enterovirus

Summary

Summary: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".

Top Publications

  1. Rao C, Yergolkar P, Shankarappa K. Antigenic diversity of enteroviruses associated with nonpolio acute flaccid paralysis, India, 2007-2009. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:1833-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the spectrum of nonpolio enterovirus (NPEV) serotypes associated with NP-AFP from polio-endemic and -free regions, we studied antigenic diversity of ..
  2. Sharp J, Harrison C, Puckett K, Selvaraju S, Peñaranda S, Nix W, et al. Characteristics of young infants in whom human parechovirus, enterovirus or neither were detected in cerebrospinal fluid during sepsis evaluations. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32:213-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Because HPeV CNS infections have appeared clinically and seasonally similar to enterovirus (EV) infections, we retrospectively compared characteristics of young infants undergoing sepsis evaluations in ..
  3. Ch ng W, Saw W, Yusoff K, Shafee N. Immunogenicity of a truncated enterovirus 71 VP1 protein fused to a Newcastle disease virus nucleocapsid protein fragment in mice. Acta Virol. 2011;55:227-33 pubmed
    b>Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the viruses that cause hand, foot and mouth disease. Its viral capsid protein 1 (VP1), which contains many neutralization epitopes, is an ideal target for vaccine development...
  4. Tryfonos C, Richter J, Koptides D, Yiangou M, Christodoulou C. Molecular typing and epidemiology of enteroviruses in Cyprus, 2003-2007. J Med Microbiol. 2011;60:1433-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical specimens from a total of 146 patients were diagnosed as enterovirus-positive. Twenty-two different serotypes were identified...
  5. Daleno C, Piralla A, Scala A, Baldanti F, Usonis V, Principi N, et al. Complete genome sequence of a novel human enterovirus C (HEV-C117) identified in a child with community-acquired pneumonia. J Virol. 2012;86:10888-9 pubmed publisher
    The new enterovirus C-117 strain belongs to the human enterovirus C species in the Picornaviridae family...
  6. Pankovics P, Boros A, Szabo H, Szekely G, Gyurkovits K, Reuter G. Human enterovirus 109 (EV109) in acute paediatric respiratory disease in Hungary. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2012;59:285-90 pubmed publisher
    Human enterovirus 109 (EV109) is a recently identified recombinant enterovirus in family Picornaviridae from acute paediatric respiratory illness in Nicaragua. EV109 have not been reported elsewhere...
  7. Laxmivandana R, Yergolkar P, Gopalkrishna V, Chitambar S. Characterization of the non-polio enterovirus infections associated with acute flaccid paralysis in South-Western India. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61650 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights the extensive genetic diversity and diverse circulation patterns of NPEV strains in AFP cases from different populations and climatic conditions...
  8. Nahdi I, Boukoum H, Nabil Ben Salem A, Ben Romdane F, Hammami S, Chebel S, et al. Detection of herpes simplex virus (1 and 2), varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 6 and enterovirus in immunocompetent Tunisian patients with acute neuromeningeal disorder. J Med Virol. 2012;84:282-9 pubmed publisher
    ..At least one viral genome was detected in 58 (46%) out of 126 CSF samples collected. Enterovirus was detected in 31 of the positive samples (53.4%), CMV in 20 (34.5%), HSV-1 in 3 (5.2%), HSV-2 in 6 (10...
  9. Yeh M, Wang S, Yu C, Lin K, Lei H, Su I, et al. A single nucleotide in stem loop II of 5'-untranslated region contributes to virulence of enterovirus 71 in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27082 pubmed publisher
    b>Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a neuroinvasive virus responsible for several large outbreaks in the Asia-Pacific region while virulence determinant remains unexplored.

More Information

Publications99

  1. Bennett S, Harvala H, Witteveldt J, McWilliam Leitch E, McLeish N, Templeton K, et al. Rapid simultaneous detection of enterovirus and parechovirus RNAs in clinical samples by one-step real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:2620-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of molecular techniques, such as PCR, has substantially improved the sensitivity of enterovirus detection compared to that of virus culture methods...
  2. Chiang P, Huang M, Luo S, Lin T, Tsao K, Lee M. Comparing molecular methods for early detection and serotyping of enteroviruses in throat swabs of pediatric patients. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48269 pubmed publisher
    ..cause self-limited infections with non-specific symptoms in children, with the exceptions of polioviruses and enterovirus 71 which frequently cause neurologic complications...
