foot and mouth disease virus


Summary: The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.

Top Publications

  1. Harwood L, Gerber H, Sobrino F, Summerfield A, McCullough K. Dendritic cell internalization of foot-and-mouth disease virus: influence of heparan sulfate binding on virus uptake and induction of the immune response. J Virol. 2008;82:6379-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Both non-HS-binding virus and infectious RNA interacting with DC induce specific immune responses, albeit less efficiently than HS-binding virus. ..
  2. Challa S, Barrette R, Rood D, Zinckgraf J, French R, Silbart L. Non-toxic Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A expressing the FMDV VP1 G-H loop for mucosal vaccination of swine against foot and mouth disease virus. Vaccine. 2007;25:3328-37 pubmed
    Synthetic peptides derived from the G-H loop of the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid protein VP1 are relatively poor at recapitulating the native conformation present in the virus, and thus are often poor immunogens...
  3. Jin H, Xiao C, Zhao G, Du X, Yu Y, Kang Y, et al. Induction of immature dendritic cell apoptosis by foot and mouth disease virus is an integrin receptor mediated event before viral infection. J Cell Biochem. 2007;102:980-91 pubmed
    b>Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been demonstrated to infect dendritic cells (DC) and reduced its ability to stimulate host immune responses...
  4. Lentz E, Segretin M, Morgenfeld M, Wirth S, Dus Santos M, Mozgovoj M, et al. High expression level of a foot and mouth disease virus epitope in tobacco transplastomic plants. Planta. 2010;231:387-95 pubmed publisher
    ..highly immunogenic epitope containing amino acid residues 135-160 of the structural protein VP1 of the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV)...
  5. Rufael T, Catley A, Bogale A, Sahle M, Shiferaw Y. Foot and mouth disease in the Borana pastoral system, southern Ethiopia and implications for livelihoods and international trade. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2008;40:29-38 pubmed
    ..2%), A (95.8%), SAT 2 (80%) and C (67.5%). The endemic nature of FMD in Borana pastoral herds is discussed in terms of the direct household-level impact of the disease, and the increasing export of cattle and chilled beef from Ethiopia...
  6. Sanz Ramos M, Diaz San Segundo F, Escarmis C, Domingo E, Sevilla N. Hidden virulence determinants in a viral quasispecies in vivo. J Virol. 2008;82:10465-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to providing evidence of hidden virulence determinants, this study underlines the capacity of a clone of an RNA virus to rapidly diversify phenotypically in vivo. ..
  7. Ferris N, King D, Reid S, Shaw A, Hutchings G. Comparisons of original laboratory results and retrospective analysis by real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR of virological samples collected from confirmed cases of foot-and-mouth disease in the UK in 2001. Vet Rec. 2006;159:373-8 pubmed
    ..No evidence of FMD virus, antibody or nucleic acid was found in approximately 23 per cent (390 of 1730) of IPs from which samples were received, suggesting that the incidence of FMD during the outbreak may have been over-reported. ..
  8. Capozzo A, Martínez M, Schielen W. Development of an in process control filtration-assisted chemiluminometric immunoassay to quantify foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) non-capsid proteins in vaccine-antigen batches. Vaccine. 2010;28:6647-52 pubmed publisher
    ..FAL-ELISA is an alternative for the in vivo tests, observing the objective to Replace, Reduce and Refine the use of animals for quality control of immunobiologicals. ..
  9. Herrera M, García Arriaza J, Pariente N, Escarmis C, Domingo E. Molecular basis for a lack of correlation between viral fitness and cell killing capacity. PLoS Pathog. 2007;3:e53 pubmed
    ..This lack of correlation is relevant to current models of attenuation and virulence in that virus de-adaptation need not entail a decrease of virulence. ..

More Information


  1. Nayak A, Goodfellow I, Woolaway K, Birtley J, Curry S, Belsham G. Role of RNA structure and RNA binding activity of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3C protein in VPg uridylylation and virus replication. J Virol. 2006;80:9865-75 pubmed
    ..These residues within 3C are also essential for VPg uridylylation activity and efficient virus replication. ..
