influenza b virus


Summary: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.

Top Publications

  1. Vesikari T, Block S, Guerra F, Lattanzi M, Holmes S, Izu A, et al. Immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of a mammalian cell-culture-derived influenza vaccine in healthy children and adolescents three to seventeen years of age. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:494-500 pubmed publisher
    ..CCIV produced in mammalian cell culture is a safe, well-tolerated and immunogenic alternative to conventional egg-derived influenza vaccines for children and adolescents. ..
  2. Ellis J, Curran M. Simultaneous molecular detection and confirmation of influenza AH5, with internal control. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;665:161-81 pubmed publisher
  3. Loebermann M, Anders G, Brestrich G, Fritzsche C, Klammt S, Boršo D, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a trivalent single dose seasonal influenza vaccine containing pandemic A(H1N1) antigen in younger and elderly subjects: a phase III open-label single-arm study. Vaccine. 2011;29:1228-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This single dose trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine generated protective antibodies to all three viral strains and had an acceptable safety profile in both younger and older adults ( identifier: NCT01147081). ..
  4. Esposito S, Cantarutti L, Molteni C, Daleno C, Scala A, Tagliabue C, et al. Clinical manifestations and socio-economic impact of influenza among healthy children in the community. J Infect. 2011;62:379-87 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the total burden of influenza among healthy children in the community in order to analyse the cost of influenza in paediatric age...
  5. Scott P, Meng B, Marriott A, Easton A, Dimmock N. Defective interfering influenza A virus protects in vivo against disease caused by a heterologous influenza B virus. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:2122-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, it was shown that 244/PR8 also protects against disease caused by a heterologous influenza B virus (B/Lee/40)...
  6. Kitano M, Itoh Y, Kodama M, Ishigaki H, Nakayama M, Ishida H, et al. Efficacy of single intravenous injection of peramivir against influenza B virus infection in ferrets and cynomolgus macaques. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:4961-70 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the efficacy of a single intravenous dose peramivir for treatment of influenza B virus infection in ferrets and cynomolgus macaques in the present study...
  7. Wen J, Zhao S, He D, Yang Y, Li Y, Zhu S. Preparation and characterization of egg yolk immunoglobulin Y specific to influenza B virus. Antiviral Res. 2012;93:154-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Laying hens were immunized with inactivated influenza B virus (IBV), and IgY was isolated from the egg yolk by multiple polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 extraction and ..
  8. Paddock C, Liu L, Denison A, Bartlett J, Holman R, DeLeon Carnes M, et al. Myocardial injury and bacterial pneumonia contribute to the pathogenesis of fatal influenza B virus infection. J Infect Dis. 2012;205:895-905 pubmed publisher
    b>Influenza B virus infection causes rates of hospitalization and influenza-associated pneumonia similar to seasonal influenza A virus infection and accounts for a substantial percentage of all influenza-related hospitalizations and deaths ..
  9. Dreyfus C, Laursen N, Kwaks T, Zuijdgeest D, Khayat R, Ekiert D, et al. Highly conserved protective epitopes on influenza B viruses. Science. 2012;337:1343-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These antibodies may inform on development of monoclonal antibody-based treatments and a universal flu vaccine for all influenza A and B viruses...

More Information


  1. Byarugaba D, Erima B, Millard M, Kibuuka H, L L, Bwogi J, et al. Genetic analysis of influenza B viruses isolated in Uganda during the 2009-2010 seasons. Virol J. 2013;10:11 pubmed publisher
    ..Complete genome analysis of one influenza B virus and several gene segments of other influenza B viruses isolated from Uganda from May 2009 through December ..
  2. Velkov T. The specificity of the influenza B virus hemagglutinin receptor binding pocket: what does it bind to?. J Mol Recognit. 2013;26:439-49 pubmed publisher
    ..the influenza B HA and provides a structure recognition perspective for the receptor binding preferences of influenza B virus HA regional and egg-adapted variants...