  3. Simonen Tikka M, Pflueger M, Klemola P, Savolainen Kopra C, Smura T, Hummel S, et al. Human enterovirus infections in children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes: the Babydiet study. Diabetologia. 2011;54:2995-3002 pubmed publisher
  4. Stene L, Rewers M. Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on type 1 diabetes and viruses: the enterovirus link to type 1 diabetes: critical review of human studies. Clin Exp Immunol. 2012;168:12-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequently, enterovirus RNA has been detected more frequently in serum of patients than in control subjects, but such studies are ..
  5. Lo S, Huang Y, Huang C, Tsao K, Li W, Hsieh Y, et al. Clinical and epidemiologic features of Coxsackievirus A6 infection in children in northern Taiwan between 2004 and 2009. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2011;44:252-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is to define clinical manifestations and laboratory findings of Cox A6 infection in children...
  6. Mao Q, Wang Y, Gao R, Shao J, Yao X, Lang S, et al. A neonatal mouse model of coxsackievirus A16 for vaccine evaluation. J Virol. 2012;86:11967-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrated that anti-CA16 antibody may block virus invasion and protect mice against lethal challenge, and that the neonatal mouse model was a viable tool for evaluating vaccine efficacy. ..
  7. Lee M, Chan P, Ho I, Lai W. Enterovirus infection among patients admitted to hospital in Hong Kong in 2010: epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and importance of molecular diagnosis. J Med Virol. 2013;85:1811-7 pubmed publisher
    ..reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) had been performed routinely for diagnosis of enterovirus (EV) infection among hospitals in a geographical cluster...
  8. Gopalkrishna V, Patil P, Patil G, Chitambar S. Circulation of multiple enterovirus serotypes causing hand, foot and mouth disease in India. J Med Microbiol. 2012;61:420-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16) and enterovirus 71(EV-71) are the major aetiological agents of HFMD...
  9. Kumar A, Shukla D, Kumar R, Idris M, Misra U, Dhole T. Molecular epidemiological study of enteroviruses associated with encephalitis in children from India. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:3509-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We prospectively investigated 204 children with encephalitis over a period of 2 years (2009 to 2010) for enterovirus. Enterovirus was detected in 45 specimens (22...
  10. Huang W, Huang L, Lu C, Cheng A, Chang L. Atypical hand-foot-mouth disease in children: a hospital-based prospective cohort study. Virol J. 2013;10:209 pubmed publisher
    ..5 years, range: 21 days-13.5 years). The ratio of males to females was 1.8 to 1. All samples were enterovirus-positive, including coxsackievirus A6 (80%), coxsackievirus A16 (6%), enterovirus 71 (1%), coxsackievirus A5 (1%..
  11. Lu J, Lu W, Lai J, Tsai F, Wu S, Lin C, et al. Calcium flux and calpain-mediated activation of the apoptosis-inducing factor contribute to enterovirus 71-induced apoptosis. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:1477-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a causative agent of an array of childhood diseases with severe neurological manifestations implicated. EV71 infection is known to induce caspase-dependent apoptosis in cell cultures and animal models...
  12. Simonen Tikka M, Hiekka A, Klemola P, Poussa T, Ludvigsson J, Korpela R, et al. Early human enterovirus infections in healthy Swedish children participating in the PRODIA pilot study. J Med Virol. 2012;84:923-30 pubmed publisher
    Human enteroviruses (HEV) are common, especially in childhood and during the enterovirus season, causing mainly asymptomatic infections but also mild and severe illnesses...
  13. Feng Y, Liu Q, Ku Z, Wen J, Shan H, Huang Z. [Expression of VP0 protein of enterovirus 71 in Escherichia coli and generation of the corresponding polyclonal antibodies in guinea pigs]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2011;27:535-8 pubmed
    To obtain recombinant VP0 protein of enterovirus 71, and generate the corresponding VP0-specific polyclonal antibodies, for molecular detection and characterization of EV71...
  14. Yang F, Zhang T, Hu Y, Wang X, Du J, Li Y, et al. Survey of enterovirus infections from hand, foot and mouth disease outbreak in China, 2009. Virol J. 2011;8:508 pubmed publisher
    ..However, people are still only concerned with human enterovirus 71(HEV-71) and coxsackie virus A16 (CV-A16)...
  15. Zong W, He Y, Yu S, Yang H, Xian H, Liao Y, et al. Molecular phylogeny of Coxsackievirus A16 in Shenzhen, China, from 2005 to 2009. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:1659-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Amino acid evolution and nucleotide variation in the VP1 region were slight for 5 years. ..
