Summary: A family of rod-shaped viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES. It includes one genus: Okavirus.

Top Publications

  1. Anantasomboon G, Poonkhum R, Sittidilokratna N, Flegel T, Withyachumnarnkul B. Low viral loads and lymphoid organ spheroids are associated with yellow head virus (YHV) tolerance in whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Dev Comp Immunol. 2008;32:613-26 pubmed
    ..Thus, YHV-1 tolerance was not associated with absence of gp116 as previously reported for palaemonid shrimp. Instead, it was associated with the presence of YHV-positive LOS and a relatively low viral load. ..
  2. Sittidilokratna N, Phetchampai N, Boonsaeng V, Walker P. Structural and antigenic analysis of the yellow head virus nucleocapsid protein p20. Virus Res. 2006;116:21-9 pubmed
    ..The full-length nucleoprotein was expressed at high level in E. coli and was easily purified in quantity from the soluble cell fraction by Ni(+)-NTA affinity chromatography. ..
  3. Sittidilokratna N, Chotwiwatthanakun C, Wijegoonawardane P, Unajak S, Boonnad A, Wangnai W, et al. A virulent isolate of yellow head nidovirus contains a deformed envelope glycoprotein gp116. Virology. 2009;384:192-200 pubmed publisher
  4. Wijegoonawardane P, Cowley J, Phan T, Hodgson R, Nielsen L, Kiatpathomchai W, et al. Genetic diversity in the yellow head nidovirus complex. Virology. 2008;380:213-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The 3'-UTRs also contain predicted 3'-terminal hairpin-loop structures that are preserved in all genotypes by compensatory nucleotide substitutions, suggesting a role in polymerase recognition for minus-strand RNA synthesis. ..
  5. Sittidilokratna N, Dangtip S, Cowley J, Walker P. RNA transcription analysis and completion of the genome sequence of yellow head nidovirus. Virus Res. 2008;136:157-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Intergenic sequences upstream of ORF2 and ORF3 share high identity with GAV, particularly in the conserved domains predicted to mediate sgmRNA transcription...
  6. Zeng C, Wu A, Wang Y, Xu S, Tang Y, Jin X, et al. Identification and Characterization of a Ribose 2'-O-Methyltransferase Encoded by the Ronivirus Branch of Nidovirales. J Virol. 2016;90:6675-6685 pubmed publisher
    ..four virus families: Arteriviridae, Coronaviridae (divided into the subfamilies Coronavirinae and Torovirinae), Roniviridae, and the recently recognized Mesoniviridae RNA cap formation and methylation have been best studied for ..
  7. Cong Y, Verlhac P, Reggiori F. The Interaction between Nidovirales and Autophagy Components. Viruses. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..Four virus families (Arterividae, Coronaviridae, Mesoniviridae, and Roniviridae) are part of this order, which comprises several human and animal pathogens of medical and veterinary ..
  8. Tirasophon W, Roshorm Y, Panyim S. Silencing of yellow head virus replication in penaeid shrimp cells by dsRNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;334:102-7 pubmed
    ..These findings are the first evidence that RNAi-mediated gene silencing is operative in shrimp cells. This could be a powerful tool for studying gene function and to develop effective control of viral infection in shrimp. ..
  9. Wijegoonawardane P, Cowley J, Walker P. A consensus real-time RT-PCR for detection of all genotypic variants of yellow head virus of penaeid shrimp. J Virol Methods. 2010;167:5-9 pubmed publisher
    ..monodon broodstock and seedstock used for aquaculture. ..

More Information


  1. De la Rosa Vélez J, Cedano Thomas Y, Cid Becerra J, Méndez Payán J, Vega Pérez C, Zambrano García J, et al. Presumptive detection of yellow head virus by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and dot-blot hybridization in Litopenaeus vannamei and L. stylirostris cultured on the Northwest coast of Mexico. J Fish Dis. 2006;29:717-26 pubmed
    ..The results of this study provide presumptive evidence of the presence of YHV in Mexican shrimp farms at least during 1999-2000. ..
  2. Sithigorngul W, Rukpratanporn S, Sittidilokratna N, Pecharaburanin N, Longyant S, Chaivisuthangkura P, et al. A convenient immunochromatographic test strip for rapid diagnosis of yellow head virus infection in shrimp. J Virol Methods. 2007;140:193-9 pubmed
    ..The beneficial features of this kit are that simple, convenient, and rapid results that can be obtained without the requirement of sophisticated tools or special skills. ..
  3. Aoki T, Wang H, Unajak S, Santos M, Kondo H, Hirono I. Microarray analyses of shrimp immune responses. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2011;13:629-38 pubmed publisher
    ..peptidoglycan, oxytetracycline, oxolinic acid, salinity, and temperature. ..
