Summary: A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.

Top Publications

  1. Belsham G, Sonenberg N. Picornavirus RNA translation: roles for cellular proteins. Trends Microbiol. 2000;8:330-5 pubmed
    ..The roles of cellular translation-initiation factors and other RNA-binding proteins in viral RNA-mediated protein synthesis are discussed. ..
  2. Kapoor A, Victoria J, Simmonds P, Wang C, Shafer R, Nims R, et al. A highly divergent picornavirus in a marine mammal. J Virol. 2008;82:311-20 pubmed publisher
    ..genetic divergence of SePV-1 compared to other picornaviruses and its mix of characteristics relative to its closest relatives support the provisional classification of SePV-1 as the prototype for a new genus in the family Picornaviridae.
  3. Boros A, Nemes C, Pankovics P, Kapusinszky B, Delwart E, Reuter G. Identification and complete genome characterization of a novel picornavirus in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). J Gen Virol. 2012;93:2171-82 pubmed publisher
    Members of the family Picornaviridae are important pathogens of humans and animals, although compared with the thousands of known bird species (>10?000), only a few (n?=?11) picornaviruses have been identified from avian sources...
  4. Kapoor A, Simmonds P, Lipkin W, Zaidi S, Delwart E. Use of nucleotide composition analysis to infer hosts for three novel picorna-like viruses. J Virol. 2010;84:10322-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As metagenomic analyses of different environments and organisms continue to yield highly divergent viral genomes NCA provides a rapid and robust method to identify their likely cellular hosts. ..
  5. Yang X, Cox Foster D. Impact of an ectoparasite on the immunity and pathology of an invertebrate: evidence for host immunosuppression and viral amplification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7470-5 pubmed
    ..Varroa mites may cause the serious demise of honey bees by suppressing bee immunity and by boosting the amplification of DWV in bees exposed to microbes. ..
  6. Maori E, Tanne E, Sela I. Reciprocal sequence exchange between non-retro viruses and hosts leading to the appearance of new host phenotypes. Virology. 2007;362:342-9 pubmed
    ..Similarly, host sequences were found fused to potyviral sequences, previously described integrated into their host genome. A potential, continuous RNA exchange leading to divergence is discussed. ..
  7. Barbani M, Gorgievski Hrisoho M. Rapid detection of respiratory picornaviruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates by immunofluorescence assay. J Clin Virol. 2009;45:245-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate the potential of IF-ENVPAN for the laboratory detection of respiratory picornaviruses in clinical specimens. As far as we are aware, this is the first publication of such a method. ..
  8. Florez P, Sessions O, Wagner E, Gromeier M, Garcia Blanco M. The polypyrimidine tract binding protein is required for efficient picornavirus gene expression and propagation. J Virol. 2005;79:6172-9 pubmed
    ..These data indicate a critical role for the polypyrimidine tract binding protein in picornavirus gene expression and strongly suggest a requirement for efficient IRES-dependent translation. ..
  9. Pisarev A, Chard L, Kaku Y, Johns H, Shatsky I, Belsham G. Functional and structural similarities between the internal ribosome entry sites of hepatitis C virus and porcine teschovirus, a picornavirus. J Virol. 2004;78:4487-97 pubmed
    ..Thus, there is significant functional and structural similarity between the IRES elements from the picornavirus PTV-1 and HCV, a flavivirus. ..

More Information


  1. Robles Sikisaka R, Garcia D, Klimpel K, Dhar A. Nucleotide sequence of 3'-end of the genome of Taura syndrome virus of shrimp suggests that it is related to insect picornaviruses. Arch Virol. 2001;146:941-52 pubmed
    ..We concluded that the genome organization of TSV is similar to insect picornaviruses. This is the first molecular evidence of occurrence of a picornavirus in the class Decapoda. ..
