maus elberfeld virus


Summary: A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, usually causing an inapparent intestinal infection in mice. A small number of mice may show signs of flaccid paralysis.

Top Publications

  1. Prayoonwiwat N, Rodriguez M. The potential for oligodendrocyte proliferation during demyelinating disease. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1993;52:55-63 pubmed
    ..These experiments support the hypothesis that factors within a demyelinating lesion promote the proliferation and differentiation of cells within the oligodendroglial lineage. ..
  2. Pritchard A, Jensen K, Lipton H. Assembly of Theiler's virus recombinants used in mapping determinants of neurovirulence. J Virol. 1993;67:3901-7 pubmed
    ..The source of sequences, BeAn or GDVII, in the 5' noncoding region had only slight effects on the virulence of recombinant constructs. ..
  3. Sato H, Wananabe Y, Miyata H. Virucidal effect of ozone treatment of laboratory animal viruses. Jikken Dobutsu. 1990;39:223-9 pubmed
    ..The ozonization method may be a good way to disinfect not only for the laboratory animal RNA-viruses (both of enveloped and unenveloped viruses) but also animal rooms, clean rooms and even safety cabinets. ..
  4. Brownstein D, Bhatt P, Ardito R, Paturzo F, Johnson E. Duration and patterns of transmission of Theiler's mouse encephalomyelitis virus infection. Lab Anim Sci. 1989;39:299-301 pubmed
    ..Seven index mice were treated with cyclophosphamide or hydrocortisone 30 weeks post-inoculation. One cyclophosphamide treated mouse reinitiated virus shedding. ..
  5. McAllister A, Tangy F, Aubert C, Brahic M. Molecular cloning of the complete genome of Theiler's virus, strain DA, and production of infectious transcripts. Microb Pathog. 1989;7:381-8 pubmed
    ..At this stage no RNA or antigens were found in neurons. Therefore the phenotype of R1-DA was indistinguishable from that of genuine DA Theiler's virus. ..
  6. Peterson J, Miller S, Waltenbaugh C. Rapid biotin-avidin method for quantitation of antiviral antibody isotypes. J Virol Methods. 1990;27:189-201 pubmed
    ..Immunoglobulin of all serum isotypes as well as the amount of virus-specific isotypes can be quantitated rapidly and accurately. ..
  7. Schmeisser H, Mejido J, Balinsky C, Morrow A, Clark C, Zhao T, et al. Identification of alpha interferon-induced genes associated with antiviral activity in Daudi cells and characterization of IFIT3 as a novel antiviral gene. J Virol. 2010;84:10671-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcription of AV genes after the treatment of cells with higher concentrations of IFN having an AP effect on Daudi cells suggested pleiotropic functions of identified gene products. ..
  8. Ozden S, Aubert C, Gonzalez Dunia D, Brahic M. In situ analysis of proteolipid protein gene transcripts during persistent Theiler's virus infection. J Histochem Cytochem. 1991;39:1305-9 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that viral infection of oligodendrocytes reduces the level of PLP mRNA by about 80%. ..
  9. Rodriguez M, Patick A, Pease L, David C. Role of T cell receptor V beta genes in Theiler's virus-induced demyelination of mice. J Immunol. 1992;148:921-7 pubmed
    ..These experiments provide strong evidence that the structural diversity at the TCR beta-complex can influence susceptibility to virus-induced demyelination. ..

More Information


  1. Rodriguez M, Lucchinetti C, Clark R, Yakash T, Markowitz H, Lennon V. Immunoglobulins and complement in demyelination induced in mice by Theiler's virus. J Immunol. 1988;140:800-6 pubmed
    ..However, the humoral immune response directed at TMEV antigens may either limit virus spread or promote virus persistence. ..
  2. Kaminski A, Hunt S, Patton J, Jackson R. Direct evidence that polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) is essential for internal initiation of translation of encephalomyocarditis virus RNA. RNA. 1995;1:924-38 pubmed
    ..Therefore, PTB is not a universal internal initiation factor that is indispensable in every case of internal ribosome entry. ..
