Summary: A genus of the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE comprising tick-borne viruses occasionally infecting humans. Dhori and Thogoto viruses were formerly thought to be members of BUNYAVIRIDAE. Thogoto virus is the type species.

Top Publications

  1. Weber F, Haller O, Kochs G. MxA GTPase blocks reporter gene expression of reconstituted Thogoto virus ribonucleoprotein complexes. J Virol. 2000;74:560-3 pubmed
    ..The present findings are consistent with previous data which indicated that cytoplasmic MxA prevents transport of vRNPs into the nucleus, whereas nuclear MxA directly inhibits the viral polymerase activity in the nucleus. ..
  2. Frese M, Kochs G, Meier Dieter U, Siebler J, Haller O. Human MxA protein inhibits tick-borne Thogoto virus but not Dhori virus. J Virol. 1995;69:3904-9 pubmed
    ..In contrast, Dhori virus was not affected by wild-type or mutant MxA protein, indicating substantial differences between these two tick-transmitted orthomyxoviruses. Human MxB protein had no antiviral activity against either virus. ..
  3. Ponten A, Sick C, Weeber M, Haller O, Kochs G. Dominant-negative mutants of human MxA protein: domains in the carboxy-terminal moiety are important for oligomerization and antiviral activity. J Virol. 1997;71:2591-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that dominant-negative mutants directly influence wild-type activity within hetero-oligomers or else compete with wild-type MxA for a cellular or viral target. ..
  4. Wagner E, Engelhardt O, Gruber S, Haller O, Kochs G. Rescue of recombinant Thogoto virus from cloned cDNA. J Virol. 2001;75:9282-6 pubmed
    ..The availability of this efficient reverse genetics system will allow us to address hitherto-unanswered questions regarding the biology of THOV by manipulating viral genes in the context of infectious virus. ..
  5. Lung O, Westenberg M, Vlak J, Zuidema D, Blissard G. Pseudotyping Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV): F proteins from group II NPVs are functionally analogous to AcMNPV GP64. J Virol. 2002;76:5729-36 pubmed
    ..The AcMNPV pseudotyping system provides an efficient and powerful method for examining the functions and compatibilities of analogous or orthologous viral envelope proteins, and it could have important biotechnological applications. ..
  6. Mitchell P, Patzina C, Emerman M, Haller O, Malik H, Kochs G. Evolution-guided identification of antiviral specificity determinants in the broadly acting interferon-induced innate immunity factor MxA. Cell Host Microbe. 2012;12:598-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings identify a genetic determinant of MxA target recognition and suggest a model by which MxA achieves antiviral breadth without compromising viral specificity...
  7. Contreras Gutiérrez M, Nunes M, Guzman H, Uribe S, Suaza Vasco J, Cardoso J, et al. Sinu virus, a novel and divergent orthomyxovirus related to members of the genus Thogotovirus isolated from mosquitoes in Colombia. Virology. 2017;501:166-175 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetically, SINUV appears to be most closed related to viruses in the genus Thogotovirus.
  8. Leahy M, Dessens J, Pritlove D, Nuttall P. An endonuclease switching mechanism in the virion RNA and cRNA promoters of Thogoto orthomyxovirus. J Virol. 1998;72:2305-9 pubmed
  9. Temmam S, Monteil Bouchard S, Robert C, Baudoin J, Sambou M, Aubadie Ladrix M, et al. Characterization of Viral Communities of Biting Midges and Identification of Novel Thogotovirus Species and Rhabdovirus Genus. Viruses. 2016;8:77 pubmed publisher
    ..Several novel viruses were detected, including a novel Thogotovirus species, related but genetically distant from previously described tick-borne thogotoviruses...