  2. Maori E, Lavi S, Mozes Koch R, Gantman Y, Peretz Y, Edelbaum O, et al. Isolation and characterization of Israeli acute paralysis virus, a dicistrovirus affecting honeybees in Israel: evidence for diversity due to intra- and inter-species recombination. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:3428-38 pubmed publisher
    ..The dynamics of information exchange between virus and host and the possible resistance-engendering mechanisms are discussed...
  3. Fujiyuki T, Takeuchi H, Ono M, Ohka S, Sasaki T, Nomoto A, et al. Novel insect picorna-like virus identified in the brains of aggressive worker honeybees. J Virol. 2004;78:1093-100 pubmed
    ..In aggressive workers, Kakugo RNA was detected in the brain but not in the thorax or abdomen, indicating a close relation between viral infection in the brain and aggressive worker behaviors. ..
  4. Dobrikova E, Florez P, Bradrick S, Gromeier M. Activity of a type 1 picornavirus internal ribosomal entry site is determined by sequences within the 3' nontranslated region. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15125-30 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest long-range interactions between the IRES and the 3' terminus that control IRES-mediated gene expression and virus propagation. ..
  5. Woo P, Lau S, Huang Y, Lam C, Poon R, Tsoi H, et al. Comparative analysis of six genome sequences of three novel picornaviruses, turdiviruses 1, 2 and 3, in dead wild birds, and proposal of two novel genera, Orthoturdivirus and Paraturdivirus, in the family Picornaviridae. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:2433-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to many other viruses in birds of the family Turdidae or viruses of the family Picornaviridae, TV1, TV2 and TV3 were found exclusively in the autumn and winter months...
  6. Tuthill T, Harlos K, Walter T, Knowles N, Groppelli E, Rowlands D, et al. Equine rhinitis A virus and its low pH empty particle: clues towards an aphthovirus entry mechanism?. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000620 pubmed publisher
    ..ERAV) is closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), belonging to the genus Aphthovirus of the Picornaviridae. How picornaviruses introduce their RNA genome into the cytoplasm of the host cell to initiate replication is ..
  7. Song Y, Tzima E, Ochs K, Bassili G, Trusheim H, Linder M, et al. Evidence for an RNA chaperone function of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein in picornavirus translation. RNA. 2005;11:1809-24 pubmed
    ..Thus, PTB most likely acts as an RNA chaperone to stabilize IRES structure and, in that way, augment IRES activity. ..
  8. Hellen C, de Breyne S. A distinct group of hepacivirus/pestivirus-like internal ribosomal entry sites in members of diverse picornavirus genera: evidence for modular exchange of functional noncoding RNA elements by recombination. J Virol. 2007;81:5850-63 pubmed
    ..contain internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) that are unrelated to the two principal classes of IRESs of Picornaviridae. The mechanism of translation initiation on hepacivirus/pestivirus (HP) IRESs, which involves factor-..
  9. Salonen A, Ahola T, Kaariainen L. Viral RNA replication in association with cellular membranes. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2005;285:139-73 pubmed
    ..In many cases the replicase proteins induce membrane invaginations or vesicles, which function as protective environments for RNA replication. ..
  10. Ongus J, Peters D, Bonmatin J, Bengsch E, Vlak J, van Oers M. Complete sequence of a picorna-like virus of the genus Iflavirus replicating in the mite Varroa destructor. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:3747-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The virus isolate and the closely related DWV could be discriminated by two primer sets, each specific to one virus. Both viruses replicated in the population of the mite species studied...
  11. Woolaway K, Lazaridis K, Belsham G, Carter M, Roberts L. The 5' untranslated region of Rhopalosiphum padi virus contains an internal ribosome entry site which functions efficiently in mammalian, plant, and insect translation systems. J Virol. 2001;75:10244-9 pubmed
    ..RhPV has a single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of about 10 kb; unlike the genomes of Picornaviridae, however, this genome contains two long open reading frames (ORFs)...