  4. Flegel T, Sritunyalucksana K. Shrimp molecular responses to viral pathogens. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2011;13:587-607 pubmed publisher
    ..e., the quasi immune response, viral co-infections, viral sequences in the shrimp genome and persistent viral infections) for which little or no molecular information is currently available, but is much needed...
  5. Soowannayan C, Cowley J, Pearson R, Wallis T, Gorman J, Michalski W, et al. Glycosylation of gp116 and gp64 envelope proteins of yellow head virus of Penaeus monodon shrimp. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:2463-73 pubmed publisher
    ..YHV) is a highly virulent pathogen of Penaeus monodon shrimp that is classified in the genus Okavirus, family Roniviridae, in the order Nidovirales...
  6. Cowley J, Coman G, Salmon M, Young N, Rajendran K, Wilson K, et al. In situ stress testing to identify Australian black tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) free of gill-associated virus and Mourilyan virus. Aust Vet J. 2009;87:244-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This region can thus be recommended as a good source of P. monodon certifiable as specific pathogen-free for GAV and MoV, which is desirable for domestication and selective breeding programs in Australia. ..
  7. Assavalapsakul W, Chinnirunvong W, Panyim S. Application of YHV-protease dsRNA for protection and therapeutic treatment against yellow head virus infection in Litopenaeus vannamei. Dis Aquat Organ. 2009;84:167-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that YHV-Pro dsRNA can also be broadly applied as a prophylactic agent to inhibit YHV replication and therapeutic treatment of YHV-infected Pacific white shrimp. ..
  8. Soowannayan C, Cowley J, Michalski W, Walker P. RNA-binding domain in the nucleocapsid protein of gill-associated nidovirus of penaeid shrimp. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22156 pubmed publisher
    Gill-associated virus (GAV) infects Penaeus monodon shrimp and is the type species okavirus in the Roniviridae, the only invertebrate nidoviruses known currently...
  9. Tirasophon W, Yodmuang S, Chinnirunvong W, Plongthongkum N, Panyim S. Therapeutic inhibition of yellow head virus multiplication in infected shrimps by YHV-protease dsRNA. Antiviral Res. 2007;74:150-5 pubmed
    ..Shrimp mortality could be prevented at 3h post YHV infection by the dsRNA, but not at 24 h. These results demonstrate that YHV-protease dsRNA gives therapeutic effect and pave the way to develop a cure for YHV-infected shrimps. ..
  10. Theerawanitchpan G, Saengkrit N, Sajomsang W, Gonil P, Ruktanonchai U, Saesoo S, et al. Chitosan and its quaternized derivative as effective long dsRNA carriers targeting shrimp virus in Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells. J Biotechnol. 2012;160:97-104 pubmed publisher
    ..The natural and quaternized chitosan prepared in this study can be used for shrimp virus-specific dsRNA delivery in insect cultures, and have potential for future development of dsRNA carriers in shrimp feed. ..
  11. Munro J, Owens L. Sensitivity and specificity of current diagnostic tests for gill-associated virus in Penaeus monodon. J Fish Dis. 2006;29:649-55 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that alternative tests for GAV (ELISA and HA) can be used to explore multiple questions about the disease status of P. monodon stocks in a cost-effective manner. ..
  12. Jaroenram W, Arunrut N, Kiatpathomchai W. Rapid and sensitive detection of shrimp yellow head virus using loop-mediated isothermal amplification and a colorogenic nanogold hybridization probe. J Virol Methods. 2012;186:36-42 pubmed publisher
    ..As the LAMP-AuNP protocol only requires a heating block, it offers opportunities for rapid detection of YHV. ..
  13. Khunthong S, Jaroenram W, Arunrut N, Suebsing R, Mungsantisuk I, Kiatpathomchai W. Rapid and sensitive detection of shrimp yellow head virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick. J Virol Methods. 2013;188:51-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The LAMP method described in this study showed a rapid, high sensitivity and specificity and it is recommended as user-friendly for diagnosis of YHV in the field. ..
  14. Chang H, Tsai Y, Tsai C, Lin C, Lee P, Teng P, et al. A thermally baffled device for highly stabilized convective PCR. Biotechnol J. 2012;7:662-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The thermally baffled PCR instrument described here has the potential to be used as a low-cost, point-of-care device for PCR-based molecular diagnostics in the field. ..
  15. Zhang S, Bonami J. A roni-like virus associated with mortalities of the freshwater crab, Eriocheir sinensis Milne Edwards, cultured in China, exhibiting 'sighs disease' and black gill syndrome. J Fish Dis. 2007;30:181-6 pubmed
  16. Rattanarojpong T, Wang H, Lo C, Flegel T. Analysis of differently expressed proteins and transcripts in gills of Penaeus vannamei after yellow head virus infection. Proteomics. 2007;7:3809-14 pubmed
    ..The present results are consistent with previously published work and suggest that a decrease in SCP expression may play an important role in the shrimp response to viral infections in general. ..