More Information


  1. Mateo R, Xiao S, Lei H, Da Rosa A, Tesh R. Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae: Thogotovirus) infection in mice: a model of the pathogenesis of severe orthomyxovirus infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:785-90 pubmed
  2. Li G, Wang N, Guzman H, Sbrana E, Yoshikawa T, Tseng C, et al. Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae: Thogotovirus) infection of mice produces a disease and cytokine response pattern similar to that of highly virulent influenza A (H5N1) virus infection in humans. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;78:675-80 pubmed
  3. Garry C, Garry R. Proteomics computational analyses suggest that baculovirus GP64 superfamily proteins are class III penetrenes. Virol J. 2008;5:28 pubmed publisher
    ..The GP64 superfamily includes the glycoprotein (GP) encoded by members of the Thogotovirus genus of the Orthomyxoviridae...
  4. Weber F, Gruber S, Haller O, Kochs G. PB2 polymerase subunit of Thogoto virus (Orthomyxoviridae family). Arch Virol. 1999;144:1601-9 pubmed
    ..Expression of the PB2 cDNA in mammalian cells revealed nuclear accumulation of the recombinant protein, consistent with the replication of THOV in the cell nucleus. ..
  5. Kaufman W, Nuttall P. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodidae): dynamics of Thogoto virus infection in female ticks during feeding on guinea pigs. Exp Parasitol. 2003;104:20-5 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence to explain that R. appendiculatus can transmit THO virus within 24h of attachment, an important epidemiological finding. ..
  6. Kuno G, Chang G, Tsuchiya K, Miller B. Phylogeny of Thogoto virus. Virus Genes. 2001;23:211-4 pubmed
  7. Kosoy O, Lambert A, Hawkinson D, Pastula D, Goldsmith C, Hunt D, et al. Novel thogotovirus associated with febrile illness and death, United States, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:760-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Next-generation sequencing and phylogenetic analysis identified the virus as a novel member of the genus Thogotovirus.
  8. Peng R, Zhang S, Cui Y, Shi Y, Gao G, Qi J. Structures of human-infecting Thogotovirus fusogens support a common ancestor with insect baculovirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E8905-E8912 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present the Gp structures of Thogoto and Dhori viruses, both of which are members of the Thogotovirus genus in the family Orthomyxoviridae These structures, determined in the postfusion conformation, ..
  9. Leahy M, Dessens J, Nuttall P. Striking conformational similarities between the transcription promoters of Thogoto and influenza A viruses: evidence for intrastrand base pairing in the 5' promoter arm. J Virol. 1997;71:8352-6 pubmed
    ..The THOV cores were able to transcribe an influenza A virus (FLUA) vRNA-like promoter, as well as hybrid THOV-FLUA promoters. Hence, the THOV and FLUA vRNA promoters appear to be both structurally and functionally similar. ..
  10. Benfield C, Lyall J, Tiley L. The cytoplasmic location of chicken mx is not the determining factor for its lack of antiviral activity. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12151 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the natural cytoplasmic localisation of the chicken Mx protein does not account for its lack of antiviral activity. ..
  11. Buettner N, Vogt C, Mart nez Sobrido L, Weber F, Waibler Z, Kochs G. Thogoto virus ML protein is a potent inhibitor of the interferon regulatory factor-7 transcription factor. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:220-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, another IRF7 activation step, nuclear translocation, is not affected by ML. Our data elucidate ML protein as a virulence factor with an IRF-specific IFN-antagonistic spectrum...
  12. Belov A, Larichev V, Galkina I, Khutoretskaia N, Butenko A, Konstantinova I, et al. [In vitro activity of Russian ribavirin on the models of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and Tahyna and Dhori viruses]. Vopr Virusol. 2008;53:34-5 pubmed
  13. Briese T, Chowdhary R, Travassos da Rosa A, Hutchison S, Popov V, Street C, et al. Upolu virus and Aransas Bay virus, two presumptive bunyaviruses, are novel members of the family Orthomyxoviridae. J Virol. 2014;88:5298-309 pubmed publisher
    ..a more distant relationship to Dhori virus, the two prototype viruses of the recognized species of the genus Thogotovirus. Despite sequence similarity, the coding potentials of UPOV and ABV differed from that of Thogoto virus, ..