  12. Whitton J, Cornell C, Feuer R. Host and virus determinants of picornavirus pathogenesis and tropism. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2005;3:765-76 pubmed
    The family Picornaviridae contains some notable members, including rhinovirus, which infects humans more frequently than any other virus; poliovirus, which has paralysed or killed millions over the years; and foot-and-mouth-disease virus, ..
  13. Oberste M, Maher K, Pallansch M. Genomic evidence that simian virus 2 and six other simian picornaviruses represent a new genus in Picornaviridae. Virology. 2003;314:283-93 pubmed
    ..To further characterize this group of viruses and to clarify their classification within the Picornaviridae, we have determined the complete genomic sequence of SV2 (8126 nucleotides)...
  14. Liljas L, Tate J, Lin T, Christian P, Johnson J. Evolutionary and taxonomic implications of conserved structural motifs between picornaviruses and insect picorna-like viruses. Arch Virol. 2002;147:59-84 pubmed
    ..We also discuss the possible relatives of the proposed assemblage and the likely implications of future structural studies that may be carried out on the putative relatives. ..
  15. Sanz M, Welnowska E, Redondo N, Carrasco L. Translation driven by picornavirus IRES is hampered from Sindbis virus replicons: rescue by poliovirus 2A protease. J Mol Biol. 2010;402:101-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the idea that eIF4GI cleavage is necessary to rescue the translation driven by picornavirus IRESs in baby hamster kidney cells that express SV replicons. ..
  16. Reuter G, Pankovics P, Knowles N, Boros A. Two closely related novel picornaviruses in cattle and sheep in Hungary from 2008 to 2009, proposed as members of a new genus in the family Picornaviridae. J Virol. 2012;86:13295-302 pubmed publisher
    ..GenBank accession number HM153767), which may belong to a potential novel picornavirus genus in the family Picornaviridae. The genome lengths of BHuV-1 and OHuV-1 are 7,583 and 7,588 nucleotides, each comprising a single open ..
  17. Leat N, Ball B, Govan V, Davison S. Analysis of the complete genome sequence of black queen-cell virus, a picorna-like virus of honey bees. J Gen Virol. 2000;81:2111-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is proposed that BQCV belongs to the group of picorna-like, insect-infecting RNA viruses constituted by DCV, RhPV, HiPV and PSIV...
  18. Habayeb M, Cantera R, Casanova G, Ekström J, Albright S, Hultmark D. The Drosophila Nora virus is an enteric virus, transmitted via feces. J Invertebr Pathol. 2009;101:29-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The Nora virus infection has a very mild effect on the longevity of the flies, and no significant effect on the number of eggs laid and the percent of eggs that develop to adults. ..
  19. Kapoor A, Victoria J, Simmonds P, Slikas E, Chieochansin T, Naeem A, et al. A highly prevalent and genetically diversified Picornaviridae genus in South Asian children. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20482-7 pubmed publisher
    ..used as genetic footholds to characterize multiple viral species within a previously unreported genus of the Picornaviridae family. The picornaviruses were detected in the stools of >40% of AFP and healthy Pakistani children...
  20. Honkavuori K, Shivaprasad H, Briese T, Street C, Hirschberg D, Hutchison S, et al. Novel picornavirus in Turkey poults with hepatitis, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:480-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular, anatomic, and immunologic evidence suggests that TVH is caused by a novel picornavirus, tentatively named turkey hepatitis virus...
  21. Sweeney T, Dhote V, Yu Y, Hellen C. A distinct class of internal ribosomal entry site in members of the Kobuvirus and proposed Salivirus and Paraturdivirus genera of the Picornaviridae. J Virol. 2012;86:1468-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify a fifth IRES class in members of Kobuvirus, Salivirus, and Paraturdivirus genera of Picornaviridae: Aichi virus (AV), bovine kobuvirus (BKV), canine kobuvirus (CKoV), mouse kobuvirus (MKoV), sheep kobuvirus (..
  22. Phan T, Vo N, Simmonds P, Samayoa E, Naccache S, Chiu C, et al. Rosavirus: the prototype of a proposed new genus of the Picornaviridae family. Virus Genes. 2013;47:556-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on genetic distance criteria rosavirus qualifies as prototype of a new genus of the Picornaviridae family.