  2. Perales C, Agudo R, Domingo E. Counteracting quasispecies adaptability: extinction of a ribavirin-resistant virus mutant by an alternative mutagenic treatment. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5554 pubmed publisher
    ..iii) Extinction of the mutagen-resistant variant can be achieved by a sequential treatment of a high dose of the same mutagen, followed by a combination of another mutagen with an antiviral inhibitor. ..
  3. García Arriaza J, Ojosnegros S, Dávila M, Domingo E, Escarmis C. Dynamics of mutation and recombination in a replicating population of complementing, defective viral genomes. J Mol Biol. 2006;360:558-72 pubmed
    ..The results extend the concept of a complex spectrum of mutant genomes to a complex spectrum of defective genomes in some evolutionary transitions of RNA viruses...
  4. Ruiz Saenz J, Goez Y, Tabares W, López Herrera A. Cellular receptors for foot and mouth disease virus. Intervirology. 2009;52:201-12 pubmed publisher
  5. Oem J, Yeh M, Mckenna T, Hayes J, Rieder E, Giuffre A, et al. Pathogenic characteristics of the Korean 2002 isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O in pigs and cattle. J Comp Pathol. 2008;138:204-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The porcinophilic character of O/TAW/97 has been attributed to a deletion in the 3A coding region of the viral genome. However, O/SKR/AS/2002 has an intact 3A coding region...
  6. Ferrer Orta C, Arias A, Perez Luque R, Escarmis C, Domingo E, Verdaguer N. Sequential structures provide insights into the fidelity of RNA replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:9463-8 pubmed
    ..The structures identify key interactions involved in viral RNA replication and provide insights into the molecular basis of the low fidelity of viral RNA polymerases. ..
  7. Grubman M, Moraes M, Diaz San Segundo F, Pena L, de Los Santos T. Evading the host immune response: how foot-and-mouth disease virus has become an effective pathogen. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2008;53:8-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the interaction of FMDV with various cells in the immune system including lymphocytes and dendritic cells and the possible role of apoptosis and autophagy in these interactions are discussed...
  8. Pengyan W, Jianjun J, Ning L, Jinliang S, Yan R, Chuangfu C, et al. Transgenic mouse model integrating siRNA targeting the foot and mouth disease virus. Antiviral Res. 2010;87:265-8 pubmed publisher
    ..interfering RNAs (siRNAs) specifically targeting homogenous 3D and 2B1 regions of 7 serotypes of the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) and tested the ability of siRNAs to inhibit virus replication in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) ..
  9. Wang X, Zhang X, Kang Y, Jin H, Du X, Zhao G, et al. Interleukin-15 enhance DNA vaccine elicited mucosal and systemic immunity against foot and mouth disease virus. Vaccine. 2008;26:5135-44 pubmed publisher
    Aerosol transmission of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is believed to be an important route of infection. Induction of mucosal response is thought to be effective way against such infection...
  10. Gerner W, Denyer M, Takamatsu H, Wileman T, Wiesmüller K, Pfaff E, et al. Identification of novel foot-and-mouth disease virus specific T-cell epitopes in c/c and d/d haplotype miniature swine. Virus Res. 2006;121:223-8 pubmed
    ..This is the first report on FMDV specific T-cell epitopes recognized by swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) inbred swine and provides information useful for the design of novel vaccines against FMDV...
  11. Harmsen M, van Solt C, Fijten H, van Keulen L, Rosalia R, Weerdmeester K, et al. Passive immunization of guinea pigs with llama single-domain antibody fragments against foot-and-mouth disease. Vet Microbiol. 2007;120:193-206 pubmed
    ..This lack of correlation between in vitro neutralization and in vivo protection lends further credence to the notion that opsonophagocytosis of FMDV is important for protection in vivo...
  12. Escarmis C, Lázaro E, Arias A, Domingo E. Repeated bottleneck transfers can lead to non-cytocidal forms of a cytopathic virus: implications for viral extinction. J Mol Biol. 2008;376:367-79 pubmed
    ..The results document a major phenotypic transition of a virus as a result of serial bottleneck events. ..