  14. Wagner E, Engelhardt O, Weber F, Haller O, Kochs G. Formation of virus-like particles from cloned cDNAs of Thogoto virus. J Gen Virol. 2000;81:2849-53 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the artificial nucleocapsids were packaged into THO-VLPs that transferred the minireplicon to indicator cells. This system should be helpful in generating recombinant THOV entirely from cloned cDNAs. ..
  15. Janzen C, Kochs G, Haller O. A monomeric GTPase-negative MxA mutant with antiviral activity. J Virol. 2000;74:8202-6 pubmed
    ..MxA(L612K) is rapidly degraded in cells, whereas wild-type MxA is stable. We propose that high-molecular-weight MxA oligomers represent a stable intracellular pool from which active MxA monomers are recruited. ..
  16. Nuttall P. Displaced tick-parasite interactions at the host interface. Parasitology. 1998;116 Suppl:S65-72 pubmed
    ..Thus important interactions between ticks and tick-borne parasites are displaced to the interface with their vertebrate host-the skin site of blood-feeding and infection. ..
  17. Ogen Odoi A, Miller B, Happ C, Maupin G, Burkot T. Isolation of thogoto virus (Orthomyxoviridae) from the banded mongoose, Mongos mungo (Herpestidae), in Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999;60:439-40 pubmed
    ..This is the first isolation of Thogoto virus from a wild vertebrate. Neutralizing antibodies to Thogoto virus were also found in two of the other mongooses...
  18. Kochs G, Haller O. GTP-bound human MxA protein interacts with the nucleocapsids of Thogoto virus (Orthomyxoviridae). J Biol Chem. 1999;274:4370-6 pubmed
    ..We propose that GTP-bound MxA adopts an antivirally active conformation that allows interaction with viral nucleocapsids, thereby impairing their normal function. ..
  19. Albo C, Martin J, Portela A. The 5' ends of Thogoto virus (Orthomyxoviridae) mRNAs are homogeneous in both length and sequence. J Virol. 1996;70:9013-7 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in terms of the mechanism used by THO virus to initiate mRNA synthesis. ..
  20. Bussetti A, Palacios G, Travassos da Rosa A, Savji N, Jain K, Guzman H, et al. Genomic and antigenic characterization of Jos virus. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:293-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report genetic, ultrastructural and serological evidence that JOSV is an orthomyxovirus distinct from but phylogenetically related to viruses of the genus Thogotovirus.
  21. Pichlmair A, Buse J, Jennings S, Haller O, Kochs G, Staeheli P. Thogoto virus lacking interferon-antagonistic protein ML is strongly attenuated in newborn Mx1-positive but not Mx1-negative mice. J Virol. 2004;78:11422-4 pubmed
    ..Our study shows that the virulence-enhancing effects of some viral interferon antagonists may escape detection in conventional animal models. ..
  22. Neumann G, Brownlee G, Fodor E, Kawaoka Y. Orthomyxovirus replication, transcription, and polyadenylation. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2004;283:121-43 pubmed
    ..In this chapter, we review the status of current knowledge of the orthomyxovirus RNA synthesis. ..
  23. L vov D, Kovtunov A, Iashkulov K, Gromashevskiĭ V, Dzharkenov A, Shchelkanov M, et al. [Circulation of West Nile virus (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) and some other arboviruses in the ecosystems of Volga delta, Volga-Akhtuba flood-lands and adjoining arid regions (2000-2002)]. Vopr Virusol. 2004;49:45-51 pubmed
    ..An analysis of the study results on the WNV ecology denotes the epicenter of the endemic territory located in the middle part of the Volga delta...