  23. Phan T, Vo N, Boros A, Pankovics P, Reuter G, Li O, et al. The viruses of wild pigeon droppings. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72787 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified sequences from known and novel species from the viral families Circoviridae, Parvoviridae, Picornaviridae, Reoviridae, Adenovirus, Astroviridae, and Caliciviridae (listed in decreasing number of reads), as well as ..
  24. Reineke A, Asgari S. Presence of a novel small RNA-containing virus in a laboratory culture of the endoparasitic wasp Venturia canescens (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). J Insect Physiol. 2005;51:127-35 pubmed
    ..kuehniella larvae where they enter hemocytes. Alignment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene of VcSRV indicates that the virus most likely belongs to the recently described genus Iflavirus. ..
  25. Triantafilou K, Triantafilou M. A biochemical approach reveals cell-surface molecules utilised by Picornaviridae: Human Parechovirus 1 and Echovirus 1. J Cell Biochem. 2001;80:373-81 pubmed
    Although receptor virus interactions of several Picornaviridae have been studied in the past, it is becoming apparent that these interactions might be more complex than previously thought...
  26. Sasaki J, Kusuhara Y, Maeno Y, Kobayashi N, Yamashita T, Sakae K, et al. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone of Aichi virus (a new member of the family Picornaviridae) and mutational analysis of a stem-loop structure at the 5' end of the genome. J Virol. 2001;75:8021-30 pubmed
    Aichi virus is the type species of a new genus, Kobuvirus, of the family Picornaviridae. In this study, we constructed a full-length cDNA clone of Aichi virus whose in vitro transcripts were infectious to Vero cells...
  27. Khamrin P, Chaimongkol N, Malasao R, Suantai B, Saikhruang W, Kongsricharoern T, et al. Detection and molecular characterization of cosavirus in adults with diarrhea, Thailand. Virus Genes. 2012;44:244-6 pubmed publisher
    Human cosavirus (HCoSV) is a newly discovered virus in Picornaviridae family. At present it is not clear whether HCoSV is associated with diseases, including gastroenteritis in humans, as epidemiological data is limited...
  28. Rossmann M, He Y, Kuhn R. Picornavirus-receptor interactions. Trends Microbiol. 2002;10:324-31 pubmed
    ..Binding into the canyon destabilizes the virus and thus initiates the uncoating process. By contrast, non-IgSF molecules, when used by picornaviruses as receptors, bind outside the canyon and do not cause viral instability. ..
  29. Lescar J, Canard B. RNA-dependent RNA polymerases from flaviviruses and Picornaviridae. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2009;19:759-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent structural data have shed light on the different strategies used by RdRps from flaviviruses and Picornaviridae to initiate RNA polymerization...
  30. Sasaki J, Taniguchi K. The 5'-end sequence of the genome of Aichi virus, a picornavirus, contains an element critical for viral RNA encapsidation. J Virol. 2003;77:3542-8 pubmed
    ..The 5' end of the genome of Aichi virus, a member of the family Picornaviridae, folds into three stem-loop structures (SL-A, SL-B, and SL-C, from the most 5' end)...
  31. Heath L, van der Walt E, Varsani A, Martin D. Recombination patterns in aphthoviruses mirror those found in other picornaviruses. J Virol. 2006;80:11827-32 pubmed
  32. Gruez A, Selisko B, Roberts M, Bricogne G, Bussetta C, Jabafi I, et al. The crystal structure of coxsackievirus B3 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in complex with its protein primer VPg confirms the existence of a second VPg binding site on Picornaviridae polymerases. J Virol. 2008;82:9577-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The CVB3 3D(pol)/VPg complex structure is expected to contribute to the understanding of the multicomponent VPg-uridylation complex essential for the initiation of genome replication of picornaviruses. ..