  13. Escarmis C, Perales C, Domingo E. Biological effect of Muller's Ratchet: distant capsid site can affect picornavirus protein processing. J Virol. 2009;83:6748-56 pubmed publisher
  14. Morioka K, Fukai K, Ohashi S, Sakamoto K, Tsuda T, Yoshida K. Comparison of the characters of the plaque-purified viruses from foot-and-mouth disease virus O/JPN/2000. J Vet Med Sci. 2008;70:653-8 pubmed
    ..1 ml. These results showed that the SPV that existed at the 2nd passage stage from isolation was a low virulence virus, which may suggest why the pathogenicity of O/JPN/2000 did not show clear symptoms in infected cattle...
  15. Perales C, Agudo R, Tejero H, Manrubia S, Domingo E. Potential benefits of sequential inhibitor-mutagen treatments of RNA virus infections. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000658 pubmed publisher
    ..The results may impact lethal mutagenesis-based protocols, as well as current antiviral therapies involving ribavirin. ..
  16. Li D, Liu Z, Sun P, Li Y, Lu Z, Tian M, et al. The efficacy of FMD vaccine reduced non-structural proteins with a mAb against 3B protein. Vet Res Commun. 2010;34:445-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings of this study suggest that it is possible to reduce NSPs using a mAb-sepharose conjugant in FMD vaccines without reducing their efficacy...
  17. Li D, Shang Y, Liu Z, Liu X, Cai X. Molecular relationships between type Asia 1 new strain from China and type O Panasia strains of foot-and-mouth-disease virus. Virus Genes. 2007;35:273-9 pubmed
  18. Batista A, Quattrocchi V, Olivera V, Langellotti C, Pappalardo J, Di Giacomo S, et al. Adjuvant effect of Cliptox on the protective immune response induced by an inactivated vaccine against foot and mouth disease virus in mice. Vaccine. 2010;28:6361-6 pubmed publisher
    Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is an acute disease caused by Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) which causes important economy losses, this is why it is necessary to obtain a vaccine that stimulates a rapid and long-lasting protective ..
  19. Orsel K, de Jong M, Bouma A, Stegeman J, Dekker A. The effect of vaccination on foot and mouth disease virus transmission among dairy cows. Vaccine. 2007;25:327-35 pubmed
    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of a single vaccination of dairy cows on foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) transmission...
  20. Orsel K, de Jong M, Bouma A, Stegeman J, Dekker A. Foot and mouth disease virus transmission among vaccinated pigs after exposure to virus shedding pigs. Vaccine. 2007;25:6381-91 pubmed
    ..According to this study a single vaccination was not sufficient to stop pig to pig virus transmission. With these results major outbreaks may still be expected, even in groups of vaccinated pigs...
  21. Klein J, Hussain M, Ahmad M, Normann P, Afzal M, Alexandersen S. Genetic characterisation of the recent foot-and-mouth disease virus subtype A/IRN/2005. Virol J. 2007;4:122 pubmed
  22. Agudo R, Arias A, Pariente N, Perales C, Escarmis C, Jorge A, et al. Molecular characterization of a dual inhibitory and mutagenic activity of 5-fluorouridine triphosphate on viral RNA synthesis. Implications for lethal mutagenesis. J Mol Biol. 2008;382:652-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The dual mutagenic and inhibitory activity of 5-fluorouridine triphosphate may contribute to the effective extinction of FMDV by 5-FU through virus entry into error catastrophe. ..
  23. Orsel K, Bouma A, Dekker A, Stegeman J, de Jong M. Foot and mouth disease virus transmission during the incubation period of the disease in piglets, lambs, calves, and dairy cows. Prev Vet Med. 2009;88:158-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that after clinical recognition of FMD, priority should be given to trace back contacts with swine and dairy farms, as they may already have been infectious in the herd's incubation period...
  24. Ren X, Xue F, Zhu Y, Tong G, Wang Y, Feng J, et al. Construction of a recombinant BHV-1 expressing the VP1 gene of foot and mouth disease virus and its immunogenicity in a rabbit model. Biotechnol Lett. 2009;31:1159-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The result indicated that the BHV-1/gE(-)/VP1 has the potential for being developed as a bivalent vaccine for FMD and IBR...