  24. Patzina C, Haller O, Kochs G. Structural requirements for the antiviral activity of the human MxA protein against Thogoto and influenza A virus. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:6020-7 pubmed publisher
  25. Lambert A, Velez J, Brault A, Calvert A, Bell Sakyi L, Bosco Lauth A, et al. Molecular, serological and in vitro culture-based characterization of Bourbon virus, a newly described human pathogen of the genus Thogotovirus. J Clin Virol. 2015;73:127-132 pubmed publisher
    ..This isolate was subsequently identified as a novel orthomyxovirus of the genus Thogotovirus by next generation sequencing and was named Bourbon virus after the patient's county of residence...
  26. Wang H, Nuttall P. Intra-stadial tick-borne Thogoto virus (Orthomyxoviridae) transmission: accelerated arbovirus transmission triggered by host death. Parasitology. 2001;122:439-46 pubmed
    ..Additionally, intra-stadial transmission provides an increased risk of tick-borne pathogen transmission to humans and domestic animals during slaughter and game hunting. ..
  27. Iashkulov K, Shchelkanov M, L vov S, Dzhambinov S, Galkina I, Fediakina I, et al. [Isolation of influenza virus A (Orthomyxoviridae, Influenza A virus), Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus), and Newcastle's disease virus (Paromyxoviridae, Avulavirus) on the Malyi Zhemchuzhnyi Island in the north-western area of the Caspian. Vopr Virusol. 2008;53:34-8 pubmed
    ..A virus) subtype H13N1 (from sea gulls (n = 4), cormorants (n = 9) 1 strain of Dhori virus (Orthomyxoviridae, Thogotovirus) from a cormorantwith clinical symptoms of the disease, 3 strains of Newcastle disease virus (Paramyxoviridae, ..
  28. Haller O, Frese M, Rost D, Nuttall P, Kochs G. Tick-borne thogoto virus infection in mice is inhibited by the orthomyxovirus resistance gene product Mx1. J Virol. 1995;69:2596-601 pubmed
    ..We conclude that an Mx1-sensitive step has been conserved during evolution of orthomyxoviruses and suggest that the Mx1 gene in rodents may serve to combat infections by influenza virus-like arboviruses. ..
  29. Siebler J, Haller O, Kochs G. Thogoto and Dhori virus replication is blocked by inhibitors of cellular polymerase II activity but does not cause shutoff of host cell protein synthesis. Arch Virol. 1996;141:1587-94 pubmed
    ..In contrast to influenza viruses, Thogoto and Dhori virus infection did not lead to down-regulation of cellular protein synthesis indicating marked differences regarding the fate of infected cells. ..
  30. Weber F, Haller O, Kochs G. Conserved vRNA end sequences of Thogoto-orthomyxovirus suggest a new panhandle structure. Arch Virol. 1997;142:1029-33 pubmed
    ..As this secondary structure can explain the functioning of a mutant promoter of influenza virus with twice the activity of the wild-type, we propose a general validity of our "hook-like" panhandle structure. ..
  31. Pulverer J, Rand U, Lienenklaus S, Kugel D, Zietara N, Kochs G, et al. Temporal and spatial resolution of type I and III interferon responses in vivo. J Virol. 2010;84:8626-38 pubmed publisher
  32. Kochs G, Bauer S, Vogt C, Frenz T, Tschopp J, Kalinke U, et al. Thogoto virus infection induces sustained type I interferon responses that depend on RIG-I-like helicase signaling of conventional dendritic cells. J Virol. 2010;84:12344-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data are compatible with the model that THOV(?ML) infection is sensed in the acute phase via TLR and RLH systems, whereas at later time points only RLH signaling is responsible for the induction of sustained IFN responses...
  33. Cros J, Palese P. Trafficking of viral genomic RNA into and out of the nucleus: influenza, Thogoto and Borna disease viruses. Virus Res. 2003;95:3-12 pubmed
    ..Various mechanisms, ranging from simple post-translational modification to complex, sequential masking-and-exposure of localization signals, are used to insure the proper movement of the vRNPs. ..
