human enterovirus a


Summary: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.

Top Publications

  1. Sanders S, Herrero L, McPhie K, Chow S, Craig M, Dwyer D, et al. Molecular epidemiology of enterovirus 71 over two decades in an Australian urban community. Arch Virol. 2006;151:1003-13 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the major lineage circulating in Sydney N.S.W. was subgenogroup C1 with a recent switch in dominance to B4 in 2000 and 2001...
  2. Hamaguchi T, Fujisawa H, Sakai K, Okino S, Kurosaki N, Nishimura Y, et al. Acute encephalitis caused by intrafamilial transmission of enterovirus 71 in adult. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:828-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of adult-onset encephalitis caused by intrafamilial transmission of a subgenogroup C4 strain of EV71. This case elucidates the risk for EV71 encephalitis even in adults...
  3. Wang S, Lei H, Huang M, Su L, Lin H, Yu C, et al. Modulation of cytokine production by intravenous immunoglobulin in patients with enterovirus 71-associated brainstem encephalitis. J Clin Virol. 2006;37:47-52 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that IVIG might be considered to have a therapeutic role in EV71-associated brainstem encephalitis. A clinical trial is needed to support this hypothesis. ..
  4. Wu Z, Yang F, Zhao R, Zhao L, Guo D, Jin Q. Identification of small interfering RNAs which inhibit the replication of several Enterovirus 71 strains in China. J Virol Methods. 2009;159:233-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These strategies and results suggest that RNAi has potential therapeutic use for the suppression of EV 71 infection in a broad spectrum of viral strains. ..
  5. Chang L, Hsia S, Wu C, Huang Y, Lin K, Fang T, et al. Outcome of enterovirus 71 infections with or without stage-based management: 1998 to 2002. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:327-32 pubmed
    ..In Taiwan in 1998 almost all the EV71 patients with cardiopulmonary failure died. To improve clinical outcome of EV71 patients, we developed a stage-based management program in 2000...
  6. Xu J, Qian Y, Wang S, Serrano J, Li W, Huang Z, et al. EV71: an emerging infectious disease vaccine target in the Far East?. Vaccine. 2010;28:3516-21 pubmed publisher
  7. Chan Y, AbuBakar S. Human enterovirus 71 subgenotype B3 lacks coxsackievirus A16-like neurovirulence in mice infection. Virol J. 2005;2:74 pubmed
    ..Their presence could have affected virulence by affecting the mice general health but was insufficient to confer the EV-71 B3 virus a CV-A16-liked neurovirulence in mice model infection. ..
  8. Bible J, Iturriza Gomara M, Megson B, Brown D, Pantelidis P, Earl P, et al. Molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 in the United Kingdom from 1998 to 2006. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:3192-200 pubmed publisher
    ..It is necessary to continuously monitor the molecular evolution and recombination events of EV71. ..
  9. Lin Y, Chang K, Kao C, Chang S, Tung Y, Chen S. Lymphocyte and antibody responses reduce enterovirus 71 lethality in mice by decreasing tissue viral loads. J Virol. 2009;83:6477-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests the use of vaccines and virus-specific antibodies to control fatal outbreaks and raises caution over the use of corticosteroids to treat EV71-infected patients with neurological symptoms. ..

More Information


  1. Chang G, Lin L, Luo Y, Cai L, Wu X, Xu H, et al. Sequence analysis of six enterovirus 71 strains with different virulences in humans. Virus Res. 2010;151:66-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These data also provide a rational basis to investigate the molecular determinants of EV71 pathogenesis using a reverse genetic approach...
  2. Chang L. Enterovirus 71 in Taiwan. Pediatr neonatol. 2008;49:103-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Development of EV71-specific antiviral therapy, a novel class of imidazolidinones, and development of a vaccine are ongoing. ..
  3. Leitch E, Harvala H, Robertson I, Ubillos I, Templeton K, Simmonds P. Direct identification of human enterovirus serotypes in cerebrospinal fluid by amplification and sequencing of the VP1 region. J Clin Virol. 2009;44:119-24 pubmed publisher
  4. Lin Y, Wang S, Tung Y, Chen S. Enterovirus 71 infection of human dendritic cells. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2009;234:1166-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest that EV71 infection of human DCs in vivo is very likely to elicit protective immunity, because in infected mice, both T cells and IL-6 function to reduce mortality. ..