  33. Cherry S, Perrimon N. Entry is a rate-limiting step for viral infection in a Drosophila melanogaster model of pathogenesis. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:81-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, this virus model provides a sensitive and efficient approach for identifying components required for pathogenesis. ..
  34. Holtz L, Finkbeiner S, Kirkwood C, Wang D. Identification of a novel picornavirus related to cosaviruses in a child with acute diarrhea. Virol J. 2008;5:159 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the analysis discussed here, we propose that this virus represents a new species in the Cosavirus genus, and it has tentatively been named Human Cosavirus E1 (HCoSV-E1). ..
  35. Lukashev A. Recombination among picornaviruses. Rev Med Virol. 2010;20:327-37 pubmed publisher
    ..This review covers existing evidence of recombination in most genera of the family Picornaviridae and possible implications for diagnostics, epidemiology and classification.
  36. Schindera C, Kraemer A, Regamey N, Aebi C, Gorgievski Hrisoho M, Barbani M. Immunofluorescence versus xTAG multiplex PCR for the detection of respiratory picornavirus infections in children. J Clin Virol. 2010;48:223-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding of a more frequent diagnosis of pneumonia in picornavirus PCR positive but IF negative children warrants further investigation. ..
  37. Gorbalenya A, Pringle F, Zeddam J, Luke B, Cameron C, Kalmakoff J, et al. The palm subdomain-based active site is internally permuted in viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of an ancient lineage. J Mol Biol. 2002;324:47-62 pubmed
    ..The structural diversification of the palm subdomain might be a major event in the evolution of template-dependent polynucleotide polymerases in the RNA-protein world...
  38. Simmonds P. Recombination and selection in the evolution of picornaviruses and other Mammalian positive-stranded RNA viruses. J Virol. 2006;80:11124-40 pubmed
    b>Picornaviridae are a large virus family causing widespread, often pathogenic infections in humans and other mammals...
  39. Wang X, Zhang J, Lu J, Yi F, Liu C, Hu Y. Sequence analysis and genomic organization of a new insect picorna-like virus, Ectropis obliqua picorna-like virus, isolated from Ectropis obliqua. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:1145-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis showed that EoPV is most closely related to PnPV and suggests that these four insect picorna-like viruses might constitute a new group of insect-infectious RNA viruses...
  40. Jartti T, Lehtinen P, Vuorinen T, Osterback R, van den Hoogen B, Osterhaus A, et al. Respiratory picornaviruses and respiratory syncytial virus as causative agents of acute expiratory wheezing in children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:1095-101 pubmed
    ..Human metapneumovirus was detected in 4% of all children and in 11% of infants. To prevent and treat acute expiratory wheezing illnesses in children, efforts should be focused on RSV, enterovirus, and rhinovirus infections. ..
  41. Lall M, Jain R, Vederas J. Inhibitors of 3C cysteine proteinases from Picornaviridae. Curr Top Med Chem. 2004;4:1239-53 pubmed
    The Picornaviridae are among the smallest icosahedral positive-sense single stranded RNA containing viruses known, and comprise one of the largest and most important families of human and animal pathogens...
  42. Pankovics P, Boros A, Reuter G. Novel picornavirus in domesticated common quail (Coturnix coturnix) in Hungary. Arch Virol. 2012;157:525-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The 390-aa-long L protein is cysteine rich and encodes two copies of a 34-aa-long repeat motif. Quail picornavirus represents a novel picornavirus species and perhaps a novel genus...
  43. Steil B, Barton D. Cis-active RNA elements (CREs) and picornavirus RNA replication. Virus Res. 2009;139:240-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We review the growing body of knowledge regarding picornavirus CREs and discuss how CRE RNAs work coordinately with viral replication proteins and other cis-active RNAs in the 5' and 3' NTRs during RNA replication. ..
