation during infection. J Virol. 2011;85:8884-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results provide a mechanism by which enteroviruses evade the antiviral response and provide insight into a noncanonical mechanism of translation initiation...
  36. Lancaster K, Pfeiffer J. Limited trafficking of a neurotropic virus through inefficient retrograde axonal transport and the type I interferon response. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000791 pubmed publisher
    b>Poliovirus is an enteric virus that rarely invades the human central nervous system (CNS). To identify barriers limiting poliovirus spread from the periphery to CNS, we monitored trafficking of 10 marked viruses...
  37. Sutter R, John T, Jain H, Agarkhedkar S, Ramanan P, Verma H, et al. Immunogenicity of bivalent types 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;376:1682-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Poliovirus types 1 and 3 co-circulate in poliomyelitis-endemic countries. We aimed to assess the immunogenicity of a novel bivalent types 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV).
  38. Rezapkin G, Neverov A, Cherkasova E, Vidor E, Sarafanov A, Kouiavskaia D, et al. Repertoire of antibodies against type 1 poliovirus in human sera. J Virol Methods. 2010;169:322-31 pubmed publisher
    A blocking-ELISA procedure was used to quantify antibodies in sera of humans immunized with poliovirus vaccines. Titers determined by this method demonstrated an excellent correlation with the results of neutralization test...
  39. Roivainen M, Blomqvist S, Al Hello H, Paananen A, Delpeyroux F, Delpeyreux F, et al. Highly divergent neurovirulent vaccine-derived polioviruses of all three serotypes are recurrently detected in Finnish sewage. Euro Surveill. 2010;15:pii/19566 pubmed
    In Finland, surveillance of potential re-emergence of poliovirus transmission is mainly based on environmental surveillance, i.e. search for infectious poliovirus in sewage samples...
  40. Daijogo S, Semler B. Mechanistic intersections between picornavirus translation and RNA replication. Adv Virus Res. 2011;80:1-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The most extensively studied picornavirus, poliovirus, will be the focus of this review...
  41. Balvay L, Soto Rifo R, Ricci E, Decimo D, Ohlmann T. Structural and functional diversity of viral IRESes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1789:542-57 pubmed publisher
    ..By using a bicistronic vector, it was shown that the 5' UTR of the poliovirus (PV) or the Encephalomyelitis virus (EMCV) had the ability to bind the 43S preinitiation complex in a 5' and cap-..
  42. Igarashi H, Yoshino Y, Miyazawa M, Horie H, Ohka S, Nomoto A. 2A protease is not a prerequisite for poliovirus replication. J Virol. 2010;84:5947-57 pubmed publisher
    b>Poliovirus (PV) 2A(pro) has been considered important for PV replication and is known to be toxic to host cells. A 2A(pro)-deficient PV would potentially be less toxic and ideal as a vector...
  43. Baldo V, Baldovin T, Cocchio S, Lazzari R, Saracino E, Bertoncello C, et al. Seroepidemiology of polioviruses among university students in northern Italy. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:1292-5 pubmed publisher
    The widespread use of poliovirus vaccination schemes has led to a marked decline in the incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis worldwide, but wild poliovirus is still endemic in some developing countries, and in 2009 a total of 23 countries ..
  44. Joffret M, Jegouic S, Bessaud M, Balanant J, Tran C, Caro V, et al. Common and diverse features of cocirculating type 2 and 3 recombinant vaccine-derived polioviruses isolated from patients with poliomyelitis and healthy children. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:1363-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Five cases of poliomyelitis due to type 2 or 3 recombinant vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) were reported in the Toliara province of Madagascar in 2005...
  45. Blomqvist S, Savolainen Kopra C, Paananen A, El Bassioni L, El Maamoon Nasr E, Firstova L, et al. Recurrent isolation of poliovirus 3 strains with chimeric capsid protein Vp1 suggests a recombination hot-spot site in Vp1. Virus Res. 2010;151:246-51 pubmed publisher
    Five oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) strains carrying an intertypic PV3/PV2 recombination in VP1 capsid protein were isolated during poliovirus surveillance...