  5. Pérez Vélez C, Anderson M, Robinson C, McFarland E, Nix W, Pallansch M, et al. Outbreak of neurologic enterovirus type 71 disease: a diagnostic challenge. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:950-7 pubmed
    ..Large epidemics of EV71 infection have been reported worldwide...
  6. Chua B, Phuektes P, Sanders S, Nicholls P, McMinn P. The molecular basis of mouse adaptation by human enterovirus 71. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1622-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the two amino acid substitutions identified in MP-26M, the VP1 (G(145)-->E) mutation alone was sufficient to increase virulence in mice to the level observed in MP-26M-infected mice. ..
  7. Wong K, Munisamy B, Ong K, Kojima H, Noriyo N, Chua K, et al. The distribution of inflammation and virus in human enterovirus 71 encephalomyelitis suggests possible viral spread by neural pathways. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2008;67:162-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Viral spread within the CNS seems to involve motor and possibly other pathways. ..
  8. AbuBakar S, Sam I, Yusof J, Lim M, Misbah S, MatRahim N, et al. Enterovirus 71 outbreak, Brunei. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:79-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Isolated EV71 strains formed a distinct lineage with low diversity within subgenogroup B5, suggesting recent introduction and rapid spread within Brunei. ..
  9. Ma H, He F, Wan J, Jin D, Zhu L, Liu X, et al. Glucocorticoid and pyrazolone treatment of acute fever is a risk factor for critical and life-threatening human enterovirus 71 infection during an outbreak in China, 2008. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:524-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Fever treatment with glucocorticoids and/or pyrazolones is a risk factor for life-threatening HEV71 infection. ..
  10. Witsø E, Palacios G, Cinek O, Stene L, Grinde B, Janowitz D, et al. High prevalence of human enterovirus a infections in natural circulation of human enteroviruses. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:4095-100 pubmed
    ..5%), CAV4 (8.9%), E18 (8.9%), and CBV3 (7.3%). These findings suggest that the prevalence of HEV infections in general, and HEV-A infections in particular, has been underestimated in epidemiological studies based on virus culture. ..
  11. Yoke Fun C, AbuBakar S. Phylogenetic evidence for inter-typic recombination in the emergence of human enterovirus 71 subgenotypes. BMC Microbiol. 2006;6:74 pubmed
    ..established using these full genome sequences and all other available full genome sequences of EV-71 and human enterovirus A (HEV-A)...
  12. Oberste M, Peñaranda S, Maher K, Pallansch M. Complete genome sequences of all members of the species Human enterovirus A. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:1597-607 pubmed
    The species Human enterovirus A (HEV-A) in the family Picornaviridae consists of coxsackieviruses (CV) A2-A8, A10, A12, A14 and A16 and enterovirus 71...
  13. Weng K, Li M, Hung C, Shih S. Enterovirus 71 3C protease cleaves a novel target CstF-64 and inhibits cellular polyadenylation. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000593 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate that a picornavirus protein affects the polyadenylation of host mRNA. ..
  14. Lin J, Shih S, Pan M, Li C, Lue C, Stollar V, et al. hnRNP A1 interacts with the 5' untranslated regions of enterovirus 71 and Sindbis virus RNA and is required for viral replication. J Virol. 2009;83:6106-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides the first direct evidence that the cytoplasmic relocalization of hnRNP A1 controls not only the IRES-dependent but also non-IRES-dependent translation initiations of RNA viruses. ..
  15. Kung Y, Huang S, Kuo P, Kiang D, Ho M, Liu C, et al. Introduction of a strong temperature-sensitive phenotype into enterovirus 71 by altering an amino acid of virus 3D polymerase. Virology. 2010;396:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..p. infection model. Therefore, these results suggested that the threonine at position 251 results in a temperature sensitivity phenotype of EV71 which may contribute to the attenuation of circulating strains...
  16. Mizuta K, Aoki Y, Suto A, Ootani K, Katsushima N, Itagaki T, et al. Cross-antigenicity among EV71 strains from different genogroups isolated in Yamagata, Japan, between 1990 and 2007. Vaccine. 2009;27:3153-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also suggest that eliciting neutralizing antibodies against one genotype is likely to confer cross-neutralization against other genotypes. ..
  17. Lee T, Guo H, Su H, Yang Y, Chang H, Chen K. Diseases caused by enterovirus 71 infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:904-10 pubmed publisher
    ..EV71 infection has emerged as an important public health problem. Vaccine development is recommended for the prevention of EV71 infection in the future...