  16. Li R, Zou Q, Chen L, Zhang H, Wang Y. Molecular analysis of virulent determinants of enterovirus 71. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26237 pubmed publisher
    b>Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the most important causative agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in children. In most cases, it is a self-limiting illness...
  17. He S, Han J, Ding X, Wang Y, Qin C. Characterization of enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 isolated in hand, foot, and mouth disease patients in Guangdong, 2010. Int J Infect Dis. 2013;17:e1025-30 pubmed publisher
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an acute viral disease caused by human enteroviruses, especially human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), and mainly affects infants and young children...
  18. Yan X, Gao S, Xia J, Ye R, Yu H, Long J. Epidemic characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Shanghai from 2009 to 2010: Enterovirus 71 subgenotype C4 as the primary causative agent and a high incidence of mixed infections with coxsackievirus A16. Scand J Infect Dis. 2012;44:297-305 pubmed publisher
    b>Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has been the main causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks in recent years...
  19. Shaukat S, Angez M, Alam M, Sharif S, Khurshid A, Mahmood T, et al. Characterization of non-polio enterovirus isolates from acute flaccid paralysis children in Pakistan reflects a new genotype of EV-107. Virus Res. 2012;170:164-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty-two isolates were identified as members of human enterovirus B (HEV-B) species except one that remained untypeable...
  20. Lee M, Tseng F, Wang J, Chi C, Chong P, Su I. Challenges to licensure of enterovirus 71 vaccines. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1737 pubmed publisher
    Human enteroviruses usually cause self-limited infections except polioviruses and enterovirus 71 (EV71), which frequently involve neurological complications. EV71 vaccines are being evaluated in humans...
  21. Harvala H, McLeish N, Kondracka J, McIntyre C, McWilliam Leitch E, Templeton K, et al. Comparison of human parechovirus and enterovirus detection frequencies in cerebrospinal fluid samples collected over a 5-year period in edinburgh: HPeV type 3 identified as the most common picornavirus type. J Med Virol. 2011;83:889-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The highly sensitive virus typing methods applied in this study will assist further EV and HPeV screening of sepsis and meningitis cases as well as in future molecular epidemiological studies and population surveillance...
  22. Huizing K, Swanink C, Landstra A, van Zwet A, van Setten P. Rapid enterovirus molecular testing in cerebrospinal fluid reduces length of hospitalization and duration of antibiotic therapy in children with aseptic meningitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:1107-9 pubmed publisher
    We studied the potential benefits of introducing a rapid enterovirus molecular test in children with enterovirus meningitis...
  23. Harvala H, Sharp C, Ngole E, Delaporte E, Peeters M, Simmonds P. Detection and genetic characterization of enteroviruses circulating among wild populations of chimpanzees in Cameroon: relationship with human and simian enteroviruses. J Virol. 2011;85:4480-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the direction of transfer and the existence of primate sources of zoonotic enterovirus infections in humans require further investigation of population exposure and more extensive characterization ..
  24. Ma E, Fung C, Yip S, Wong C, Chuang S, Tsang T. Estimation of the basic reproduction number of enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 in hand, foot, and mouth disease outbreaks. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:675-9 pubmed publisher
    Coxsackievirus A16 (Cox A16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) are common pathogens causing hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in pediatric population. Little is known about the basic reproductive number (R0) for these enteroviruses...
  25. Tapparel C, Siegrist F, Petty T, Kaiser L. Picornavirus and enterovirus diversity with associated human diseases. Infect Genet Evol. 2013;14:282-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The Enterovirus genus is a prototype example of the Picornaviridae heterogeneity at both genetic and phenotypic levels...
  26. Piralla A, Lilleri D, Sarasini A, Marchi A, Zecca M, Stronati M, et al. Human rhinovirus and human respiratory enterovirus (EV68 and EV104) infections in hospitalized patients in Italy, 2008-2009. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;73:162-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Twenty (2.1%) patients were enterovirus (EV)-positive (12 had EV-68, 7 EV-104, and 1 E-13 infection)...
  27. Cheng A, Fung C, Liu C, Lin Y, Tsai H, Chang S, et al. A Phase I, randomized, open-label study to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of an enterovirus 71 vaccine. Vaccine. 2013;31:2471-6 pubmed publisher
    Large-scale outbreaks of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections have occurred in Asia-Pacific regions...
  28. Shen F, Tsai C, Wang L, Chang K, Tung Y, Su I, et al. Enterovirus 71 infection increases expression of interferon-gamma-inducible protein 10 which protects mice by reducing viral burden in multiple tissues. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:1019-27 pubmed publisher
    b>Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection has induced fatal encephalitis in thousands of young children in the Asia-Pacific region over the last decade...