  17. Veloso A, Warr G, Browdy C, Chapman R. The transcriptomic response to viral infection of two strains of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Dev Comp Immunol. 2011;35:241-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to TSV challenge, YSV either failed to perturb the host transcriptome or created a "confused" response that was difficult to interpret...
  18. Oanh D, van Hulten M, Cowley J, Walker P. Pathogenicity of gill-associated virus and Mourilyan virus during mixed infections of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). J Gen Virol. 2011;92:893-901 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the data show that P. monodon can tolerate a high-level MoV infection and that mortalities are associated with GAV infection. ..
  19. Pongsomboon S, Tang S, Boonda S, Aoki T, Hirono I, Yasuike M, et al. Differentially expressed genes in Penaeus monodon hemocytes following infection with yellow head virus. BMB Rep. 2008;41:670-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, comparative analysis of the hemocyte transcription levels of three of these genes between surviving and non-surviving shrimp revealed significantly higher expression levels in surviving shrimp. ..
  20. Taengchaiyaphum S, Havanapan P, Roytrakul S, Lo C, Sritunyalucksana K, Krittanai C. Phosphorylation is required for myosin regulatory light chain (PmMRLC) to control yellow head virus infection in shrimp hemocytes. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2013;34:1042-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, further studies on the MLCK activation pathway may lead to new strategies in development and implementation of therapy for YHV infections in shrimp. ..
  21. Panichareon B, Khawsak P, Deesukon W, Sukhumsirichart W. Multiplex real-time PCR and high-resolution melting analysis for detection of white spot syndrome virus, yellow-head virus, and Penaeus monodon densovirus in penaeid shrimp. J Virol Methods. 2011;178:16-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This method provides a rapid, sensitive, specific, and simultaneous detection of three major viruses making it as a useful tool for diagnosis and epidemiological studies of these viruses in shrimp and carriers. ..
  22. Junkunlo K, Prachumwat A, Tangprasittipap A, Senapin S, Borwornpinyo S, Flegel T, et al. A novel lectin domain-containing protein (LvCTLD) associated with response of the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei to yellow head virus (YHV). Dev Comp Immunol. 2012;37:334-41 pubmed publisher
  23. Chaivisuthangkura P, Tejangkura T, Rukpratanporn S, Longyant S, Sithigorngul W, Sithigorngul P. Preferential suppression of yellow head virus (YHV) envelope protein gp116 in shrimp that survive challenge with YHV. Dis Aquat Organ. 2008;79:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, some shrimp species were able to selectively inhibit the synthesis of gp116 in a manner that was associated with absence of gross signs of disease. ..
  24. Khimmakthong U, Kongmee P, Deachamag P, Leggat U, Chotigeat W. Activation of an immune response in Litopenaeus vannamei by oral immunization with phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) DNA. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2013;34:929-38 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore confirms the role of the PAP gene in shrimp immunity and may lead to the development of a way to prevent microbial diseases of shrimp at an industrial level by appropriate feeding of a chitosan/DNA complex. ..
  25. Dhar A, Cowley J, Hasson K, Walker P. Genomic organization, biology, and diagnosis of Taura syndrome virus and yellowhead virus of penaeid shrimp. Adv Virus Res. 2004;63:353-421 pubmed
  26. Yodmuang S, Tirasophon W, Roshorm Y, Chinnirunvong W, Panyim S. YHV-protease dsRNA inhibits YHV replication in Penaeus monodon and prevents mortality. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;341:351-6 pubmed
    ..It gives a new notion that dsRNA induction of antiviral immunity in shrimp goes through two pathways, sequence-independent and sequence-dependent. ..
  27. Senapin S, Thaowbut Y, Gangnonngiw W, Chuchird N, Sriurairatana S, Flegel T. Impact of yellow head virus outbreaks in the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei (Boone), in Thailand. J Fish Dis. 2010;33:421-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it is possible that they originated from an unknown, natural reservoir. ..
  28. Firth A, Atkins J. Evidence for a novel coding sequence overlapping the 5'-terminal approximately 90 codons of the gill-associated and yellow head okavirus envelope glycoprotein gene. Virol J. 2009;6:222 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that translation of the new ORF initiates at a conserved AUG codon separated by just 2 nt from the ORF3 AUG initiation codon, resulting in a novel 86 amino acid protein. ..
  29. Saksmerprome V, Charoonnart P, Gangnonngiw W, Withyachumnarnkul B. A novel and inexpensive application of RNAi technology to protect shrimp from viral disease. J Virol Methods. 2009;162:213-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed that both viral mRNA and viral proteins were suppressed in the protected shrimp. ..