  18. Oberste M, Maher K, Michele S, Belliot G, Uddin M, Pallansch M. Enteroviruses 76, 89, 90 and 91 represent a novel group within the species Human enterovirus A. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:445-51 pubmed
    ..molecular typing scheme, these data support their identification as four new types within the species Human enterovirus A (HEV-A)...
  19. Lal S, Kumar P, Yeo W, Kar Roy A, Chow V. The VP1 protein of human enterovirus 71 self-associates via an interaction domain spanning amino acids 66-297. J Med Virol. 2006;78:582-90 pubmed
  20. Bible J, Pantelidis P, Chan P, Tong C. Genetic evolution of enterovirus 71: epidemiological and pathological implications. Rev Med Virol. 2007;17:371-9 pubmed
    ..A thorough understanding of the relationship between the genetic changes and the resulting host-virus interaction is essential for successful control. ..
  21. Foo D, Alonso S, Chow V, Poh C. Passive protection against lethal enterovirus 71 infection in newborn mice by neutralizing antibodies elicited by a synthetic peptide. Microbes Infect. 2007;9:1299-306 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, EV71-neutralizing antibodies elicited by the synthetic peptide SP70 were able to confer good in vivo passive protection against homologous and heterologous EV71 strains in suckling Balb/c mice. ..
  22. Foo D, Ang R, Alonso S, Chow V, Quak S, Poh C. Identification of immunodominant VP1 linear epitope of enterovirus 71 (EV71) using synthetic peptides for detecting human anti-EV71 IgG antibodies in Western blots. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008;14:286-8 pubmed
    ..The amino-acid sequence of SP32 was highly specific for detecting EV71 strains in western blot analysis, and showed no immunoreactivity with monoclonal antibodies raised against other enteroviruses, e.g., CA9 and Echo 6. ..
  23. Lin J, Li M, Shih S. Far upstream element binding protein 2 interacts with enterovirus 71 internal ribosomal entry site and negatively regulates viral translation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:47-59 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, IRES activity decreased when FBP2 was over-expressed in the cells. Results of this study suggest that FBP2 is a novel ITAF that interacts with EV71 IRES and negatively regulates viral translation. ..
  24. Ortner B, Huang C, Schmid D, Mutz I, Wewalka G, Allerberger F, et al. Epidemiology of enterovirus types causing neurological disease in Austria 1999-2007: detection of clusters of echovirus 30 and enterovirus 71 and analysis of prevalent genotypes. J Med Virol. 2009;81:317-24 pubmed publisher
  25. Van Tu P, Thao N, Perera D, Truong K, Tien N, Thuong T, et al. Epidemiologic and virologic investigation of hand, foot, and mouth disease, southern Vietnam, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1733-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In the second half of the year, viruses belonging to subgenogroup C5 predominated during a period of higher HEV71 activity. ..
  26. Nishimura Y, Shimojima M, Tano Y, Miyamura T, Wakita T, Shimizu H. Human P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 is a functional receptor for enterovirus 71. Nat Med. 2009;15:794-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of PSGL-1 as a receptor for EV71 sheds new light on a role for PSGL-1-positive leukocytes in cell tropism and pathogenesis during the course of HFMD and other EV71-mediated diseases. ..
  27. Tan E, Yong L, Quak S, Yeo W, Chow V, Poh C. Rapid detection of enterovirus 71 by real-time TaqMan RT-PCR. J Clin Virol. 2008;42:203-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Real-time TaqMan RT-PCR offers a rapid and sensitive method to detect EV71 from clinical specimens, and will allow quarantine measures to be taken more effectively during outbreaks. ..
  28. Diedrich S, Weinbrecht A, Schreier E. Seroprevalence and molecular epidemiology of enterovirus 71 in Germany. Arch Virol. 2009;154:1139-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This shows the importance of monitoring the diversity of one of the most relevant neurotropic enteroviruses. ..
  29. Zhang Y, Tan X, Wang H, Yan D, Zhu S, Wang D, et al. An outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with subgenotype C4 of human enterovirus 71 in Shandong, China. J Clin Virol. 2009;44:262-7 pubmed publisher
    ..An outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) included 1149 people in Linyi City, Shandong Province, China, in 2007: three children died...
  30. Gau S, Chang L, Huang L, Fan T, Wu Y, Lin T. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity-related symptoms among children with enterovirus 71 infection of the central nervous system. Pediatrics. 2008;122:e452-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Enterovirus 71 central nervous system infection may affect long-term regulation of attention and emotion and cause hyperactivity-impulsivity in children. ..