  3. Hardelid P, Pebody R, Andrews N. Mortality caused by influenza and respiratory syncytial virus by age group in England and Wales 1999-2010. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013;7:35-45 pubmed publisher
    ..RSV accounted for 5000-7500 deaths each winter season. The model presented provides a robust and reasonable approach to estimating the number of deaths caused by influenza and RSV by age group at the end of each winter. ..
  4. Skowronski D, Hottes T, De Serres G, Ward B, Janjua N, Sabaiduc S, et al. Influenza Β/Victoria antigen induces strong recall of Β/Yamagata but lower Β/Victoria response in children primed with two doses of Β/Yamagata. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:833-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Repeated annual TIV doses containing B/Victoria-lineage antigen strongly recalled antibodies to the B/Yamagata antigen of first exposure, but elicited lower B/Victoria responses. ..
  5. Stech J, Garn H, Herwig A, Stech O, Dauber B, Wolff T, et al. Influenza B virus with modified hemagglutinin cleavage site as a novel attenuated live vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:1483-90 pubmed publisher
    ..As a novel attenuated live vaccine against influenza B virus, we generated a hemagglutinin cleavage site mutant of strain B/Lee/40 by replacing the common monobasic ..
  6. Guan R, Ma L, Leonard P, Amer B, Sridharan H, Zhao C, et al. Structural basis for the sequence-specific recognition of human ISG15 by the NS1 protein of influenza B virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:13468-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The NS1 protein of influenza B virus (NS1B) specifically binds only human and nonhuman primate ISG15s and inhibits their conjugation...
  7. Li L, Wang D, Jiang Y, Sun J, Zhang S, Chen Y, et al. Crystal structure of human ISG15 protein in complex with influenza B virus NS1B. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:30258-62 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Influenza B virus NS1B protein antagonizes human but not mouse ISGylation because NS1B exhibits species specificity; it only ..
  8. Goldstein E, Cobey S, Takahashi S, Miller J, Lipsitch M. Predicting the epidemic sizes of influenza A/H1N1, A/H3N2, and B: a statistical method. PLoS Med. 2011;8:e1001051 pubmed publisher
    ..Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. ..
  9. Pica N, Chou Y, Bouvier N, Palese P. Transmission of influenza B viruses in the guinea pig. J Virol. 2012;86:4279-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore present, for the first time, a small animal model with which to study the underlying mechanisms of influenza B virus transmission.
  10. Feng L, Shay D, Jiang Y, Zhou H, Chen X, Zheng Y, et al. Influenza-associated mortality in temperate and subtropical Chinese cities, 2003-2008. Bull World Health Organ. 2012;90:279-288B pubmed publisher
    ..or A(H1N1) predominated, and more than half of all influenza-associated mortality was associated with influenza B virus. Between 2003 and 2008, seasonal influenza, particularly that caused by the influenza B virus, was ..
  11. Woolpert T, Brodine S, Lemus H, Waalen J, Blair P, Faix D. Determination of clinical and demographic predictors of laboratory-confirmed influenza with subtype analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:129 pubmed publisher
    ..A standardized clinical case definition combined with a point-of-care laboratory test may be the optimal rapid diagnostic strategy available. ..
  12. Babon J, Cruz J, Ennis F, Yin L, Terajima M. A human CD4+ T cell epitope in the influenza hemagglutinin is cross-reactive to influenza A virus subtypes and to influenza B virus. J Virol. 2012;86:9233-43 pubmed publisher
    ..epitope is well conserved in all 16 subtypes of the HA protein of influenza A virus and the HA protein of influenza B virus. By stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a healthy adult donor with peptides covering ..
  13. Wanitchang A, Narkpuk J, Jaru Ampornpan P, Jengarn J, Jongkaewwattana A. Inhibition of influenza A virus replication by influenza B virus nucleoprotein: an insight into interference between influenza A and B viruses. Virology. 2012;432:194-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest a novel role of NP(FluB) in inhibiting replication of FluA, providing more insights into the mechanism of interference between FluA and FluB and the lack of reassortants between them. ..