  3. Fujinami R, Zurbriggen A, Powell H. Monoclonal antibody defines determinant between Theiler's virus and lipid-like structures. J Neuroimmunol. 1988;20:25-32 pubmed
    ..Thus, an immune response generated by virus that cross-reacts with a myelin element such as galactocerebroside could play a role in directing autoimmune processes toward myelin destruction. ..
  4. Peterson J, Karpus W, Clatch R, Miller S. Split tolerance of Th1 and Th2 cells in tolerance to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. Eur J Immunol. 1993;23:46-55 pubmed
  5. Clatch R, Miller S, Metzner R, Dal Canto M, Lipton H. Monocytes/macrophages isolated from the mouse central nervous system contain infectious Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV). Virology. 1990;176:244-54 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these findings, limited replication in macrophages is consistent with the total CNS virus content detected at any time during the persistent phase of the infection as well as the slow pace of the infection. ..
  6. Rodriguez M, Siegel L, Hovanec Burns D, Bologa L, Graves M. Theiler's virus-associated antigens on the surfaces of cultured glial cells. Virology. 1988;166:463-74 pubmed
    ..The finding is consistent with the hypothesis that demyelination follows damage of infected oligodendrocytes by immune cells or immunoglobulins that recognize surface virus antigen. ..
  7. Love S. Distribution of Theiler's virus in the CNS of athymic nude mice: effect of varying the route of inoculation. J Neurol Sci. 1987;81:55-66 pubmed
    ..o. inoculation. The localization of Theiler's virus within certain regions of the CNS seems to depend on differential susceptibility to infection or differential restriction of replication rather than on the route of inoculation. ..
  8. Hirasawa K, Jun H, Han H, Zhang M, Hollenberg M, Yoon J. Prevention of encephalomyocarditis virus-induced diabetes in mice by inhibition of the tyrosine kinase signalling pathway and subsequent suppression of nitric oxide production in macrophages. J Virol. 1999;73:8541-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that EMC-D virus-induced activation of macrophages resulting in macrophage-mediated beta-cell destruction can be prevented by the inhibition of a tyrosine kinase signalling pathway involved in macrophage activation. ..
  9. Scheu A, Rubio N. Characterization of the specific meningeal T cell response to intracerebral inoculation of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. J Neuroimmunol. 1991;31:229-34 pubmed
    ..This response indicated that leptomeningeal mononuclear cell infiltrations are involved in the immune response that triggers the demyelinating disease. ..
  10. Rubio N, Cuesta A. Lack of cross-reaction between myelin basic proteins and putative demyelinating virus envelope proteins. Mol Immunol. 1989;26:663-8 pubmed
    ..In the human situation, antibodies against SV5 and measles viruses, both etiologically linked with multiple sclerosis, also failed to recognize MBP. These results rule out molecular mimicry as a cause of demyelination...
  11. Borrow P, Nash A. Susceptibility to Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease correlates with astrocyte class II induction and antigen presentation. Immunology. 1992;76:133-9 pubmed
  12. Pena Rossi C, McAllister A, Fiette L, Brahic M. Theiler's virus infection induces a specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response. Cell Immunol. 1991;138:341-8 pubmed
    ..The cytotoxic activity was Theiler's-virus specific. It was for the most part mediated by CD8+ T lymphocytes and H-2 restricted. This is the first demonstration that a specific CTL response is generated during Theiler's virus infection. ..
  13. Kong W, Ghadge G, Roos R. Involvement of cardiovirus leader in host cell-restricted virus expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:1796-800 pubmed
    ..The functions of L, and even its presence within the genome, vary among picornaviruses, reflecting the various requirements for viral growth among different host cells. ..
  14. Cash E, Bandeira A, Chirinian S, Brahic M. Characterization of B lymphocytes present in the demyelinating lesions induced by Theiler's virus. J Immunol. 1989;143:984-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is likely that Igs secreted at the site of infection play a role in limiting virus spread. It is also possible that virus induced autoreactive antibodies participate in demyelination. ..