  29. Grieco F, Sebastiani G, Spagnuolo I, Patti A, Dotta F. Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on type 1 diabetes and viruses: how viral infections modulate beta cell function. Clin Exp Immunol. 2012;168:24-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, both in-vitro and ex-vivo studies have shown that viruses can infect pancreatic beta cells with consequent effects ranging from functional damage to cell death. ..
  30. Debiaggi M, Ceresola E, Sampaolo M, Alessandrino E, Brerra R, Piazza A, et al. Epidemiological, molecular and clinical features of enterovirus 109 infection in children and in adult stem cell transplant recipients. Virol J. 2012;9:183 pubmed publisher
    A novel human enterovirus (HEV) type within the species HEV-C, named EV109, was discovered from cases of respiratory illness in Nicaragua in September 2010...
  31. Chia J, Chia A, El Habbal R. Carcinoid tumour associated with enterovirus infection. J Clin Pathol. 2011;64:722-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Chronic enterovirus infection has been found in the stomach and terminal ileum of patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic ..
  32. Oyero O, Adu F. Non-polio enteroviruses serotypes circulating in Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci. 2010;39 Suppl:201-8 pubmed
    ..Majority of the isolates belonged to the human enterovirus gropup B (HEV-B) specie, followed by 4 and 1 in the HEV-A and HEV-C species respectively...
  33. Jin J, Han M, Xu L, An D, Kong W, Jiang C. Replication kinetics of coxsackievirus A16 in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Virol Sin. 2012;27:221-7 pubmed publisher
    Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), together with enterovirus type 71 (EV71), is responsible for most cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide...
  34. Park S, Choi S, Oh S, Kim C, Cho S, Lee J, et al. Detection and characterization of enterovirus associated with herpangina and hand, foot, and mouth disease in Seoul, Korea. Clin Lab. 2011;57:959-67 pubmed
    ..Human enteroviruses (HEVs) are a major cause of herpangina, HFMD (hand, foot, and mouth disease), and other neurological diseases in Seoul, Korea...
  35. Li Y, Zhu R, Qian Y, Deng J, Sun Y, Liu L, et al. Comparing Enterovirus 71 with Coxsackievirus A16 by analyzing nucleotide sequences and antigenicity of recombinant proteins of VP1s and VP4s. BMC Microbiol. 2011;11:246 pubmed publisher
    b>Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are two major etiological agents of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD). EV71 is associated with severe cases but not CA16...
  36. Wang J, Chen X, Wang W, Zhang Y, Yang Z, Jin Y, et al. Glycyrrhizic acid as the antiviral component of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. against coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71 of hand foot and mouth disease. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;147:114-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is considered the principal component in Glycyrrhiza spp. with a wide spectrum of antiviral activity...
  37. Imamura T, Okamoto M, Nakakita S, Suzuki A, Saito M, Tamaki R, et al. Antigenic and receptor binding properties of enterovirus 68. J Virol. 2014;88:2374-84 pubmed publisher
    Increased detection of enterovirus 68 (EV68) among patients with acute respiratory infections has been reported from different parts of the world in the late 2000s since its first detection in pediatric patients with lower-respiratory-..
  38. Tan C, Ninove L, Gaudart J, Nougairede A, Zandotti C, Thirion Perrier L, et al. A retrospective overview of enterovirus infection diagnosis and molecular epidemiology in the public hospitals of Marseille, France (1985-2005). PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18022 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis in the VP1, 2C and 3D regions also provided evidence for recombination events amongst clinical isolates. In particular, it identified isolates with dissimilar VP1 but almost identical nonstructural regions...
  39. Renois F, Bouin A, Andreoletti L. Enterovirus 68 in pediatric patients hospitalized for acute airway diseases. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:640-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Enterovirus 68 was detected in 10 respiratory specimens from pediatric patients hospitalized for acute wheezing or bronchitis during 2009 in the northeast of France. Viral loads ranged from 2 × 10(5) to 7.2 × 10(7) copies/ml...
  40. Wei H, Xu Y, Huang X, Ma H, Chen H, Xu B. [Genomic characteristics and recombination of enterovirus 71 strains isolated in Henan Province between 2008 and 2010]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2011;27:433-7 pubmed
    To reveal the genetic features and recombination of enterovirus 71 isolates between 2008 and 2010. A total of 5 enterovirus 71 isolates were sequenced completely and phylogenetic analysis and recombination were performed...