  14. Tan Y, Guan W, Lam T, Pan S, Wu S, Zhan Y, et al. Differing epidemiological dynamics of influenza B virus lineages in Guangzhou, southern China, 2009-2010. J Virol. 2013;87:12447-56 pubmed publisher
    The epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of the two cocirculating lineages of influenza B virus, Victoria and Yamagata, are poorly understood, especially in tropical or subtropical areas of Southeast Asia...
  15. Wu P, Goldstein E, Ho L, Yang L, Nishiura H, Wu J, et al. Excess mortality associated with influenza A and B virus in Hong Kong, 1998-2009. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:1862-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The influenza-associated excess mortality rates were generally similar in Hong Kong and the United States. ..
  16. Petrie J, Ohmit S, Johnson E, Cross R, Monto A. Efficacy studies of influenza vaccines: effect of end points used and characteristics of vaccine failures. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:1309-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In influenza vaccine efficacy studies, virus identification using rtPCR is the ideal end point. Isolation in cell culture will miss cases, and a serologic end point alone will overestimate inactivated vaccine efficacy. ..
  17. Ni F, Kondrashkina E, Wang Q. Structural basis for the divergent evolution of influenza B virus hemagglutinin. Virology. 2013;446:112-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Currently circulating influenza B virus belongs to the B/Victoria or B/Yamagata lineage that was diverged from each other about 30-40 years ago...
  18. Burnham A, Baranovich T, Govorkova E. Neuraminidase inhibitors for influenza B virus infection: efficacy and resistance. Antiviral Res. 2013;100:520-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent data has suggested that influenza B virus infections are of specific concern to pediatric patients because of the increased risk of severe disease...
  19. Powell M, Leigh K, Pöyry T, Jackson R, Brown T, Brierley I. Further characterisation of the translational termination-reinitiation signal of the influenza B virus segment 7 RNA. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16822 pubmed publisher
    ..Reinitiation on distant AUGs is not inhibited in eIF4G-depleted RRL, suggesting that the tethered 40S subunit can move some distance without a requirement for linear scanning. ..
  20. Corti D, Voss J, Gamblin S, Codoni G, Macagno A, Jarrossay D, et al. A neutralizing antibody selected from plasma cells that binds to group 1 and group 2 influenza A hemagglutinins. Science. 2011;333:850-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This antibody may be used for passive protection and to inform vaccine design because of its broad specificity and neutralization potency. ..
  21. Bodewes R, de Mutsert G, van der Klis F, Ventresca M, Wilks S, Smith D, et al. Prevalence of antibodies against seasonal influenza A and B viruses in children in Netherlands. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011;18:469-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may have implications for the development of vaccination strategies aiming at the protection of young children against seasonal and/or pandemic influenza virus infection. ..
  22. Cho C, Woo M, Kim J, Cheong S, Lee C, An S, et al. Evaluation of five rapid diagnostic kits for influenza A/B virus. J Virol Methods. 2013;187:51-6 pubmed publisher
    ..7%, 41.8%, and 47.7%, respectively. The specificity of all rapid tests was 100%. Commercial influenza antigen detection assays are useful tools for the rapid diagnosis of influenza. However, confirmatory testing is always recommended. ..
  23. Reed C, Meltzer M, Finelli L, Fiore A. Public health impact of including two lineages of influenza B in a quadrivalent seasonal influenza vaccine. Vaccine. 2012;30:1993-8 pubmed publisher
    ..One proposed alternative is to produce a quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) including an influenza B virus from each of the two circulating lineages...
  24. Yang J, Huang Y, Chang F, Hsu L, Lin Y, Huang H, et al. Phylogenetic and evolutionary history of influenza B viruses, which caused a large epidemic in 2011-2012, Taiwan. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47179 pubmed publisher
    ..The TW08-I viruses isolated in both 2011-2012 and 2007-2009 were antigenically similar, indicating that an influenza B virus have persisted for 5 years in antigenic stasis before causing a large epidemic...