  15. Rozengurt N, Sanchez S. A spontaneous outbreak of Theiler's encephalomyelitis in a colony of severe combined immunodeficient mice in the UK. Lab Anim. 1993;27:229-34 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of this disease in SCID mice and, to our knowledge, also the first reported outbreak of Theiler's encephalomyelitis in the UK. ..
  16. Fu J, Stein S, Rosenstein L, Bodwell T, Routbort M, Semler B, et al. Neurovirulence determinants of genetically engineered Theiler viruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:4125-9 pubmed
    ..Genomic sequences 5' to this region of GDVII RNA also contribute to expression of the full neurovirulence phenotype. These data demonstrate the multigenic nature of TMEV neurovirulence, as has been reported for other viruses. ..
  17. Rozengurt N, Sanchez S. Vacuolar neuronal degeneration in the ventral horns of SCID mice in naturally occurring Theiler's encephalomyelitis. J Comp Pathol. 1992;107:389-98 pubmed
    ..The clinical and pathological features of this outbreak indicate that the SCID mouse would be a much improved model for studying the mechanism of poliovirus infection and of virus-induced demyelinating diseases. ..
  18. Peterson J, Waltenbaugh C, Miller S. IgG subclass responses to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection and immunization suggest a dominant role for Th1 cells in susceptible mouse strains. Immunology. 1992;75:652-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the antivirus IgG subclass profile is dependent upon the immunization route, virus viability and/or the use of adjuvant and that the levels of antivirus subclasses may be predictive of disease susceptibility. ..
  19. Rodriguez M. Immunoglobulins stimulate central nervous system remyelination: electron microscopic and morphometric analysis of proliferating cells. Lab Invest. 1991;64:358-70 pubmed
    ..These experiments suggest that immunoglobulins to a spinal cord antigen may induce proliferation of cells in the central nervous system to promote remyelination. ..
  20. Pullen L, Miller S, Dal Canto M, Kim B. Class I-deficient resistant mice intracerebrally inoculated with Theiler's virus show an increased T cell response to viral antigens and susceptibility to demyelination. Eur J Immunol. 1993;23:2287-93 pubmed
  21. Sierra A, Rubio N. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus induces tumour necrosis factor-alpha in murine astrocyte cell cultures. Immunology. 1993;78:399-404 pubmed
    ..These results indicate an active role for astrocytes as accessory immune cells in our experimental model for multiple sclerosis. ..
  22. Fiette L, Aubert C, Brahic M, Rossi C. Theiler's virus infection of beta 2-microglobulin-deficient mice. J Virol. 1993;67:589-92 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that CD8+ T cells are required to clear Theiler's virus infection. In contrast with a current hypothesis, they also demonstrate that CD8+ T cells are not major mediators of the demyelinating disease. ..
  23. Rodriguez M, Nickerson C, Patick A, David C. Expression of human HLA-B27 transgene alters susceptibility to murine Theiler's virus-induced demyelination. J Immunol. 1991;146:2596-602 pubmed
    ..These experiments demonstrate that expression of a human class I MHC gene can modulate a virus-induced demyelinating disease process in the mouse. ..
  24. Yamada M, Zurbriggen A, Fujinami R. The relationship between viral RNA, myelin-specific mRNAs, and demyelination in central nervous system disease during Theiler's virus infection. Am J Pathol. 1990;137:1467-79 pubmed
  25. Kurtz C, Sun X, Fujinami R. Protection of SJL/J mice from demyelinating disease mediated by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. Microb Pathog. 1995;18:11-27 pubmed
  26. Paya C, Patick A, Leibson P, Rodriguez M. Role of natural killer cells as immune effectors in encephalitis and demyelination induced by Theiler's virus. J Immunol. 1989;143:95-102 pubmed
    ..1- NK cells, or other activated lymphocytes may be critical in resistance/susceptibility to demyelination. ..