  25. Ostrowski M, Vermeulen M, Zabal O, Zamorano P, Sadir A, Geffner J, et al. The early protective thymus-independent antibody response to foot-and-mouth disease virus is mediated by splenic CD9+ B lymphocytes. J Virol. 2007;81:9357-67 pubmed
  26. Klein J, Parlak U, Ozyörük F, Christensen L. The molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes A and O from 1998 to 2004 in Turkey. BMC Vet Res. 2006;2:35 pubmed
  27. Park J, Kim S, Oem J, Lee K, Kim Y, Kye S, et al. Enhanced immune response with foot and mouth disease virus VP1 and interleukin-1 fusion genes. J Vet Sci. 2006;7:257-62 pubmed
  28. Gerner W, Carr B, Wiesmüller K, Pfaff E, Saalmuller A, Charleston B. Identification of a novel foot-and-mouth disease virus specific T-cell epitope with immunodominant characteristics in cattle with MHC serotype A31. Vet Res. 2007;38:565-72 pubmed
    ..These observations point to an immunodominant role of this epitope located on the protein 1D in cattle with MHC serotype A31...
  29. Jackson A, O NEILL H, Maree F, Blignaut B, Carrillo C, Rodriguez L, et al. Mosaic structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus genomes. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:487-92 pubmed
  30. Hartnett E, Adkin A, Seaman M, Cooper J, Watson E, Coburn H, et al. A quantitative assessment of the risks from illegally imported meat contaminated with foot and mouth disease virus to Great Britain. Risk Anal. 2007;27:187-202 pubmed
    ..0017 and 0.053. Imports from the region Near and Middle East account for 47% of this risk, and 68% of the risk is attributed to bone-in and dried de-boned products...
  31. Juleff N, Windsor M, Reid E, Seago J, Zhang Z, Monaghan P, et al. Foot-and-mouth disease virus persists in the light zone of germinal centres. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3434 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that maintenance of non-replicating FMDV in these sites represents a source of persisting infectious virus and also contributes to the generation of long-lasting antibody responses against neutralising epitopes of the virus...
  32. Tully D, Fares M. The tale of a modern animal plague: tracing the evolutionary history and determining the time-scale for foot and mouth disease virus. Virology. 2008;382:250-6 pubmed publisher
    Despite significant advances made in the understanding of its epidemiology, foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is among the most unexpected agricultural devastating plagues...
  33. Arias A, Arnold J, Sierra M, Smidansky E, Domingo E, Cameron C. Determinants of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (in)fidelity revealed by kinetic analysis of the polymerase encoded by a foot-and-mouth disease virus mutant with reduced sensitivity to ribavirin. J Virol. 2008;82:12346-55 pubmed publisher
  34. Sahle M, Dwarka R, Venter E, Vosloo W. Comparison of SAT-1 foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates obtained from East Africa between 1971 and 2000 with viruses from the rest of sub-Saharan Africa. Arch Virol. 2007;152:797-804 pubmed
    ..The amount of variation observed has significant implications for disease control on the subcontinent...
  35. Curry S, Roqué Rosell N, Zunszain P, Leatherbarrow R. Foot-and-mouth disease virus 3C protease: recent structural and functional insights into an antiviral target. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39:1-6 pubmed
  36. Orsel K, Dekker A, Bouma A, Stegeman J, de Jong M. Quantification of foot and mouth disease virus excretion and transmission within groups of lambs with and without vaccination. Vaccine. 2007;25:2673-9 pubmed
    Sheep are well known to be susceptible for foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), but it is unknown whether the infection can spread and persist in a sheep population...
  37. Cottam E, Haydon D, Paton D, Gloster J, Wilesmith J, Ferris N, et al. Molecular epidemiology of the foot-and-mouth disease virus outbreak in the United Kingdom in 2001. J Virol. 2006;80:11274-82 pubmed
    ..09. The ability to recover particular transmission pathways of acutely acting RNA pathogens from genetic data will help resolve uncertainties about how virus is spread and could help in the control of future epidemics...