  44. Virgen Slane R, Rozovics J, Fitzgerald K, Ngo T, Chou W, van der Heden van Noort G, et al. An RNA virus hijacks an incognito function of a DNA repair enzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:14634-9 pubmed publisher
  45. Greninger A, Runckel C, Chiu C, Haggerty T, Parsonnet J, Ganem D, et al. The complete genome of klassevirus - a novel picornavirus in pediatric stool. Virol J. 2009;6:82 pubmed publisher
    ..Further characterization and epidemiological studies will be required to establish whether klasseviruses are significant causes of human infection. ..
  46. Li L, Victoria J, Kapoor A, Blinkova O, Wang C, Babrzadeh F, et al. A novel picornavirus associated with gastroenteritis. J Virol. 2009;83:12002-6 pubmed publisher
  47. Blinkova O, Rosario K, Li L, Kapoor A, Slikas B, Bernardin F, et al. Frequent detection of highly diverse variants of cardiovirus, cosavirus, bocavirus, and circovirus in sewage samples collected in the United States. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:3507-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic variants of human cosaviruses and cardioviruses in the Picornaviridae family and of DNA circoviruses and human bocaviruses were detected, expanding the known genetic diversity and ..
  48. Chard L, Bordeleau M, Pelletier J, Tanaka J, Belsham G. Hepatitis C virus-related internal ribosome entry sites are found in multiple genera of the family Picornaviridae. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:927-36 pubmed
    ..elements from porcine enterovirus 8 and simian virus 2, two members of a proposed new genus within the family Picornaviridae, were characterized...
  49. Fernandez Miragall O, López de Quinto S, Martinez Salas E. Relevance of RNA structure for the activity of picornavirus IRES elements. Virus Res. 2009;139:172-82 pubmed publisher
    The RNA of all members of the Picornaviridae family initiates translation internally, via an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) element present in their 5' untranslated region...
  50. Svitkin Y, Imataka H, Khaleghpour K, Kahvejian A, Liebig H, Sonenberg N. Poly(A)-binding protein interaction with elF4G stimulates picornavirus IRES-dependent translation. RNA. 2001;7:1743-52 pubmed
    ..The elF4G cleavage-induced loss of the stimulatory effect of poly(A) on translation was mimicked by the addition of the C-terminal portion of elF4G. Thus, PABP stimulates picornavirus translation through its interaction with elF4G. ..
  51. Johansson S, Niklasson B, Maizel J, Gorbalenya A, Lindberg A. Molecular analysis of three Ljungan virus isolates reveals a new, close-to-root lineage of the Picornaviridae with a cluster of two unrelated 2A proteins. J Virol. 2002;76:8920-30 pubmed
    ..The presence of two 2A proteins indicates that some contemporary picornaviruses with a single 2A may have evolved from the ancestral multi-2A picornavirus...
  52. Day J, Ballard L, Duke M, Scheffler B, Zsak L. Metagenomic analysis of the turkey gut RNA virus community. Virol J. 2010;7:313 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis of this turkey gut RNA metagenome focuses in particular on the turkey-origin members of the Picornavirales, the Caliciviridae, and the turkey Picobirnaviruses. ..
  53. Jones M, Lukashov V, Ganac R, Schnurr D. Discovery of a novel human picornavirus in a stool sample from a pediatric patient presenting with fever of unknown origin. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:2144-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Nearly full-length viral genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis demonstrate that this virus is a member of the Cardiovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family.
  54. Culley A, Lang A, Suttle C. Metagenomic analysis of coastal RNA virus communities. Science. 2006;312:1795-8 pubmed
    ..Our results show that the oceans are a reservoir of previously unknown RNA viruses...
  55. James D, Upton C. Nucleotide sequence analysis of RNA-2 of a flat apple isolate of Cherry rasp leaf virus with regions showing greater identity to animal picornaviruses than to related plant viruses. Arch Virol. 2002;147:1631-41 pubmed
    ..CRLV-FA Vp20 and Vp24 amino acid sequences were closely related to ALSV (59 and 65%, respectively) but the only other relationships identified were with a range of animal ssRNA positive-strand viruses. ..