  27. Rubio N, Capa L. Differential IL-1 synthesis by astrocytes from Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-susceptible and -resistant strains of mice. Cell Immunol. 1993;149:237-47 pubmed
  28. Sim I, Cerruti R. Recombinant interferons alpha and gamma: comparative antiviral activity and synergistic interaction in encephalomyocarditis virus infection of mice. Antiviral Res. 1987;8:209-21 pubmed
    ..When interferons alpha and gamma were administered in combination to mice, a marked synergistic antiviral effect was observed. ..
  29. Zurbriggen A, Thomas C, Yamada M, Roos R, Fujinami R. Direct evidence of a role for amino acid 101 of VP-1 in central nervous system disease in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection. J Virol. 1991;65:1929-37 pubmed
    ..Thus, we demonstrated that the single nucleotide change resulting in an amino acid substitution at position 101 (threonine to isoleucine) of VP-1 determines one aspect of Theiler's virus persistence and disease in mice. ..
  30. Ohara Y, Konno H, Iwasaki Y, Yamamoto T, Terunuma H, Suzuki H. Cytotropism of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis viruses in oligodendrocyte-enriched cultures. Arch Virol. 1990;114:293-8 pubmed
  31. Rodriguez M, Roos R. Pathogenesis of early and late disease in mice infected with Theiler's virus, using intratypic recombinant GDVII/DA viruses. J Virol. 1992;66:217-25 pubmed
    ..However, quantitative analysis of demyelination produced by recombinant GDVII/DA viruses suggest that multiple gene segments influence the number and extent of demyelinating lesions. ..
  32. Kilpatrick D, Lipton H. Predominant binding of Theiler's viruses to a 34-kilodalton receptor protein on susceptible cell lines. J Virol. 1991;65:5244-9 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that a 34-kDa cellular protein may be the primary determinant of susceptibility to TMEV infection by mediating the binding of GDVII and BeAn viruses to susceptible cells. ..
  33. Rodriguez M, Lindsley M, Pierce M. Role of T cells in resistance to Theiler's virus infection. Microb Pathog. 1991;11:269-81 pubmed
    ..However, subsequent spinal cord demyelination, to the extent observed in susceptible mice, depends on the presence of virus antigen persistence and a competent cellular immune response. ..
  34. Hamo L, Stohlman S, Otto Duessel M, Bergmann C. Distinct regulation of MHC molecule expression on astrocytes and microglia during viral encephalomyelitis. Glia. 2007;55:1169-77 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, prolonged MHC expression subsequent to viral clearance implies a potential for ongoing presentation. ..
  35. Rubio N, Cuesta A. Receptors for Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus: characterization by using rabbit antiviral antiserum. J Virol. 1988;62:4303-6 pubmed
    ..Cell surface receptors were still active after fixation, and only intact viruses were bound, as demonstrated by the lack of binding of the purified, isolated virion proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3. ..
  36. Altintas A, Cai Z, Pease L, Rodriguez M. Differential expression of H-2K and H-2D in the central nervous system of mice infected with Theiler's virus. J Immunol. 1993;151:2803-12 pubmed
    ..These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in gene regulation may account for different roles of the K and D loci play in determining resistance and susceptibility to TMEV-induced demyelinating disease. ..
  37. Rodriguez M, Prayoonwiwat N, Zhou P, David C. Expression of T cell receptor V beta transcripts in central nervous system of mice susceptible and resistant to Theiler's virus-induced demyelination. J Neuroimmunol. 1993;47:95-100 pubmed
  38. Clatch R, Pevear D, Rozhon E, Roos R, Miller S, Lipton H. Characterization and specificity of humoral immune responses to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus capsid proteins. J Gen Virol. 1987;68 ( Pt 12):3191-6 pubmed
  39. Philip J, Xu Z, Bowles N, Vallejo J. Cardiac-specific overexpression of melanoma differentiation-associated gene-5 protects mice from lethal viral myocarditis. Circ Heart Fail. 2013;6:326-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, αMHC-MDA5 mice were protected against EMCV-induced myocardial dysfunction. Our data suggest that myocardial MDA5 may be a key molecule in protecting the heart from direct viral injury and myocardial dysfunction. ..