  25. Novak Weekley S, Marlowe E, Poulter M, Dwyer D, Speers D, Rawlinson W, et al. Evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay for rapid identification and differentiation of influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:1704-10 pubmed publisher
    ..5%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively. We conclude that the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay is an accurate and rapid method that is suitable for on-demand testing for influenza viral infection. ..
  26. Gutiérrez Pizarraya A, Perez Romero P, Alvarez R, Aydillo T, Osorio Gómez G, Milara Ibáñez C, et al. Unexpected severity of cases of influenza B infection in patients that required hospitalization during the first postpandemic wave. J Infect. 2012;65:423-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Rapid diagnosis and early antiviral therapy are necessary for managing influenza pneumonia during epidemic periods. ..
  27. Ghattas C, Mossad S. Fatal human metapneumovirus and influenza B virus coinfection in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient. Transpl Infect Dis. 2012;14:E41-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Coinfection with hMPV and influenza virus type B may have a poor outcome and can be fatal, especially in immunocompromised patients. ..
  28. Osterlund P, Strengell M, Sarin L, Poranen M, Fagerlund R, Melen K, et al. Incoming influenza A virus evades early host recognition, while influenza B virus induces interferon expression directly upon entry. J Virol. 2012;86:11183-93 pubmed
    ..We observed that IFN responses are induced significantly faster in cells infected with influenza B virus than in cells infected with type A influenza virus and that the early induction of antiviral gene expression ..
  29. Block S, Yi T, Sheldon E, Dubovsky F, Falloon J. A randomized, double-blind noninferiority study of quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine in adults. Vaccine. 2011;29:9391-7 pubmed publisher
    ..97-1.25), and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.82-1.03), respectively. Solicited symptoms and adverse events were similar in the Q/LAIV and T/LAIV arms. Q/LAIV may confer increased protection against influenza by targeting B strains from both lineages. ..
  30. Garg S, Moore Z, Lee N, McKenna J, Bishop A, Fleischauer A, et al. A cluster of patients infected with I221V influenza b virus variants with reduced oseltamivir susceptibility--North Carolina and South Carolina, 2010-2011. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:966-73 pubmed publisher
    ..02). B/I221V cocirculated with B/WT in North Carolina and South Carolina during 2010-2011. I221V did not alter illness severity but may have reduced oseltamivir effectiveness. Thus, global surveillance for I221V is important. ..
  31. Ambrose C, Levin M. The rationale for quadrivalent influenza vaccines. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2012;8:81-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, licensed trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines contain antigens from only a single influenza B virus and thus provide limited immunity against circulating influenza B strains of the lineage not present in the ..
  32. Ng A, Lam M, Zhang H, Liu J, Au S, Chan P, et al. Structural basis for RNA binding and homo-oligomer formation by influenza B virus nucleoprotein. J Virol. 2012;86:6758-67 pubmed publisher
    ..We have determined the crystal structure of influenza B virus NP to a resolution of 3.2 Å. Influenza B NP contains a head, a body domain, and a tail loop...
  33. Cowling B, Ng S, Ma E, Fang V, So H, Wai W, et al. Protective efficacy against pandemic influenza of seasonal influenza vaccination in children in Hong Kong: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:695-702 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00792051. ..
  34. Wang Y, Xu H, Wu N, Shi H, Wang X, Wang T. Monoclonal antibody, but not synthetic peptide, targeting the ectodomain of influenza B virus M2 proton channel has antiviral activity. New Microbiol. 2010;33:311-7 pubmed
    The proton channels of influenza A virus (A/M2) and influenza B virus (BM2) are essential for viral replication...