  56. Shatsky I, Dmitriev S, Terenin I, Andreev D. Cap- and IRES-independent scanning mechanism of translation initiation as an alternative to the concept of cellular IRESs. Mol Cells. 2010;30:285-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe this mechanism and suggest it as an alternative to the concept of cellular IRESs. ..
  57. Valles S, Strong C, Dang P, Hunter W, Pereira R, Oi D, et al. A picorna-like virus from the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta: initial discovery, genome sequence, and characterization. Virology. 2004;328:151-7 pubmed publisher
    ..samples from virus-infected fire ants revealed isometric particles with a diameter of 31 nm, consistent with Picornaviridae. A survey for the fire ant virus from areas around Florida revealed a pattern of fairly widespread ..
  58. Nakashima N, Sasaki J, Toriyama S. Determining the nucleotide sequence and capsid-coding region of himetobi P virus: a member of a novel group of RNA viruses that infect insects. Arch Virol. 1999;144:2051-8 pubmed
    ..These characteristics of the HiPV genome are similar to those of a new group of RNA viruses consisting of Drosophila C virus (DCV), Rhopalosiphum padi virus (RhPV), and PSIV...
  59. Legg J, Warner J, Johnston S, Warner J. Frequency of detection of picornaviruses and seven other respiratory pathogens in infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:611-6 pubmed
  60. Woo P, Lau S, Choi G, Huang Y, Teng J, Tsoi H, et al. Natural occurrence and characterization of two internal ribosome entry site elements in a novel virus, canine picodicistrovirus, in the picornavirus-like superfamily. J Virol. 2012;86:2797-808 pubmed publisher
    Dicistroviridae and Picornaviridae are two phylogenetically related families of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses in the picornavirus-like superfamily with similar gene contents but different genome organizations and hosts...
  61. Thompson J, Perry K, De Jong W. A new potato virus in a new lineage of picorna-like viruses. Arch Virol. 2004;149:2141-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The evolutionary context of CRLV-pot and related viruses is discussed. Similar viral sequences from an EST library of peppermint are also analysed...
  62. Reuter G, Boldizs r A, Pankovics P. Complete nucleotide and amino acid sequences and genetic organization of porcine kobuvirus, a member of a new species in the genus Kobuvirus, family Picornaviridae. Arch Virol. 2009;154:101-8 pubmed publisher
    Kobuvirus is a new genus in the family Picornaviridae. Two species are currently known: Aichi virus (human kobuvirus) and Bovine kobuvirus (U-1)...
  63. Belsham G. Divergent picornavirus IRES elements. Virus Res. 2009;139:183-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The selection of the initiation codon by these distinct IRES elements is also discussed. ..
  64. Belsham G, Normann P. Dynamics of picornavirus RNA replication within infected cells. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:485-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Even when RNA synthesis is well established, the addition of guanidine has a major impact on the level of RNA replication. Thus, the guanidine-sensitive step in RNA synthesis is important throughout the virus life cycle in cells. ..
  65. Verbeek M, Dullemans A, van den Heuvel J, Maris P, van der Vlugt R. Identification and characterisation of tomato torrado virus, a new plant picorna-like virus from tomato. Arch Virol. 2007;152:881-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This new virus, for which the name tomato torrado virus is proposed, most likely represents a member of a new plant virus genus...
  66. Tuthill T, Groppelli E, Hogle J, Rowlands D. Picornaviruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2010;343:43-89 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there is currently no model to explain how viruses such as cardio- and aphthoviruses that appear to simply dissociate into subunits during uncoating deliver their genomes into the cytoplasm. ..
  67. Yamashita T, Sugiyama M, Tsuzuki H, Sakae K, Suzuki Y, Miyazaki Y. Application of a reverse transcription-PCR for identification and differentiation of Aichi virus, a new member of the Picornavirus family associated with gastroenteritis in humans. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:2955-61 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that RT-PCR can be a useful tool to detect Aichi virus in stool samples and that a sequence analysis of PCR products can be employed to identify the prevalent strain in each incident. ..