  34. Weber F, Kochs G, Gruber S, Haller O. A classical bipartite nuclear localization signal on Thogoto and influenza A virus nucleoproteins. Virology. 1998;250:9-18 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that NP of orthomyxoviruses have two independent NLSs, namely cNLS and nNLS. They further suggest that NAS and NLSs may assume opposing roles in nucleocytoplasmic transport of NP. ..
  35. Weber F, Haller O, Kochs G. Nucleoprotein viral RNA and mRNA of Thogoto virus: a novel "cap-stealing" mechanism in tick-borne orthomyxoviruses?. J Virol. 1996;70:8361-7 pubmed
    ..We therefore propose that THOV is stealing only the cap structure with one or two additional nucleotides from cellular mRNAs to generate appropriate primers for initiation of viral mRNA transcription...
  36. Hagmaier K, Gelderblom H, Kochs G. Functional comparison of the two gene products of Thogoto virus segment 6. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:3699-708 pubmed
    ..This function is contained within the C-terminal half of ML. These data suggest major structural differences between M and ML that could explain the different activities of the two proteins. ..
  37. Hagmaier K, Jennings S, Buse J, Weber F, Kochs G. Novel gene product of Thogoto virus segment 6 codes for an interferon antagonist. J Virol. 2003;77:2747-52 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that ML is an accessory protein that functions as a potent interferon antagonist by blocking transcriptional activation of alpha/beta interferons...
  38. Hefti H, Frese M, Landis H, Di Paolo C, Aguzzi A, Haller O, et al. Human MxA protein protects mice lacking a functional alpha/beta interferon system against La crosse virus and other lethal viral infections. J Virol. 1999;73:6984-91 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the results suggest that MxA may protect humans from potential fatal infections by La Crosse virus and other viral pathogens...
  39. Jones L, Morse M, Marriott A, Nuttall P. Immune protection conferred by the baculovirus-related glycoprotein of Thogoto virus (Orthomyxoviridae). Virology. 1995;213:249-53 pubmed
    ..Thus at least in the murine model, protective immunity is conferred by antibodies directed against the neutralizing epitope(s) of the baculovirus-related glycoprotein of THO virus. ..
  40. Kochs G, Weber F, Gruber S, Delvendahl A, Leitz C, Haller O. Thogoto virus matrix protein is encoded by a spliced mRNA. J Virol. 2000;74:10785-9 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the nontemplated UGA stop codon is generated by the splicing event itself. Thus, the unusual M coding strategy of THOV resembles that of Influenza C virus. ..
  41. Gomez Puertas P, Leahy M, Nuttall P, Portela A. Rescue of synthetic RNAs into thogoto and influenza A virus particles using core proteins purified from Thogoto virus. Virus Res. 2000;67:41-8 pubmed
    ..These data are discussed in terms of the similarities observed between THOV and influenza A virus and the potential application of the THOV purified proteins for rescuing synthetic genes into infectious viruses. ..
  42. Weber F, Jambrina E, Gonzalez S, Dessens J, Leahy M, Kochs G, et al. In vivo reconstitution of active Thogoto virus polymerase: assays for the compatibility with other orthomyxovirus core proteins and template RNAs. Virus Res. 1998;58:13-20 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the THOV polymerase did not recognize the influenza A virus promoter and vice versa. ..
  43. Zeng X, Wang D, Shu Y. [Research advances on thogoto virus of the family orthomyxoviridae]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2013;29:555-8 pubmed
    ..The functions of M protein and ML protein were emphasized, which were translated from the sixth segment and played an important role in viral replication, the interaction between Thogoto virus and host were also highlighted. ..
  44. Kaufman W, Nuttall P. Amblyomma variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae): mechanism and control of arbovirus secretion in tick saliva. Exp Parasitol. 1996;82:316-23 pubmed
    ..Ticks in which THO virus had established an infection showed an impaired secretory response compared with uninfected ticks and ticks used for mechanical transmission. ..