  35. Wang Q, Cheng F, Lu M, Tian X, Ma J. Crystal structure of unliganded influenza B virus hemagglutinin. J Virol. 2008;82:3011-20 pubmed publisher
    ..More than two dozen amino acid substitutions on influenza B virus HAs have been identified to cause antigenicity alteration in site-specific mutants, monoclonal antibody ..
  36. Kim Y, Kim H, Cho S, Seo S. Influenza B virus causes milder pathogenesis and weaker inflammatory responses in ferrets than influenza A virus. Viral Immunol. 2009;22:423-30 pubmed publisher
    Abstract It is unknown why the influenza B virus causes less severe clinical signs than the influenza A virus in humans...
  37. Fiore A, Uyeki T, Broder K, Finelli L, Euler G, Singleton J, et al. Prevention and control of influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010;59:1-62 pubmed
    ..Vaccination and health-care providers should be alert to announcements of recommendation updates and should check the CDC influenza website periodically for additional information. ..
  38. Peng D, Zhao D, Liu J, Wang X, Yang K, Xicheng H, et al. Multipathogen infections in hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections. Virol J. 2009;6:155 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that there is a high occurrence of multipathogen infections in children admitted with ARTI and that coinfection is associated with certain pathogens. ..
  39. Dauber B, Martinez Sobrido L, Schneider J, Hai R, Waibler Z, Kalinke U, et al. Influenza B virus ribonucleoprotein is a potent activator of the antiviral kinase PKR. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000473 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we systematically investigated PKR activation by influenza B virus and its impact on viral pathogenicity...
  40. Versteeg G, Hale B, van Boheemen S, Wolff T, Lenschow D, Garcia Sastre A. Species-specific antagonism of host ISGylation by the influenza B virus NS1 protein. J Virol. 2010;84:5423-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that influenza B virus NS1 protein potently antagonizes human but not mouse ISGylation, a property dependent on B/NS1 binding the N-..
  41. Seo S, Byun Y, Lee E, Jung E, Jang Y, Kim H, et al. Development and characterization of a live attenuated influenza B virus vaccine candidate. Vaccine. 2008;26:874-81 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the cold-adapted B/Lee/40 donor strain merits further investigation as potential live vaccine carrier as an alternative means for protection from influenza B virus epidemics.
  42. Sugaya N, Tamura D, Yamazaki M, Ichikawa M, Kawakami C, Kawaoka Y, et al. Comparison of the clinical effectiveness of oseltamivir and zanamivir against influenza virus infection in children. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:339-45 pubmed publisher
    ..of oseltamivir and zanamivir in children with influenza A (H1N1) virus, influenza A (H3N2) virus, and influenza B virus infections...
  43. Sridharan H, Zhao C, Krug R. Species specificity of the NS1 protein of influenza B virus: NS1 binds only human and non-human primate ubiquitin-like ISG15 proteins. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:7852-6 pubmed publisher
    ..we provide one explanation for this restriction: the species specificity exhibited by the NS1 protein of influenza B virus (NS1B protein)...
  44. Moura F. Influenza in the tropics. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2010;23:415-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Influenza viruses resistant to oseltamivir and zanamivir have been detected in tropical countries despite the rare use of these drugs in the treatment of influenza in people living in these areas. ..
  45. Frank H, Wittekind C, Liebert U, Siekmeyer M, Siekmeyer W, Schuster V, et al. Lethal influenza B myocarditis in a child and review of the literature for pediatric age groups. Infection. 2010;38:231-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, influenza virus type B is one of the infective agents that can cause rapid and fatal myocarditis in previously healthy children. Early cardiac support may be the only option to prevent fatal outcome. ..
  46. Wrammert J, Smith K, Miller J, Langley W, Kokko K, Larsen C, et al. Rapid cloning of high-affinity human monoclonal antibodies against influenza virus. Nature. 2008;453:667-71 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we found that most of the influenza-virus-specific mAbs showed the highest affinity for the current vaccine strain. Thus, OAS does not seem to be a common occurrence in normal, healthy adults receiving influenza vaccination. ..