  38. Valarcher J, Leforban Y, Rweyemamu M, Roeder P, Gerbier G, MacKay D, et al. Incursions of foot-and-mouth disease virus into Europe between 1985 and 2006. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2008;55:14-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The present and the future potential sources of FMD infection need to be identified to best focus European efforts...
  39. Schumann K, Knowles N, Davies P, Midgley R, Valarcher J, Raoufi A, et al. Genetic characterization and molecular epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease viruses isolated from Afghanistan in 2003-2005. Virus Genes. 2008;36:401-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Data obtained from this study provide valuable information on the FMDV serotypes circulating in Afghanistan and their genetic relationship with strains causing FMD in neighboring countries...
  40. Cencic R, Mayer C, Juliano M, Juliano L, Konrat R, Kontaxis G, et al. Investigating the substrate specificity and oligomerisation of the leader protease of foot and mouth disease virus using NMR. J Mol Biol. 2007;373:1071-87 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, differences in substrate specificity between sLbpro and Lbpro observed with an in vitro translated protein indicate some involvement of the C terminus in substrate recognition. ..
  41. Du J, Chang H, Cong G, Shao J, Lin T, Shang Y, et al. Complete nucleotide sequence of a Chinese serotype Asia1 vaccine strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus. Virus Genes. 2007;35:635-42 pubmed
    ..This study is the first description of the full-length genomic sequence of FMDV Chinese serotype Asia1. ..
  42. Zhao G, Jin H, Li J, Su B, Du X, Kang Y, et al. PyNTTTTGT prototype oligonucleotide IMT504, a novel effective adjuvant of the FMDV DNA vaccine. Viral Immunol. 2009;22:131-8 pubmed publisher
    ..At this point, the PyNTTTTGT prototype IMT504 ODN can reasonably be predicted to be a good adjuvant for FMDV DNA vaccine in small animals, but its efficacy in larger animals remains to be explored...
  43. Ayelet G, Mahapatra M, Gelaye E, Egziabher B, Rufeal T, Sahle M, et al. Genetic characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses, Ethiopia, 1981-2007. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1409-17 pubmed publisher
    ..The diversity of viruses highlights the role of this region as a reservoir for FMD virus, and their continuing emergence in Ethiopia will greatly affect spread and consequent control strategy of the disease on this continent. ..
  44. Gerner W, Hammer S, Wiesmüller K, Saalmuller A. Identification of major histocompatibility complex restriction and anchor residues of foot-and-mouth disease virus-derived bovine T-cell epitopes. J Virol. 2009;83:4039-50 pubmed publisher
  45. Rodriguez L, Grubman M. Foot and mouth disease virus vaccines. Vaccine. 2009;27 Suppl 4:D90-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These vaccines should address not only the needs of FMD-free countries but also allow the progressive global control and eradication of this devastating disease...
  46. Moffat K, Knox C, Howell G, Clark S, Yang H, Belsham G, et al. Inhibition of the secretory pathway by foot-and-mouth disease virus 2BC protein is reproduced by coexpression of 2B with 2C, and the site of inhibition is determined by the subcellular location of 2C. J Virol. 2007;81:1129-39 pubmed
    ..Thus, for FMDV a block in secretion is dependent on both 2B and 2C, with the latter determining the site of the block. ..
  47. Joyappa D, Sasi S, Ashok K, Reddy G, Suryanarayana V. The plasmid constructs producing shRNA corresponding to the conserved 3D polymerase of Foot and Mouth Disease virus protects guinea pigs against challenge virus. Vet Res Commun. 2009;33:263-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, shRNA targeting two regions of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) i.e. 3D and 5'UTR which are very essential in virus replication were evaluated...
  48. Sierra M, Airaksinen A, González López C, Agudo R, Arias A, Domingo E. Foot-and-mouth disease virus mutant with decreased sensitivity to ribavirin: implications for error catastrophe. J Virol. 2007;81:2012-24 pubmed
    ..Implications for lethal mutagenesis are discussed. ..
  49. Kim S, Lee K, Park J, Ko Y, Joo Y, Kim H, et al. Therapeutic application of RNA interference against foot-and-mouth disease virus in vitro and in vivo. Antiviral Res. 2008;80:178-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study suggest that treatment with siRNA could enhance antiviral effects and may be helpful in the control of FMDV in an outbreak...