  31. Chung Y, Ho M, Wu J, Chen W, Huang J, Chou S, et al. Immunization with virus-like particles of enterovirus 71 elicits potent immune responses and protects mice against lethal challenge. Vaccine. 2008;26:1855-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These data collectively indicate the importance of the preservation of VLP structure and implicate the potential of VLP as a vaccine to prevent EV71 infection. ..
  32. Chen H, Huang J, Chu T, Tsai T, Hung C, Lin C, et al. Expression of VP1 protein in the milk of transgenic mice: a potential oral vaccine protects against enterovirus 71 infection. Vaccine. 2008;26:2882-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that EV71 VP1-containing milk is suitable for development as a potential oral vaccine. ..
  33. Ho H, Cheng M, Weng S, Leu Y, Chiu D. Antiviral effect of epigallocatechin gallate on enterovirus 71. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:6140-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that EGCG may suppress viral replication via modulation of cellular redox milieu. ..
  34. Oberste M, Maher K, Pallansch M. Molecular phylogeny and proposed classification of the simian picornaviruses. J Virol. 2002;76:1244-51 pubmed
  35. Chen X, Zhang Q, Li J, Cao W, Zhang J, Zhang L, et al. Analysis of recombination and natural selection in human enterovirus 71. Virology. 2010;398:251-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal that EV71 proteins are extensively influenced by stabilizing selection. We conclude that recombination may play a more important role than positive selection in the formation of genetic diversity. ..
  36. Lin C, Wu C, Hsiao N, Chang C, Li S, Wan L, et al. Aloe-emodin is an interferon-inducing agent with antiviral activity against Japanese encephalitis virus and enterovirus 71. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2008;32:355-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the study demonstrated dose- and time-dependent actions of aloe-emodin on the inhibition of JEV and EV71 replication via IFN signalling responses. ..
  37. Makonkawkeyoon K, Sudjaritruk T, Sirisanthana V, Silvilairat S. Fulminant enterovirus 71 infection: case report. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2010;30:245-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The serological results showed a four-fold rise of enterovirus 71. In children with severe EV71 infection, early recognition of cardiopulmonary involvement and aggressive treatment are crucial to successful management. ..
  38. Wang S, Liu C. Enterovirus 71: epidemiology, pathogenesis and management. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2009;7:735-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Treating severe EV71 brainstem encephalitis patients with intravenous IgG and milrinone is associated with significantly decreased mortality by attenuated sympathetic activity and cytokine production. ..
  39. Sioofy Khojine A. Development of polyclonal antisera to clone enterovirus 71 cellular receptor. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2010;28:196-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Both antisera were reactive against native and partially/fully denatured viral particles. The antisera are functional in receptor studies. ..
  40. Yang C, Li H, Jiang J, Hsu C, Wang Y, Lai M, et al. Enterovirus type 71 2A protease functions as a transcriptional activator in yeast. J Biomed Sci. 2010;17:65 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, this acidic region of poliovirus 2A protease is critical for viral RNA replication. The transcriptional activity of the EV71 or Coxsackie virus B3 2A protease should play a role in viral replication and/or pathogenesis. ..
  41. Witek A, Wieczorek M. [Virological and molecular methods in enteroviruses infections in 2004-2008, Poland]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2009;63:379-82 pubmed
    ..17%). Other enteroviruses serotypes isolated during study period were Coxsackievirus A (8.62%), ECHO3 (1.72%), ECHO6 (7.76%), ECHO7 (4.31%), ECHO25 (0.86%), ECHO30 (18.97%), poliovirus (0.86%). ..
  42. Heim A, Schumann J. Development and evaluation of a nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) protocol for the detection of enterovirus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid samples. J Virol Methods. 2002;103:101-7 pubmed
    ..Moreover, NASBA detected a panel of 22 different serotypes of the species poliovirus, human enterovirus A, human enterovirus B and human enterovirus C completely...
  43. Legay F, Leveque N, Gacouin A, Tattevin P, Bouet J, Thomas R, et al. Fatal coxsackievirus A-16 pneumonitis in adult. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1084-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of fatal pneumonitis in an adult due to a CVA-16 strain with a low (78.6%) rate of sequence homology with the reference strain. A modified, more virulent, strain of CVA-16 could be emerging. ..