  47. Belshe R. The need for quadrivalent vaccine against seasonal influenza. Vaccine. 2010;28 Suppl 4:D45-53 pubmed publisher
    ..and little or no protection has been provided in the USA by the trivalent vaccines against the circulating influenza B virus in 5 of the 10 seasons between 2001 and 2010...
  48. Jian J, Chen G, Lai C, Hsu L, Chen P, Kuo S, et al. Genetic and epidemiological analysis of influenza virus epidemics in Taiwan during 2003 to 2006. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:1426-34 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 548, 2,123, and 1,336 sequences of the HA1 genes of influenza A virus subtypes H1 and H3 and influenza B virus, respectively, collected during 2003 to 2006 from an island-wide surveillance network were determined...
  49. Selvaraju S, Selvarangan R. Evaluation of three influenza A and B real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays and a new 2009 H1N1 assay for detection of influenza viruses. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3870-5 pubmed publisher
    ..specimens from children (30 influenza A/H1 virus-, 30 influenza A/H3 virus-, 30 2009 H1N1-, and 30 influenza B virus-positive specimens and 30 influenza virus-negative specimens) were tested with the CDC influenza A/B PCR (..
  50. Mancini D, Alves R, Mendonça R, Bellei N, Carraro E, Machado A, et al. Influenza virus and proteolytic bacteria co-infection in respiratory tract from individuals presenting respiratory manifestations. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2008;50:41-6 pubmed
    ..This finding corroborates that virus versus bacteria synergism could be able to potentiate respiratory infection, increasing damage to hosts. ..
  51. Belshe R, Coelingh K, Ambrose C, Woo J, Wu X. Efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine in children against influenza B viruses by lineage and antigenic similarity. Vaccine. 2010;28:2149-56 pubmed publisher
  52. Li W, Shih S, Huang Y, Chen G, Chang S, Hsiao M, et al. Clinical and genetic characterization of severe influenza B-associated diseases during an outbreak in Taiwan. J Clin Virol. 2008;42:45-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Severe influenza B-associated disease in children was not rare and might be fatal. We offered the evidence of co-circulation of the two HA lineages in the same outbreak. ..
  53. Chen R, Holmes E. The evolutionary dynamics of human influenza B virus. J Mol Evol. 2008;66:655-63 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is unclear what processes determine the evolutionary dynamics of influenza B virus, and how influenza viruses A and B interact at the evolutionary scale...
  54. Beran J, Wertzova V, Honegr K, Kaliskova E, Havlickova M, Havlik J, et al. Challenge of conducting a placebo-controlled randomized efficacy study for influenza vaccine in a season with low attack rate and a mismatched vaccine B strain: a concrete example. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:2 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical trial registery: NCT00197223. ..
  55. Khanna N, Steffen I, Studt J, Schreiber A, Lehmann T, Weisser M, et al. Outcome of influenza infections in outpatients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis. 2009;11:100-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Culture was positive in 14 (67%) patients. Influenza A virus was diagnosed in 8 (38%) episodes and influenza B virus in 13 (62%) episodes...
  56. Sheu T, Deyde V, Garten R, Klimov A, Gubareva L. Detection of antiviral resistance and genetic lineage markers in influenza B virus neuraminidase using pyrosequencing. Antiviral Res. 2010;85:354-60 pubmed publisher
  57. Hai R, Martinez Sobrido L, Fraser K, Ayllon J, Garcia Sastre A, Palese P. Influenza B virus NS1-truncated mutants: live-attenuated vaccine approach. J Virol. 2008;82:10580-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We also provide evidence that influenza B virus NS1 mutants induce a self-adjuvanted immune response and confer effective protection against challenge with ..