  41. Jaramillo Gutierrez G, Benschop K, Claas E, de Jong A, van Loon A, Pas S, et al. September through October 2010 multi-centre study in the Netherlands examining laboratory ability to detect enterovirus 68, an emerging respiratory pathogen. J Virol Methods. 2013;190:53-62 pubmed publisher
    During September and October 2010, the Dutch Public Health Institute detected an enterovirus (EV) 68 (EV68) epidemic in the Netherlands through general practitioner-based surveillance of acute respiratory infections...
  42. Cai Y, Liu Q, Huang X, Li D, Ku Z, Zhang Y, et al. Active immunization with a Coxsackievirus A16 experimental inactivated vaccine induces neutralizing antibodies and protects mice against lethal infection. Vaccine. 2013;31:2215-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results provide a solid foundation for further development of inactivated whole-virus CA16 vaccines for human use. ..
  43. Liu Q, Yan K, Feng Y, Huang X, Ku Z, Cai Y, et al. A virus-like particle vaccine for coxsackievirus A16 potently elicits neutralizing antibodies that protect mice against lethal challenge. Vaccine. 2012;30:6642-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results represent a successful first step toward the development of a safe and effective vaccine against CVA16 infection...
  44. Shi W, Li K, Ji Y, Jiang Q, Shi M, Mi Z. Development and evaluation of reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of enterovirus 71. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:197 pubmed publisher
    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) is very common in China. It is difficult to distinguish between EV71 and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) infections in clinical HFMD patients...
  45. He Y, Chen L, Xu W, Yang H, Wang H, Zong W, et al. Emergence, circulation, and spatiotemporal phylogenetic analysis of coxsackievirus a6- and coxsackievirus a10-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease infections from 2008 to 2012 in Shenzhen, China. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:3560-6 pubmed publisher
    ..outbreaks and other infectious diseases in recent years have frequently been associated with certain human enterovirus (HEV) serotypes...
  46. Lin Y, Yu S, Shao H, Lin H, Liu C, Hsiao K, et al. Human SCARB2 transgenic mice as an infectious animal model for enterovirus 71. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57591 pubmed publisher
    b>Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus (CVA) are the most common causative factors for hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and neurological disorders in children...
  47. Rhoades R, Tabor Godwin J, Tsueng G, Feuer R. Enterovirus infections of the central nervous system. Virology. 2011;411:288-305 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will describe the clinical aspects of EV-mediated disease, mechanisms of disease, determinants of tropism, immune activation within the CNS, and potential treatment regimes. ..
  48. Xing W, Liao Q, Viboud C, Zhang J, Sun J, Wu J, et al. Hand, foot, and mouth disease in China, 2008-12: an epidemiological study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14:308-318 pubmed publisher
    ..All analyses were stratified by age, disease severity, laboratory confirmation status, and enterovirus serotype...
  49. Volle R, Nourrisson C, Mirand A, Regagnon C, Chambon M, Henquell C, et al. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay for research studies on enterovirus infections in the central nervous system. J Virol Methods. 2012;185:142-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Qualitative detection of enterovirus genomes in cerebrospinal fluid is a prerequisite in diagnosing neurological diseases...
  50. Apostol L, Suzuki A, Bautista A, Galang H, Paladin F, Fuji N, et al. Detection of non-polio enteroviruses from 17 years of virological surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis in the Philippines. J Med Virol. 2012;84:624-31 pubmed publisher
    ..of NPEV strains were identified using neutralization test and molecular typing, including 28 serotypes of human enterovirus B (HEV-B), 12 serotypes of HEV-A, and 7 of HEV-C...
  51. Liu C, Chang H, Yang G, Chiang J, Chow Y, Sai I, et al. Development of a quantitative enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for monitoring the Enterovirus 71 vaccine manufacturing process. J Virol Methods. 2011;176:60-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Enterovirus 71 (EV71), the etiologic agent causes outbreaks with significant mortality in young children in Asia and currently there is no vaccine available...
  52. Chehadeh W, Alkhabbaz M. Differential TLR7-mediated expression of proinflammatory and antiviral cytokines in response to laboratory and clinical enterovirus strains. Virus Res. 2013;174:88-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest a clear segregation between laboratory and clinical EV strains on the basis of their cytokine induction ability, and a possible role of TLR7-induced proinflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of EV infection. ..