  44. Ooi M, Wong S, Mohan A, Podin Y, Perera D, Clear D, et al. Identification and validation of clinical predictors for the risk of neurological involvement in children with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Sarawak. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:3 pubmed publisher
    ..These risk factors may serve as a guide to clinicians to decide the need for hospitalization and further investigation, including cerebrospinal fluid examination, and close monitoring for disease progression in children with HFMD. ..
  45. Li X, Mao C, Ma S, Wang X, Sun Z, Yi Y, et al. Generation of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against Enterovirus 71 using synthetic peptides. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;390:1126-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Because there is no vaccine available and treatment is very limited, mouse anti-EV71 monoclonal antibody, clone 22A12, could be a promising candidate to be humanized and used for treatment of EV71 infection. ..
  46. Mirand A, Henquell C, Archimbaud C, Chambon M, Charbonne F, Peigue Lafeuille H, et al. Prospective identification of enteroviruses involved in meningitis in 2006 through direct genotyping in cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:87-96 pubmed
    ..of 52 patients (96%) and comprised 13 serotypes within the human enterovirus B species and 1 within the human enterovirus A species. The three most common serotypes were echovirus 13 (E13; 24%), E6 (23%), and coxsackievirus B5 (11...
  47. Jan S, Lin S, Fu Y, Chi C, Wang C, Wei H, et al. Extracorporeal life support for treatment of children with enterovirus 71 infection-related cardiopulmonary failure. Intensive Care Med. 2010;36:520-7 pubmed publisher
    ..ECLS is an effective alternative method for treatment of children with refractory EV71-related CPF. ..
  48. Lin T, Liu Y, Jheng J, Tsai H, Jan J, Wong W, et al. Anti-enterovirus 71 activity screening of chinese herbs with anti-infection and inflammation activities. Am J Chin Med. 2009;37:143-58 pubmed
    ..cordata extract was greater in cells pretreated with extract than those treated after infection. We conclude that H. cordata extract has antiviral activity, and it offers a potential to develop a new anti-EV71 agent. ..
  49. Han J, Cao R, Tian X, Yu M, Qin E, Qin C. Producing infectious enterovirus type 71 in a rapid strategy. Virol J. 2010;7:116 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we established a rapid method to produce the infectious full length cDNA of EV71 directly from RNA preparations and specific mutations can be easily engineered into the rescued enterovirus genome by this method. ..
  50. Li R, Chen L, Zhang H, Wang Y, He X. [Study on the etiology of hand-foot-mouth disease outbreaks in Beijing in 2007]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2009;30:784-7 pubmed
    ..The HFMD outbreaks occurred in Beijing in 2007 were caused mainly by EV71 and Cox A16, and there were two individual epidemic virus strains. Cox A16 seemed to spread more widely than EV71 in Beijing, 2007. ..
  51. Iwai M, Masaki A, Hasegawa S, Obara M, Horimoto E, Nakamura K, et al. Genetic changes of coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71 isolated from hand, foot, and mouth disease patients in Toyama, Japan between 1981 and 2007. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:254-9 pubmed
  52. Shimizu H. [The lost decade of global polio eradication and moving forward]. Uirusu. 2010;60:49-58 pubmed
  53. Lei X, Liu X, Ma Y, Sun Z, Yang Y, Jin Q, et al. The 3C protein of enterovirus 71 inhibits retinoid acid-inducible gene I-mediated interferon regulatory factor 3 activation and type I interferon responses. J Virol. 2010;84:8051-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that inhibition of RIG-I-mediated type I IFN responses by the 3C protein may contribute to the pathogenesis of EV71 infection...
  54. Weng K, Chen L, Huang P, Shih S. Neural pathogenesis of enterovirus 71 infection. Microbes Infect. 2010;12:505-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical observations showed that EV71-induced immune responses may be associated with virus induced neurogenic pulmonary edema. Here reviewed studies that discovered several host molecules as potential factors for EV71 virulence. ..
  55. Zhu R, Qian Y, Deng J, Xing J, Zhao L, Wang F, et al. [Study on the association of hand, foot and mouth disease and enterovirus 71/CA16 among children in Beijing, 2007]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2007;28:1004-8 pubmed
    ..EV71 could cause severe clinical manifestations with central nerve system complications even in the child older than 5 years. ..
  56. Koike S. [Identification of an enterovirus 71 receptor; SCARB2]. Uirusu. 2009;59:189-94 pubmed
    ..I will summarize this result, background and the methodology of the study. ..