  50. Perales C, Mateo R, Mateu M, Domingo E. Insights into RNA virus mutant spectrum and lethal mutagenesis events: replicative interference and complementation by multiple point mutants. J Mol Biol. 2007;369:985-1000 pubmed
  51. Belsham G, Normann P. Dynamics of picornavirus RNA replication within infected cells. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:485-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Even when RNA synthesis is well established, the addition of guanidine has a major impact on the level of RNA replication. Thus, the guanidine-sensitive step in RNA synthesis is important throughout the virus life cycle in cells. ..
  52. Su C, Duan X, Wang X, Wang C, Cao R, Zhou B, et al. Heterologous expression of FMDV immunodominant epitopes and HSP70 in P. pastoris and the subsequent immune response in mice. Vet Microbiol. 2007;124:256-63 pubmed
    ..The most prominent immune responses arose from vaccination with the EG-HSP70 fusion product. Both fusion protein-induced Th1-like cytokine (IFN-gamma) and Th2-like cytokine (IL-4) were identified...
  53. Grubman M, de Los Santos T. Rapid control of foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks: is RNAi a possible solution?. Trends Immunol. 2005;26:65-8 pubmed
  54. Jin H, Li Y, Ma Z, Zhang F, Xie Q, Gu D, et al. Effect of chemical adjuvants on DNA vaccination. Vaccine. 2004;22:2925-35 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate the usefulness of various chemicals, particularly levamisole, for modulating the outcome of DNA vaccination, in both the intensity of the immune response and the polarity of such response (toward Th1). ..
  55. Parida S, Oh Y, Reid S, Cox S, Statham R, Mahapatra M, et al. Interferon-gamma production in vitro from whole blood of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccinated and infected cattle after incubation with inactivated FMDV. Vaccine. 2006;24:964-9 pubmed
    ..In these studies, combining the results of the IFN-gamma assay with virus neutralising antibody titre, in groups of vaccinated animals, provided a correlation with the capacity to control virus replication after subsequent challenge. ..
  56. Diaz San Segundo F, Salguero F, de Avila A, de Marco M, Sánchez Martín M, Sevilla N. Selective lymphocyte depletion during the early stage of the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus infection in swine. J Virol. 2006;80:2369-79 pubmed
    ..These results have important implications for our understanding of early events in the development of a robust immune response against FMDV. ..
  57. Pariente N, Sierra S, Airaksinen A. Action of mutagenic agents and antiviral inhibitors on foot-and-mouth disease virus. Virus Res. 2005;107:183-93 pubmed
    ..The results presented here show entry into error catastrophe as a valid strategy for treatment of viral infections, although much work remains to be done before it can be implemented. ..
  58. Sørensen K, de Stricker K, Dyrting K, Grazioli S, Haas B. Differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus infected animals from vaccinated animals using a blocking ELISA based on baculovirus expressed FMDV 3ABC antigen and a 3ABC monoclonal antibody. Arch Virol. 2005;150:805-14 pubmed
    ..The blocking ELISA based on recombinant FMDV 3ABC antigen and a monoclonal antibody to 3ABC is a promising tool for FMD control and eradication campaigns, where vaccination has been carried out. ..
  59. Quan M, Murphy C, Zhang Z, Alexandersen S. Determinants of early foot-and-mouth disease virus dynamics in pigs. J Comp Pathol. 2004;131:294-307 pubmed
    ..Intradermal inoculation was more effective than intravenous inoculation for transmitting FMDV to pigs, resulting in shorter times to the start of active viraemia and in higher clinical scores. ..
  60. Balamurugan V, Renji R, Venkatesh G, Reddy G, Nair S, Ganesh K, et al. Protective immune response against foot-and-mouth disease virus challenge in guinea pigs vaccinated with recombinant P1 polyprotein expressed in Pichia pastoris. Arch Virol. 2005;150:967-79 pubmed
    ..The study has shown that yeast-expressed FMDV P1 polyprotein in a single dose could elicit a protective immune response in guinea pigs, and this could be a possible future vaccine candidate in homologous host. ..