  68. Ren J, Wang X, Hu Z, Gao Q, Sun Y, Li X, et al. Picornavirus uncoating intermediate captured in atomic detail. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1929 pubmed publisher
  69. Tapparel C, Siegrist F, Petty T, Kaiser L. Picornavirus and enterovirus diversity with associated human diseases. Infect Genet Evol. 2013;14:282-93 pubmed publisher
    Members of the Picornaviridae family are non-enveloped, positive-stranded RNA viruses with a 30nm icosahedral capsid. This virus family exhibits a considerable amount of genetic variability driven both by mutation and recombination...
  70. Nagashima S, Sasaki J, Taniguchi K. Functional analysis of the stem-loop structures at the 5' end of the Aichi virus genome. Virology. 2003;313:56-65 pubmed
    Aichi virus is a member of the family Picornaviridae. Computer-assisted secondary structure prediction suggested the formation of three stem-loop structures (SL-A, SL-B, and SL-C from the 5' end) within the 5'-end 120 nucleotides of the ..
  71. Johansson E, Niklasson B, Tesh R, Shafren D, Travassos da Rosa A, Lindberg A. Molecular characterization of M1146, an American isolate of Ljungan virus (LV) reveals the presence of a new LV genotype. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:837-44 pubmed
    ..Based on antigenic properties, M1146 was postulated previously as a putative member of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE: The near complete genomic sequence verifies that M1146 is a member of the Picornaviridae, most closely ..
  72. Wessels E, Duijsings D, Lanke K, van Dooren S, Jackson C, Melchers W, et al. Effects of picornavirus 3A Proteins on Protein Transport and GBF1-dependent COP-I recruitment. J Virol. 2006;80:11852-60 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that the activity of the enterovirus 3A protein to inhibit GBF1-dependent COP-I recruitment is unique among the picornaviruses. ..
  73. Victoria J, Kapoor A, Dupuis K, Schnurr D, Delwart E. Rapid identification of known and new RNA viruses from animal tissues. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000163 pubmed publisher
    ..Viruses derived from human feces or sewer effluent belonged to the Picornaviridae family and showed between 80% to 91% amino acid identities to known picornaviruses...
  74. Mari J, Poulos B, Lightner D, Bonami J. Shrimp Taura syndrome virus: genomic characterization and similarity with members of the genus Cricket paralysis-like viruses. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:915-26 pubmed publisher
  75. Jonassen C. Detection and sequence characterization of the 3'-end of coronavirus genomes harboring the highly conserved RNA motif s2m. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;454:27-34 pubmed publisher
    ..of the genomes of several members of the polyadenylated RNA virus families Astroviridae, Coronaviridae, and Picornaviridae can be used for the detection and sequence characterization of the viruses harboring it...
  76. Lindberg A, Johansson S. Phylogenetic analysis of Ljungan virus and A-2 plaque virus, new members of the Picornaviridae. Virus Res. 2002;85:61-70 pubmed
    In addition to the viruses belonging to the nine proposed genera of the Picornaviridae, Enterovirus, Rhinovirus, Cardiovirus, Aphtovirus, Hepatovirus, Parechovirus, Kobuvirus, Erbovirus and Teschovirus, two new members of this family have ..
  77. Wu C, Lo C, Huang C, Yu H, Wang C. The complete genome sequence of Perina nuda picorna-like virus, an insect-infecting RNA virus with a genome organization similar to that of the mammalian picornaviruses. Virology. 2002;294:312-23 pubmed publisher
    ..virus (PnPV) is an insect-infecting RNA virus with morphological and physicochemical characters similar to the Picornaviridae. In this article, we determine the complete genome sequence and analyze the gene organization of PnPV...
  78. Lopez Lastra M, Rivas A, Barría M. Protein synthesis in eukaryotes: the growing biological relevance of cap-independent translation initiation. Biol Res. 2005;38:121-46 pubmed