  40. Fotiadis C, Kilpatrick D, Lipton H. Comparison of the binding characteristics to BHK-21 cells of viruses representing the two Theiler's virus neurovirulence groups. Virology. 1991;182:365-70 pubmed
    ..These results suggest members of the two TMEV virulence groups share a common receptor but bind it differently. ..
  41. Kong W, Roos R. Alternative translation initiation site in the DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. J Virol. 1991;65:3395-9 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that the DA strain uses an alternative initiation site and reading frame to in vitro synthesize l. l may have a role in the biological activity of the virus. ..
  42. Patick A, Pease L, David C, Rodriguez M. Major histocompatibility complex-conferred resistance to Theiler's virus-induced demyelinating disease is inherited as a dominant trait in B10 congenic mice. J Virol. 1990;64:5570-6 pubmed
  43. Zurbriggen A, Fujinami R. A neutralization-resistant Theiler's virus variant produces an altered disease pattern in the mouse central nervous system. J Virol. 1989;63:1505-13 pubmed
    ..Virus which was isolated from variant virus-infected mice still retained the neutralization-resistant phenotype. These studies emphasize the important biological in vivo activity of Theiler's virus VP-1 in determining neurovirulence. ..
  44. Rubio N, De Felipe C, Torres C. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-binding activity on neural and non-neural cell lines and tissues. J Gen Virol. 1990;71 ( Pt 12):2867-72 pubmed
    ..The number of virus-binding sites in the BHK-21 cell line is reported here to be 5 x 10(3) per cell; approximately 15 x 10(3) and 2.5 x 10(3) are the estimates of binding sites per cultured neuron and macroglial cell, respectively. ..
  45. Rodriguez M, Patick A, Pease L. Abrogation of resistance to Theiler's virus-induced demyelination in C57BL mice by total body irradiation. J Neuroimmunol. 1990;26:189-99 pubmed
  46. Melvold R, Jokinen D, Miller S, Dal Canto M, Lipton H. Identification of a locus on mouse chromosome 3 involved in differential susceptibility to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease. J Virol. 1990;64:686-90 pubmed
  47. Rossi C, Cash E, Aubert C, Coutinho A. Role of the humoral immune response in resistance to Theiler's virus infection. J Virol. 1991;65:3895-9 pubmed
    ..The B-cell response was found to be partly T cell independent. These results suggest an important role of the early humoral immune response in resistance to Theiler's virus-induced disease. ..
  48. Bandyopadhyay P, Wang C, Lipton H. Cap-independent translation by the 5' untranslated region of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. J Virol. 1992;66:6249-56 pubmed
    ..Analysis of luciferase translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate suggests that the 3' end of the translation initiation signal lies between nucleotides 1043 and 1053. ..
  49. Wada Y, Fujinami R. Viral infection and dissemination through the olfactory pathway and the limbic system by Theiler's virus. Am J Pathol. 1993;143:221-9 pubmed
    ..In the spinal cord, not only neuronal but hematogenous pathways were suspected to be involved in the dissemination of Theiler's virus. ..
  50. Rodriguez M. Mechanisms of virus-induced demyelination and remyelination. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1988;540:240-51 pubmed
    ..Isolation, purification, and characterization of factors that promote remyelination and proliferation of oligodendrocytes may provide hope in the treatment of patients with chronic demyelinating disorders. ..
  51. Bureau J, Montagutelli X, Lefebvre S, Guenet J, Pla M, Brahic M. The interaction of two groups of murine genes determines the persistence of Theiler's virus in the central nervous system. J Virol. 1992;66:4698-704 pubmed
    ..One locus is localized in the H-2D region of the major histocompatibility complex, whereas the other locus is outside this complex and is not linked to the Tcrb locus on chromosome 6. ..