  46. Hobdey S, Kempf B, Steil B, Barton D, Peersen O. Poliovirus polymerase residue 5 plays a critical role in elongation complex stability. J Virol. 2010;84:8072-84 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we extend our studies to show that poliovirus polymerase activity is also dependent on the nature of residue 5 and further elucidate which aspects of ..
  47. Kafasla P, Morgner N, Robinson C, Jackson R. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein stimulates the poliovirus IRES by modulating eIF4G binding. EMBO J. 2010;29:3710-22 pubmed publisher
    ..has been used to determine the orientation of binding of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) to the poliovirus type 1 (Mahoney) (PV-1(M)) internal ribosome entry site/segment (IRES)-the question of which RNA-binding domain (..
  48. Gong P, Peersen O. Structural basis for active site closure by the poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:22505-10 pubmed publisher
    ..To further our understanding of RdRP function, we assembled, purified, and then crystallized poliovirus elongation complexes after multiple rounds of nucleotide incorporation...
  49. Oshiumi H, Okamoto M, Fujii K, Kawanishi T, Matsumoto M, Koike S, et al. The TLR3/TICAM-1 pathway is mandatory for innate immune responses to poliovirus infection. J Immunol. 2011;187:5320-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Poliovirus (PV) belongs to the Picornaviridae, and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 reportedly detects ..
  50. Mohammed A, AlAwaidy S, Bawikar S, Kurup P, Elamir E, Shaban M, et al. Fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine in Oman. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:2351-9 pubmed publisher
    We conducted a clinical trial of fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine administered to infants in Oman, in order to evaluate strategies for making the vaccine affordable for use in developing countries.
  51. Yang X, Welch J, Arnold J, Boehr D. Long-range interaction networks in the function and fidelity of poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase studied by nuclear magnetic resonance. Biochemistry. 2010;49:9361-71 pubmed publisher
    The fidelity of the poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3D(pol)) plays a direct role in the genomic evolution and pathogenesis of the virus...
  52. Thompson K, Pallansch M, Tebbens R, Wassilak S, Cochi S. Modeling population immunity to support efforts to end the transmission of live polioviruses. Risk Anal. 2013;33:647-63 pubmed publisher
    Eradication of wild poliovirus (WPV) types 1 and 3, prevention and cessation of circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, and achievement and maintenance of a world free of paralytic polio cases requires active risk management by focusing ..
  53. Teterina N, Levenson E, Ehrenfeld E. Viable polioviruses that encode 2A proteins with fluorescent protein tags. J Virol. 2010;84:1477-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The majority of 2A, however, was associated with an extensive structural matrix throughout the cytoplasm and was not released from infected cells permeabilized with digitonin...
  54. Fitzgerald K, Semler B. Re-localization of cellular protein SRp20 during poliovirus infection: bridging a viral IRES to the host cell translation apparatus. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002127 pubmed publisher
    b>Poliovirus IRES-mediated translation requires the functions of certain canonical as well as non-canonical factors for the recruitment of ribosomes to the viral RNA...
  55. van der Sanden S, Pallansch M, van de Kassteele J, El Sayed N, Sutter R, Koopmans M, et al. Shedding of vaccine viruses with increased antigenic and genetic divergence after vaccination of newborns with monovalent type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine. J Virol. 2009;83:8693-704 pubmed publisher
    For the final stages in the eradication of poliovirus type 1 (P1), the World Health Organization advocates the selective use of monovalent type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine (mOPV1)...
  56. Minor P. Vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV): Impact on poliomyelitis eradication. Vaccine. 2009;27:2649-52 pubmed publisher
    The live attenuated strains used in the oral poliovirus (OPV) have been the main tool in the WHO polio eradication programme. However, these strains replicate in the human gut and are excreted for several weeks after immunisation...