  53. Wang E, Dobrikova E, Goetz C, Dufresne A, Gromeier M. Adaptation of an ICAM-1-tropic enterovirus to the mouse respiratory tract. J Virol. 2011;85:5606-17 pubmed publisher
    Respiratory tract (RT) infections by members of the enterovirus (EV) genus of the Picornaviridae family are the most frequent cause for the common cold and a major factor in the exacerbation of chronic pulmonary diseases...
  54. Zhao H, Li H, Han J, Deng Y, Li Y, Zhu S, et al. Virus-like particles produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae elicit protective immunity against Coxsackievirus A16 in mice. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;97:10445-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrated that VLPs produced in yeast might have the potential to be further developed as a vaccine candidate against HFMD. ..
  55. Lee M, Huang L, Wong W, Wu T, Chiu T, Chang L. Molecular diagnosis and clinical presentations of enteroviral infections in Taipei during the 2008 epidemic. J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2011;44:178-83 pubmed publisher
    In 2008, an epidemic of enterovirus (EV) infection caused hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and herpangina in children in Taiwan, and some of them died...
  56. Zhang Y, Liu H, Wang L, Yang F, Hu Y, Ren X, et al. Comparative study of the cytokine/chemokine response in children with differing disease severity in enterovirus 71-induced hand, foot, and mouth disease. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67430 pubmed publisher
    b>Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection can lead to a rapidly progressing, life-threatening, and severe neurological disease in young children, including the development of human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD)...
  57. Todd A, Hall R, Wang J, Peacey M, McTavish S, Rand C, et al. Detection and whole genome sequence analysis of an enterovirus 68 cluster. Virol J. 2013;10:103 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Enterovirus 68 is rarely detected yet was reported in many countries in 2010...
  58. Schibler M, Gerlach D, Martinez Y, Belle S, Turin L, Kaiser L, et al. Experimental human rhinovirus and enterovirus interspecies recombination. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:93-101 pubmed publisher
    ..enteroviruses (HEVs), two important human pathogens, are non-enveloped, positive-sense RNA viruses of the genus Enterovirus within the family Picornaviridae...
  59. Wang Z, Liu X, Yang T, Yi Y. [Etiology of hand, foot and mouth disease in Qingdao during 2008-2009]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2011;27:438-41 pubmed
    ..Three serotypes(13 specimens) were obtained in 2009 including Coxsackievirus A9, A12 and B2, of which CVA12 was of a big proportion (11/13). CVA12 became a new relatively major pathogen of HFMD in Qingdao during 2009. ..
  60. Hansson S, Korsgren S, Ponten F, Korsgren O. Enteroviruses and the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes revisited: cross-reactivity of enterovirus capsid protein (VP1) antibodies with human mitochondrial proteins. J Pathol. 2013;229:719-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings call for revisiting the presence of enteroviruses in pancreatic islets of patients with type 1 diabetes. ..
  61. Harvala H, McIntyre C, Imai N, Clasper L, Djoko C, LeBreton M, et al. High seroprevalence of enterovirus infections in apes and old world monkeys. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:283-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Detection of species A, B, and D EVs infecting wild chimpanzees demonstrates their potential widespread circulation in primates. ..
  62. Rahnefeld A, Ebstein F, Albrecht N, Opitz E, Kuckelkorn U, Stangl K, et al. Antigen-presentation capacity of dendritic cells is impaired in ongoing enterovirus myocarditis. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:2774-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, ongoing chronic disease in A.BY/SnJ mice due to a failure to clear the virus may be attributed to defects in DC maturation/activation and DC MHC class I antigen processing. ..
  63. Liu Q, Ku Z, Cai Y, Sun B, Leng Q, Huang Z. Detection, characterization and quantitation of coxsackievirus A16 using polyclonal antibodies against recombinant capsid subunit proteins. J Virol Methods. 2011;173:115-20 pubmed publisher
    Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16), together with enterovirus type 71 (EV71), is responsible for most cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) worldwide...
  64. Boros A, Pankovics P, Knowles N, Reuter G. Natural interspecies recombinant bovine/porcine enterovirus in sheep. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:1941-51 pubmed publisher
    Members of the genus Enterovirus (family Picornaviridae) are believed to be common and widespread among humans and different animal species, although only a few enteroviruses have been identified from animal sources...
  65. Xiang Z, Gonzalez R, Wang Z, Ren L, Xiao Y, Li J, et al. Coxsackievirus A21, enterovirus 68, and acute respiratory tract infection, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:821-4 pubmed publisher
    During August 2006-April 2010, in Beijing, China, 2 rare human enterovirus serotypes, coxsackievirus A21 and enterovirus 68, were detected most frequently in human enterovirus-positive adults with acute respiratory tract infections...