  52. Mulvey M, Fang H, Scraba D. Purification and characterization of the U-particle, a cellular constituent whose synthesis is stimulated by Mengovirus infection. Arch Virol Suppl. 1994;9:299-306 pubmed
    ..U-particles are capable of inhibiting mRNA translation in vitro...
  53. Ozden S, Aubert C, Brahic M. Expression of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus protease 3C and polymerase 3D in Escherichia coli and characterization of monospecific sera. Virology. 1988;165:596-600 pubmed
    ..Sera monospecific for the viral protease 3C and polymerase 3D were obtained. These sera detected their corresponding antigens in situ in infected BHK cells using immunocytochemical reactions. ..
  54. Pevear D, Borkowski J, Calenoff M, Oh C, Ostrowski B, Lipton H. Insights into Theiler's virus neurovirulence based on a genomic comparison of the neurovirulent GDVII and less virulent BeAn strains. Virology. 1988;165:1-12 pubmed
  55. Doi K, Matsuzaki H, Tsuda T, Onodera T. Rapid development of renal lesions in diabetic DBA mice infected with the D-variant of encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC-D). Br J Exp Pathol. 1989;70:275-81 pubmed
    ..The EMC-D-infected DBA mouse appears to be a useful experimental model for the study of human diabetic nephropathy. ..
  56. Gronowski A, Hilbert D, Sheehan K, Garotta G, Schreiber R. Baculovirus stimulates antiviral effects in mammalian cells. J Virol. 1999;73:9944-51 pubmed
    ..Baculoviruses, therefore, provide a novel model in which to study at least one alternative mechanism for IFN induction in mammalian cells. ..
  57. Miyamae T. Dose-dependent transplacental infection of murine encephalomyelitis virus GDVII in gravid uterus. Microbiol Immunol. 1990;34:841-8 pubmed
    ..5 MLD50 brought about still higher detection rates of viral antigen, as well as in the postpartum uteri. In effect, transplacental transmission of the virus was clearly demonstrated, and appeared to be dose-dependent. ..
  58. Peterson J, Kim J, Melvold R, Miller S, Waltenbaugh C. A rapid method for quantitation of antiviral antibodies. J Immunol Methods. 1989;119:83-94 pubmed
    ..Thus fluid-phase PCFIA is a rapid and efficient immunoassay with excellent reproducibility and great versatility. ..
  59. Rodriguez M, Pedrinaci S, David C. Human class I major histocompatibility complex transgene prevents virus-induced demyelination in susceptible mutant B10.D2dml mice. Ann Neurol. 1993;33:208-12 pubmed
    ..These experiments demonstrate that transgenic expression of a human class I major histocompatibility complex locus molecule can prevent demyelination induced by a virus in mutant mice. ..
  60. Aubert C, Ozden S. Comparison of the sensitivities of ribonucleic acid and oligonucleotide probes for in situ detection of Theiler's virus mRNA. J Histochem Cytochem. 1993;41:1099-103 pubmed
    ..With long exposure times, the background was higher with the oligonucleotide probe than with the RNA probe. The background was improved by using freshly labeled oligonucleotide probe. ..
  61. Jiang L. [Technical study on inactivating/removing virus in collagen sponge]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2013;27:885-8 pubmed
    ..60Co radiation 25 kGy of collagen sponge derived from bovine Achilles tendon can be used as the technics of inactivating/removing virus during the preparation process of collagen sponge to guarantee the safety of the product. ..
  62. Bandyopadhyay P, Pritchard A, Jensen K, Lipton H. A three-nucleotide insertion in the H stem-loop of the 5' untranslated region of Theiler's virus attenuates neurovirulence. J Virol. 1993;67:3691-5 pubmed
    ..The reduced neurovirulence of Chi-VL(IN668) may be ascribed to its reduced growth in the central nervous system, most likely due to an impaired ability to synthesize viral proteins. ..