  58. Esposito S, Molteni C, Daleno C, Valzano A, Cesati L, Gualtieri L, et al. Comparison of nasopharyngeal nylon flocked swabs with universal transport medium and rayon-bud swabs with a sponge reservoir of viral transport medium in the diagnosis of paediatric influenza. J Med Microbiol. 2010;59:96-9 pubmed publisher
  59. Dilantika C, Sedyaningsih E, Kasper M, Agtini M, Listiyaningsih E, Uyeki T, et al. Influenza virus infection among pediatric patients reporting diarrhea and influenza-like illness. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:3 pubmed publisher
    ..6%) upper respiratory specimens and 21 (2.9%) of stool specimens. Viable influenza B virus was isolated from the stool specimen of one case...
  60. Sheu T, Deyde V, Okomo Adhiambo M, Garten R, Xu X, Bright R, et al. Surveillance for neuraminidase inhibitor resistance among human influenza A and B viruses circulating worldwide from 2004 to 2008. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:3284-92 pubmed publisher
    ..6% (50/579 isolates). The recent increase in oseltamivir resistance among A(H1N1) viruses isolated from untreated patients raises public health concerns and necessitates close monitoring of resistance to NA inhibitors. ..
  61. Falchi A, Arena C, Andreoletti L, Jacques J, Leveque N, Blanchon T, et al. Dual infections by influenza A/H3N2 and B viruses and by influenza A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 viruses during winter 2007, Corsica Island, France. J Clin Virol. 2008;41:148-51 pubmed
    ..However, the virological and epidemiological mechanisms that determine the occurrence of dual influenza infections remain to be fully investigated in further prospective multicentric studies. ..
  62. Lai C, Struckhoff J, Schneider J, Martinez Sobrido L, Wolff T, Garcia Sastre A, et al. Mice lacking the ISG15 E1 enzyme UbE1L demonstrate increased susceptibility to both mouse-adapted and non-mouse-adapted influenza B virus infection. J Virol. 2009;83:1147-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Both UbE1L(-/-) and ISG15(-/-) mice display increased susceptibility to influenza B virus infection, including non-mouse-adapted strains...
  63. Hurt A, Barr I. Influenza viruses with reduced sensitivity to the neuraminidase inhibitor drugs in untreated young children. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2008;32:57-62 pubmed
    ..Given these results it may be important to enhance neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility testing of viruses from patients in the less than two years cohort. ..
  64. Carr S, Ilyushina N, Franks J, Adderson E, Caniza M, Govorkova E, et al. Oseltamivir-resistant influenza A and B viruses pre- and postantiviral therapy in children and young adults with cancer. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:284-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Oseltamivir-resistant influenza viruses were isolated from 4 children (3 influenza A [H3N2] and 1 influenza B virus): before the initiation of antiviral therapy in 2 patients and during therapy in the other 2 patients...
  65. Sakudo A, Baba K, Tsukamoto M, Sugimoto A, Okada T, Kobayashi T, et al. Anionic polymer, poly(methyl vinyl ether-maleic anhydride)-coated beads-based capture of human influenza A and B virus. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:752-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this method of capture using magnetic beads coated with poly(MVE-MA) can be broadly used for the recovery of infectious human influenza viruses. ..
  66. Schwahn A, Wong J, Downard K. Subtyping of the influenza virus by high resolution mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2009;81:3500-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The approach represents a more rapid and direct approach with which to type and subtype the virus that is of critical need to prepare strategies and treatments in the event of a local epidemic or global pandemic. ..
  67. Gravel C, Li C, Wang J, Hashem A, Jaentschke B, Xu K, et al. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of virtually all subtypes of influenza A and B viral neuraminidases using antibodies targeting the universally conserved sequences. Vaccine. 2010;28:5774-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The reasons for the absence or low level of neuraminidase in vaccine preparations are complex and could be multi-factorial. The antibody-based assays reported here could be of practical value for better vaccine quality control. ..