  66. Ayukekbong J, Kabayiza J, Lindh M, Nkuo Akenji T, Tah F, Bergstrom T, et al. Shift of Enterovirus species among children in Cameroon--identification of a new enterovirus, EV-A119. J Clin Virol. 2013;58:227-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study shows a high heterogeneity of circulating EV types among children in Limbe, Cameroon, and a previously not described shift in predominating EV species. ..
  67. Nie K, Zhang Y, Luo L, Yang M, Hu X, Wang M, et al. Visual detection of human enterovirus 71 subgenotype C4 and Coxsackievirus A16 by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification with the hydroxynaphthol blue dye. J Virol Methods. 2011;175:283-6 pubmed publisher
    ..loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for rapid visual detection of human enterovirus 71 subgenotype C4 (EV71-C4) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) infection, respectively...
  68. Oikarinen M, Tauriainen S, Oikarinen S, Honkanen T, Collin P, Rantala I, et al. Type 1 diabetes is associated with enterovirus infection in gut mucosa. Diabetes. 2012;61:687-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Enterovirus infections have been linked to type 1 diabetes in several studies. Enteroviruses also have tropism to pancreatic islets and can cause ?-cell damage in experimental models...
  69. Rao D, Ananda Babu M, Raghavendra A, Dhananjaya D, Kumar S, Maiya P. Non-polio enteroviruses and their association with acute diarrhea in children in India. Infect Genet Evol. 2013;17:153-61 pubmed publisher
    ..normal stool samples from age-matched healthy children between 0 and 9 years were examined during 2008-2012 for enterovirus (oral polio vaccine strains (OPVs) and NPEVs)...
  70. Zeng M, Li Y, Wang X, Lu G, Shen H, Yu H, et al. Epidemiology of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children in Shanghai 2007-2010. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:1122-30 pubmed publisher
    ..90%) of 11 fatal cases were attributable to EV-A71 infection. In 2010, EV-A71-positive cases accounted for 54.12% of inpatients. The dominant circulation of EV-A71 led to the outbreak of HFMD and occurrence of severe and fatal cases. ..
  71. Sarmiento L, Cubas Dueñas I, Cabrera Rode E. Evidence of association between type 1 diabetes and exposure to enterovirus in Cuban children and adolescents. MEDICC Rev. 2013;15:29-32 pubmed
  72. Wei S, Huang Y, Liu M, Tsou T, Lin H, Lin T, et al. An outbreak of coxsackievirus A6 hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with onychomadesis in Taiwan, 2010. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:346 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients who had HFMD with positive enterovirus isolation results were enrolled...
  73. Li W, Yi L, Su J, Lu J, Zeng H, Guan D, et al. Seroepidemiology of human enterovirus71 and coxsackievirusA16 among children in Guangdong province, China. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:322 pubmed publisher
    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric illness. Mainly induced by the Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A 16 infections, the frequently occurred HFMD outbreaks have become a serious public health problem in Southeast ..
  74. Lu Q, Zhang X, Wo Y, Xu H, Li X, Wang X, et al. Circulation of Coxsackievirus A10 and A6 in hand-foot-mouth disease in China, 2009-2011. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52073 pubmed publisher
    ..Logistic regression model was used to identify the effect of predominant enterovirus serotypes in causing severe HFMD. The results showed 92...
  75. Ni H, Yi B, Yin J, Fang T, He T, Du Y, et al. Epidemiological and etiological characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Ningbo, China, 2008-2011. J Clin Virol. 2012;54:342-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in central China have caused public health concerns since 2007. It is of particular public health significance to update epidemiology of HFMD in port cities...
  76. Sun Q, Zhang Y, Cui H, Zhu S, Li X, Huang G, et al. Complete genome sequence analysis of two human enterovirus C99 strains isolated in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, China, in 2011. Arch Virol. 2014;159:359-64 pubmed publisher
    Human enterovirus C99 (EV-C99) is a new member of the species Enterovirus C, and although only a few EV-C99 sequences have been obtained thus far, the strain has been identified on four continents...
  77. Yip C, Lau S, Woo P, Chan K, Yuen K. Complete genome sequence of a coxsackievirus A22 strain in Hong Kong reveals a natural intratypic recombination event. J Virol. 2011;85:12098-9 pubmed publisher
    Coxsackievirus A22 (CVA22) belongs to the species human enterovirus C in the Picornaviridae family...