  45. Vogt C, Preuss E, Mayer D, Weber F, Schwemmle M, Kochs G. The interferon antagonist ML protein of thogoto virus targets general transcription factor IIB. J Virol. 2008;82:11446-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We further demonstrate that the ML-TFIIB interaction has surprisingly little impact on gene expression in general, while a strong negative effect is observed for IRF3- and NF-kappaB-regulated promoters...
  46. Leahy M, Dessens J, Weber F, Kochs G, Nuttall P. The fourth genus in the Orthomyxoviridae: sequence analyses of two Thogoto virus polymerase proteins and comparison with influenza viruses. Virus Res. 1997;50:215-24 pubmed
    The tick-borne Thogoto virus (THOV) is the type species of a newly recognized fourth genus, Thogotovirus, in the family Orthomyxoviridae...
  47. Jennings S, Martinez Sobrido L, Garcia Sastre A, Weber F, Kochs G. Thogoto virus ML protein suppresses IRF3 function. Virology. 2005;331:63-72 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, however, ML did not interfere with the nuclear transport of IRF3. Thus, the action of ML differs strikingly from that of FLUAV NS1 that prevents IFN induction by retaining IRF3 in the cytoplasm. ..
  48. Sandrock M, Frese M, Haller O, Kochs G. Interferon-induced rat Mx proteins confer resistance to Rift Valley fever virus and other arthropod-borne viruses. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2001;21:663-8 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that rats have evolved two Mx proteins to efficiently control viruses with different replication strategies. ..
  49. Leahy M, Dessens J, Pritlove D, Nuttall P. The Thogoto orthomyxovirus cRNA promoter functions as a panhandle but does not stimulate cap snatching in vitro. J Gen Virol. 1998;79 ( Pt 3):457-60 pubmed
    ..This demonstrates that cap snatching activity relies on the presence of the vRNA terminal sequences. ..
  50. Kochs G, Haller O. Interferon-induced human MxA GTPase blocks nuclear import of Thogoto virus nucleocapsids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:2082-6 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal an antiviral mechanism whereby an interferon-induced protein traps the incoming virus and interferes with proper transport of the viral genome to its ultimate target compartment within the infected cell. ..
  51. Leahy M, Dessens J, Nuttall P. In vitro polymerase activity of Thogoto virus: evidence for a unique cap-snatching mechanism in a tick-borne orthomyxovirus. J Virol. 1997;71:8347-51 pubmed
    ..This is the first experimental evidence of endonuclease activity in THOV as part of a unique cap-snatching mechanism. ..
  52. Kaufman W, Bowman A, Nuttall P. Salivary fluid secretion in the ixodid tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus is inhibited by Thogoto virus infection. Exp Appl Acarol. 2001;25:661-74 pubmed
    ..The mechanism by which THO virus affects secretory activity of its tick vector remains unknown. ..
  53. Frese M, Weeber M, Weber F, Speth V, Haller O. Mx1 sensitivity: Batken virus is an orthomyxovirus closely related to Dhori virus. J Gen Virol. 1997;78 ( Pt 10):2453-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Batken virus should be classified into the newly established genus Thogotovirus of the family Orthomyxoviridae...
  54. Smith D, Gaunt E, Digard P, Templeton K, Simmonds P. Detection of influenza C virus but not influenza D virus in Scottish respiratory samples. J Clin Virol. 2016;74:50-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Inclusion of influenza C virus as part of a diagnostic testing panel for respiratory infections would be of limited additional value. ..
  55. Dessens J, Nuttall P. Mx1-based resistance to thogoto virus in A2G mice is bypassed in tick-mediated virus delivery. J Virol. 1998;72:8362-4 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that immunomodulatory components in tick saliva can overcome a natural antiviral mechanism. ..
  56. Thimme R, Frese M, Kochs G, Haller O. Mx1 but not MxA confers resistance against tick-borne Dhori virus in mice. Virology. 1995;211:296-301 pubmed
    ..They further indicate that the Mx1 system functions as a potent defense mechanism against tick-borne influenza-like viruses in mice. ..