  63. Descoteaux J. [Serological study of the incidence of murine viruses in a population of small wild rodents (Microtus pennsylvanicus Ord, 1815)]. Rev Sci Tech. 1992;11:1071-7 pubmed
    ..The significant increase in the number of individuals possessing specific antibodies suggests that these viruses, or related viruses, may be responsible for the decline in the population studied. ..
  64. Rodriguez M, Lindsley M. Immunosuppression promotes CNS remyelination in chronic virus-induced demyelinating disease. Neurology. 1992;42:348-57 pubmed
    ..Interference with the function of immune T cells enhances CNS remyelination by oligodendrocytes. Similar depletion of immune T cells may allow for enhanced remyelination in the CNS of patients with chronic multiple sclerosis. ..
  65. Patick A, Oleszak E, Leibowitz J, Rodriguez M. Persistent infection of a glioma cell line generates a Theiler's virus variant which fails to induce demyelinating disease in SJL/J mice. J Gen Virol. 1990;71 ( Pt 9):2123-32 pubmed
    ..Characterization of the biochemical and molecular determinants of the variant will lead to a better understanding of determinants important in viral persistence. ..
  66. Koopman J, van der Logt J, Heessen F, Van den Brink M, Scholten P, Hectors M, et al. Elimination of murine viral pathogens from the caecal contents of mice by anaerobic preparation. Lab Anim. 1989;23:76-80 pubmed
  67. Roos R, Kong W, Semler B. Polyprotein processing of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. J Virol. 1989;63:5344-53 pubmed
    ..Our findings are relevant to ongoing investigations of the abnormal virus expression seen in DA virus late demyelinating disease, since polyprotein processing is critical in regulating picornaviral gene expression. ..
  68. Wleklik M, Panasiak W, Luczak M, Konopinska D. Tuftsin a natural peptide with antiviral activity--structural basis of its action. Acta Virol. 1988;32:79-82 pubmed
    ..It seems that amino acids elongation in the parent peptide chain does not result in significant increase of antiviral activity of the compounds tested. ..
  69. Blakemore W, Welsh C, Tonks P, Nash A. Observations on demyelinating lesions induced by Theiler's virus in CBA mice. Acta Neuropathol. 1988;76:581-9 pubmed
    ..Our observations indicate that cells of the immune system may play a role in the initiation of virus replication which appears to be a prerequisite for demyelination. ..
  70. Ozden S, Aubert C, Bureau J, Gonzalez Dunia D, Brahic M. Analysis of proteolipid protein and P0 transcripts in mice infected with Theiler's virus. Microb Pathog. 1993;14:123-31 pubmed
    ..It is likely that intense inflammation in highly susceptible strains prevents the migration of Schwann cells into the central nervous system (CNS). ..
  71. Clatch R, Lipton H, Miller S. Class II-restricted T cell responses in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV)-induced demyelinating disease. II. Survey of host immune responses and central nervous system virus titers in inbred mouse strains. Microb Pathog. 1987;3:327-37 pubmed
  72. Pritchard A, Calenoff M, Simpson S, Jensen K, Lipton H. A single base deletion in the 5' noncoding region of Theiler's virus attenuates neurovirulence. J Virol. 1992;66:1951-8 pubmed
    ..The attenuating deletions are discussed in the context of these sequences and the proposed secondary structures for the 5' noncoding region. ..
  73. Gerety S, Clatch R, Lipton H, Goswami R, Rundell M, Miller S. Class II-restricted T cell responses in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease. IV. Identification of an immunodominant T cell determinant on the N-terminal end of the VP2 capsid protein in susceptible SJL/J mice. J Immunol. 1991;146:2401-8 pubmed
  74. Sebeka H, Starkuviene B, Trepsiene O, Pauliukonis A, Bumelis V. Comparative effects of stabilizing additives on the rates of heat inactivation of recombinant human interferon alpha-2b in solution. Antiviral Res. 2001;50:117-27 pubmed
    ..Amino acids, polyhydric alcohols and disaccharides increased t(1/2) values by 4-11-, 2-8- and 3-8-fold, respectively. These data provide useful information for the selection of stabilizing additives for IFN-alpha2b formulations. ..