  78. Cathcart A, Rozovics J, Semler B. Cellular mRNA decay protein AUF1 negatively regulates enterovirus and human rhinovirus infections. J Virol. 2013;87:10423-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings also demonstrate that AUF1 functions as an antiviral factor during infection by coxsackievirus or human rhinovirus, suggesting a common mechanism that targets these related picornaviruses. ..
  79. Archimbaud C, Ouchchane L, Mirand A, Chambon M, Demeocq F, Labbe A, et al. Improvement of the management of infants, children and adults with a molecular diagnosis of Enterovirus meningitis during two observational study periods. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68571 pubmed publisher
  80. Tan S, Tan X, Sun X, Lu G, Chen C, Yan J, et al. VP2 dominated CD4+ T cell responses against enterovirus 71 and cross-reactivity against coxsackievirus A16 and polioviruses in a healthy population. J Immunol. 2013;191:1637-47 pubmed publisher
    b>Enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand-foot-mouth disease has become a major threat to public health in the Asia-Pacific region...
  81. Plevka P, Perera R, Cardosa J, Kuhn R, Rossmann M. Structure determination of enterovirus 71. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2012;68:1217-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Enterovirus 71 is a picornavirus that causes hand, foot and mouth disease but may induce fatal neurological illness in infants and young children...
  82. Fan X, Jiang J, Liu Y, Huang X, Wang P, Liu L, et al. Detection of human enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 in an outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Henan Province, China in 2009. Virus Genes. 2013;46:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It was found that human enterovirus 71 (EV71) was the main pathogen causing this outbreak, while Coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16) played only a ..
  83. Liu C, Guo M, Lin F, Hsiao K, Chang K, Chou A, et al. Purification and characterization of enterovirus 71 viral particles produced from vero cells grown in a serum-free microcarrier bioreactor system. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20005 pubmed publisher
    b>Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infections manifest most commonly as a childhood exanthema known as hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and can cause neurological disease during acute infection...
  84. Chen L, Mou X, Zhang Q, Li Y, Lin J, Liu F, et al. Detection of human enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 in children with hand, foot and mouth disease in China. Mol Med Rep. 2012;5:1001-4 pubmed publisher
    The aims of the present study were to investigate the genetic characteristics of enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) strains in China and to evaluate the relationship between the genotypes of CVA16 and EV71 and their ..
  85. Levengood J, Tolbert M, Li M, Tolbert B. High-affinity interaction of hnRNP A1 with conserved RNA structural elements is required for translation and replication of enterovirus 71. RNA Biol. 2013;10:1136-45 pubmed publisher
    Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an emerging pathogen of infectious disease and a serious threat to public health...
  86. Shi J, Huang X, Liu Q, Huang Z. Identification of conserved neutralizing linear epitopes within the VP1 protein of coxsackievirus A16. Vaccine. 2013;31:2130-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequence alignment also showed that these epitopes are extremely conserved among CA16 strains of different genotypes. These findings have important implications for the development of peptide-based broadly protective CA16 vaccines. ..
  87. Salur L, Oikarinen S, Tauriainen S, Mandel M, Hyoty H, Uibo R. Enterovirus infections in young infants: are children still protected by maternal antibodies?. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7:966-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Enterovirus infections are frequent in childhood and may be involved in development of several chronic diseases including type 1 diabetes. Maternal antibodies have a protective effect in young infants...
  88. Witsø E, Tapia G, Cinek O, Pociot F, Stene L, Rønningen K. Polymorphisms in the innate immune IFIH1 gene, frequency of enterovirus in monthly fecal samples during infancy, and islet autoimmunity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27781 pubmed publisher
    ..was to test whether these type 1 diabetes-associated IFIH1 polymorphisms are associated with the occurrence of enterovirus infection in the gut of healthy children, or influence the lack of association between gut enterovirus ..
  89. Imamura T, Suzuki A, Lupisan S, Okamoto M, Aniceto R, Egos R, et al. Molecular evolution of enterovirus 68 detected in the Philippines. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74221 pubmed publisher
    Detection of Enterovirus 68 (EV68) has recently been increased. However, underlying evolutionary mechanism of this increasing trend is not fully understood...
  90. Ming H, Zhu L, Zhang Y. Rapid quantification of infectious enterovirus from surface water in Bohai Bay, China using an integrated cell culture-qPCR assay. Mar Pollut Bull. 2011;62:2047-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This study established a practical assay for widespread monitoring studies of aquatic environments for viral contamination and provided meaningful data for human waterborne viral risk assessment. ..