  57. Liao H, Lu M, Chang H, Wei C, Kao C, Chen Z, et al. Effects of herbal medicinal formulas on suppressing viral replication and modulating immune responses. Am J Chin Med. 2010;38:173-90 pubmed
    ..Taking all experimental data together, we conclude Chui-Uren-Chien possesses immunomodulatory capability in mouse, but none of the herbal medicinal formulas tested here are involved in strengthening antiviral immunity. ..
  58. Liu J, Zhang Y, Li H. [Genetic characterization of VP4-VP2 of two coxsackievirus A4 isolated from patients with hand, foot and mouth disease]. Zhongguo Yi Miao He Mian Yi. 2009;15:345-9 pubmed
  59. Zhang Y, Wang D, Yan D, Zhu S, Liu J, Wang H, et al. Molecular evidence of persistent epidemic and evolution of subgenotype B1 coxsackievirus A16-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease in China. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:619-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The annual evolution rate of CVA16 was estimated as approximately 0.91 x 10(-2) substitutions per synonymous nucleotide/year and is slightly lower than that of HEV71. ..
  60. Nie X, Zhang X, Zhang G, Xu D, Ma C, Li Y, et al. [Association between hand-foot-and-mouth disease in Xi'an and enterovirus 71]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2009;47:523-6 pubmed
  61. van der Sanden S, Koopmans M, Uslu G, van der Avoort H. Epidemiology of enterovirus 71 in the Netherlands, 1963 to 2008. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:2826-33 pubmed publisher
  62. Pan H, Zhu Y, Qi X, Zhang Y, Li L, Deng F, et al. [Analysis on the epidemiological and genetic characteristics of enterovirus type 71 and Coxsackie A16 virus infection in Jiangsu, China]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2009;30:339-43 pubmed
    ..Facts as: the release of viruses in the latent period, co-infection or coexisting of two viruses at the same time and super long period of expulsion of toxin exist in EV71 and CA16 did exist. ..
  63. Ong K, Badmanathan M, Devi S, Leong K, Cardosa M, Wong K. Pathologic characterization of a murine model of human enterovirus 71 encephalomyelitis. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2008;67:532-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This model may be useful for further studies on pathogenesis and for testing therapies. ..
  64. Jia C, Liu J, Li W, Ma C, Lin S, Hao Y, et al. The cross-reactivity of the enterovirus 71 to human brain tissue and identification of the cross-reactivity related fragments. Virol J. 2010;7:47 pubmed publisher
  65. Qi B, Zhao J, Gao L, Zhu P. [Analysis on the preference of synonymous codon in VP1 nucleotide sequence of the EV71 based on RSCU method]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2009;25:467-75 pubmed
  66. Guo X, Zhu S, Wang D. [Seroepidemiology investigation of HEV71 in healthy children of 1-6 years old in three counties of China in 2005]. Zhongguo Yi Miao He Mian Yi. 2009;15:141-4 pubmed
  67. van der Sanden S, van der Avoort H, Lemey P, Uslu G, Koopmans M. Evolutionary trajectory of the VP1 gene of human enterovirus 71 genogroup B and C viruses. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:1949-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Anti-C1 rabbit serum neutralized both genogroup B and C viruses. Global herd immunity against C1 and C2 viruses possibly explains why epidemics with subgenogroups B4 and C4 are restricted to the Asian Pacific region. ..
  68. Shih S, Weng K, Stollar V, Li M. Viral protein synthesis is required for Enterovirus 71 to induce apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells. J Neurovirol. 2008;14:53-61 pubmed publisher
  69. Kuo K, Chang J, Wang K, Chiang L. Water extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis inhibited enterovirus 71 in a human foreskin fibroblast cell line. Am J Chin Med. 2009;37:383-94 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the water extract of G. uralensis possesses potent anti-EV71 effects with less cytotoxicity. Its low IC(50) and high 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) values suggest that it is a promising anti-EV71 agent...
  70. Vallet S, Legrand Quillien M, Dailland T, Podeur G, Gouriou S, Schuffenecker I, et al. Fatal case of enterovirus 71 infection, France, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1837-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The virus was identified as subgenogroup C2. This highly neurotropic enterovirus merits specific surveillance outside the Asia-Pacific region. ..
  71. Ho S, Chua S, Foo D, Locht C, Chow V, Poh C, et al. Highly attenuated Bordetella pertussis strain BPZE1 as a potential live vehicle for delivery of heterologous vaccine candidates. Infect Immun. 2008;76:111-9 pubmed