  75. Rodriguez M, Leibowitz J, Lampert P. Persistent infection of oligodendrocytes in Theiler's virus-induced encephalomyelitis. Ann Neurol. 1983;13:426-33 pubmed
    ..The findings indicate that TMEV induces persistent infection of oligodendrocytes which could then become the target of immune-mediated injury resulting in demyelination. ..
  76. Calenoff M, Faaberg K, Lipton H. Genomic regions of neurovirulence and attenuation in Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:978-82 pubmed
    ..Neurovirulence mapped primarily to the L/P1 region encoding the leader and coat proteins. Depending on parental origin, the 5' noncoding region either influenced virus attenuation or augmented virulence. ..
  77. Crane M, Yauch R, Dal Canto M, Kim B. Effect of immunization with Theiler's virus on the course of demyelinating disease. J Neuroimmunol. 1993;45:67-73 pubmed
    ..Thus, this system offers a model for studying viral capsid proteins and/or epitopes which are involved in either protection from disease or immune-mediated pathogenesis leading to myelin destruction in susceptible mice. ..
  78. Roos R, Stein S, Ohara Y, Fu J, Semler B. Infectious cDNA clones of the DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. J Virol. 1989;63:5492-6 pubmed
    ..The infectious clone provides a critical reagent for the production of interstrain recombinant viruses to help identify genetic loci responsible for the biological activities of the strains. ..
  79. Ohara Y, Stein S, Fu J, Stillman L, Klaman L, Roos R. Molecular cloning and sequence determination of DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis viruses. Virology. 1988;164:245-55 pubmed
    ..The three overlapping clones will be important in recombinant infectious cDNA studies between strains of both subgroups. ..
  80. Law K, Brown T. The complete nucleotide sequence of the GDVII strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV). Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:6707-8 pubmed
  81. Zurbriggen A, Hogle J, Fujinami R. Alteration of amino acid 101 within capsid protein VP-1 changes the pathogenicity of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus. J Exp Med. 1989;170:2037-49 pubmed
    ..The results of ELISA, neutralization assay, and direct RNA sequencing provide for the first time an opportunity to precisely map an important structural determinant of neurovirulence. ..
  82. Zurbriggen A, Yamada M, Thomas C, Fujinami R. Restricted virus replication in the spinal cords of nude mice infected with a Theiler's virus variant. J Virol. 1991;65:1023-30 pubmed
  83. Fujinami R, Zurbriggen A. Is Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection of mice an autoimmune disease?. APMIS. 1989;97:1-8 pubmed
    ..This region is associated with diabetes in humans (Todd et al. 1988). Thus, many factors are involved in the outcome of disease induction by viruses of which autoimmunity is one. ..
  84. Pachner A, Li L, Narayan K. Intrathecal antibody production in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2007;185:57-63 pubmed
    ..This study provides the first extensive analysis of ITAbP in TMEV infection, and demonstrates that, in this animal model of MS, antibody production within the CNS is likely driven by the presence of the causative pathogen. ..
  85. Lindsley M, Thiemann R, Rodriguez M. Cytotoxic T cells isolated from the central nervous systems of mice infected with Theiler's virus. J Virol. 1991;65:6612-20 pubmed
    ..Anti-TMEV CTLs in the CNS of chronically infected SJL/J mice may play a role in demyelination through their ability to lyse TMEV-infected glial cells. ..
  86. Aubert C, Chamorro M, Brahic M. Identification of Theiler's virus infected cells in the central nervous system of the mouse during demyelinating disease. Microb Pathog. 1987;3:319-26 pubmed
    ..We found that, depending on the animal, approximately 10% of infected cells were migroglia-macrophages, 5 to 10% were astrocytes and 25 to 40% were oligodendrocytes. Approximately half of the infected cells could not be identified. ..