  68. Kitano M, Itoh Y, Kodama M, Ishigaki H, Nakayama M, Nagata T, et al. Establishment of a cynomolgus macaque model of influenza B virus infection. Virology. 2010;407:178-84 pubmed publisher
    Pathogenicity of influenza B virus was examined in cynomolgus macaques to establish a macaque model suitable for vaccine and antiviral drug development...
  69. Schneider J, Dauber B, Melen K, Julkunen I, Wolff T. Analysis of influenza B Virus NS1 protein trafficking reveals a novel interaction with nuclear speckle domains. J Virol. 2009;83:701-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the NS1 protein of influenza B virus (B/NS1) accumulates in nuclear speckles and causes rounding and morphological changes of the domains, ..
  70. Stephenson I, Democratis J, Lackenby A, McNally T, Smith J, Pareek M, et al. Neuraminidase inhibitor resistance after oseltamivir treatment of acute influenza A and B in children. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:389-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Sixty-four children (34 with influenza A subtype H3N2, 11 with influenza A subtype H1N1, and 19 with influenza B virus) aged 1-12 years (median age, 3 years, 1 month) were enrolled...
  71. Robb N, Smith M, Vreede F, Fodor E. NS2/NEP protein regulates transcription and replication of the influenza virus RNA genome. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1398-407 pubmed publisher
    ..A role for the NS2/NEP protein in the regulation of influenza virus transcription and replication that is independent of its viral RNP export function is proposed. ..
  72. Greenbaum B, Levine A, Bhanot G, Rabadan R. Patterns of evolution and host gene mimicry in influenza and other RNA viruses. PLoS Pathog. 2008;4:e1000079 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this observation, we find that the influenza B virus, which has spent much more time in the human population, has adapted to its human host and exhibits an ..
  73. Monto A, Ohmit S, Petrie J, Johnson E, Truscon R, Teich E, et al. Comparative efficacy of inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccines. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:1260-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The live attenuated vaccine also prevented influenza illnesses but was less efficacious. ( number, NCT00538512.) ..
  74. Foo H, Blyth C, van Hal S, McPhie K, Ratnamohan M, Fennell M, et al. Laboratory test performance in young adults during influenza outbreaks at World Youth Day 2008. J Clin Virol. 2009;46:384-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Different environments, patient populations, operator experience, laboratory access and practicalities associated with performing tests during mass influenza outbreaks may affect performance of influenza-specific laboratory tests. ..
  75. Schwahn A, Wong J, Downard K. Signature peptides of influenza nucleoprotein for the typing and subtyping of the virus by high resolution mass spectrometry. Analyst. 2009;134:2253-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The application of the approach is illustrated for both type A H1N1 and H3N2, and type B strains of human influenza virus. ..
  76. Ohigashi Y, Ma C, Jing X, Balannick V, Pinto L, Lamb R. An amantadine-sensitive chimeric BM2 ion channel of influenza B virus has implications for the mechanism of drug inhibition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18775-9 pubmed publisher
    Influenza A virus M2 (A/M2) and the influenza B virus BM2 are both small integral membrane proteins that form proton-selective ion channels...
  77. Lau L, Cowling B, Fang V, Chan K, Lau E, Lipsitch M, et al. Viral shedding and clinical illness in naturally acquired influenza virus infections. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:1509-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that "silent spreaders" (ie, individuals who are infectious while asymptomatic or presymptomatic) may be less important in the spread of influenza epidemics than previously thought. ..
  78. Aebi T, Weisser M, Bucher E, Hirsch H, Marsch S, Siegemund M. Co-infection of Influenza B and Streptococci causing severe pneumonia and septic shock in healthy women. BMC Infect Dis. 2010;10:308 pubmed publisher
  79. Ma C, Soto C, Ohigashi Y, Taylor A, Bournas V, Glawe B, et al. Identification of the pore-lining residues of the BM2 ion channel protein of influenza B virus. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:15921-31 pubmed publisher
    The influenza B virus BM2 proton-selective ion channel is essential for virus uncoating, a process that occurs in the acidic environment of the endosome...