  30. Su J, Oanh D, Lyons R, Leeton L, van Hulten M, Tan S, et al. A key gene of the RNA interference pathway in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon: identification and functional characterisation of Dicer-1. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008;24:223-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Knock-down of Pm Dcr1 expression resulted in more rapid mortalities and higher viral loads. These data demonstrated that Dicer is involved in antiviral defence in shrimp. ..
  31. Wijegoonawardane P, Cowley J, Walker P. Consensus RT-nested PCR detection of yellow head complex genotypes in penaeid shrimp. J Virol Methods. 2008;153:168-75 pubmed publisher
  32. Bourchookarn A, Havanapan P, Thongboonkerd V, Krittanai C. Proteomic analysis of altered proteins in lymphoid organ of yellow head virus infected Penaeus monodon. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1784:504-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of these altered proteins in the YHV-infected shrimps may provide novel insights into the molecular responses of P. monodon to YHV infection. ..
  33. Assavalapsakul W, Smith D, Panyim S. Identification and characterization of a Penaeus monodon lymphoid cell-expressed receptor for the yellow head virus. J Virol. 2006;80:262-9 pubmed
    ..While the identity of the clone remains unknown, it nevertheless represents the first invertebrate Nidovirus receptor isolated to date. ..
  34. Intorasoot S, Tanaka H, Shoyama Y, Leelamanit W. Characterization and diagnostic use of a recombinant single-chain antibody specific for the gp116 envelop glycoprotein of Yellow head virus. J Virol Methods. 2007;143:186-93 pubmed
    ..The scFv antibody therefore might find application in rapid, simple and sensitive diagnostic tests to detect YHV in farmed shrimp. ..
  35. Ma H, Overstreet R, Jovonovich J. Daggerblade grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio): A reservoir host for yellow-head virus (YHV). J Invertebr Pathol. 2009;101:112-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that P. pugio under some conditions could act as a reservoir host for YHV but that the blue crab could serve as a poor, short term carrier host only. ..
  36. Bonami J, Zhang S. Viral diseases in commercially exploited crabs: a review. J Invertebr Pathol. 2011;106:6-17 pubmed publisher
    ..have been reported in crabs, including those related to the known virus families Reoviridae, Bunyaviridae, Roniviridae and a group of Bacilliform enveloped nuclear viruses...
  37. Sithigorngul P, Rukpratanporn S, Chaivisuthangkura P, Sridulyakul P, Longyant S. Simultaneous and rapid detection of white spot syndrome virus and yellow head virus infection in shrimp with a dual immunochromatographic strip test. J Virol Methods. 2011;173:85-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite this lower sensitivity, the dual strip test has advantages in speed and simplicity in not requiring sophisticated equipment or specialized skills. The ability to co-detect WSSV and YHV provides simultaneously cost savings. ..
  38. Prapavorarat A, Pongsomboon S, Tassanakajon A. Identification of genes expressed in response to yellow head virus infection in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, by suppression subtractive hybridization. Dev Comp Immunol. 2010;34:611-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results confirmed their differential expression and upregulation, and thus verified the success of the SSHs and the likely involvement of these genes in shrimp antiviral mechanisms...
  39. Posiri P, Ongvarrasopone C, Panyim S. A simple one-step method for producing dsRNA from E. coli to inhibit shrimp virus replication. J Virol Methods. 2013;188:64-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings, this simple and cheap method of producing dsRNA should be adaptable to various commercial-scale applications of RNA interference (RNAi) in shrimp. ..
  40. Molthathong S, Senapin S, Klinbunga S, Puanglarp N, Rojtinnakorn J, Flegel T. Down-regulation of defender against apoptotic death (DAD1) after yellow head virus (YHV) challenge in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008;24:173-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, firm conclusions regarding the role of DAD1 must await the description and characterization of other proteins. ..
  41. Somnuk S, Tassanakajon A, Rimphanitchayakit V. Gene expression and characterization of a serine proteinase inhibitor PmSERPIN8 from the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012;33:332-41 pubmed publisher
    ..harveyi 639, and inhibit the shrimp prophenoloxidase system. The PmSERPIN8 is, thus, involved in the shrimp innate immunity. ..
  42. Molthathong S, Buaklin A, Senapin S, Klinbunga S, Rojtinnakorn J, Flegel T. Up-regulation of ribophorin I after yellow head virus (YHV) challenge in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008;25:40-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, unlike DAD1 that was down-regulated after YHV challenge, ribophorin I expression was up-regulated and remained high until the moribund stage. ..
  43. Duangsuwan P, Tinikul Y, Chotwiwatthanakun C, Vanichviriyakit R, Sobhon P. Changes in the histological organization and spheroid formation in lymphoid organ of Penaeus monodon infected with yellow head virus. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008;25:560-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This indicated that stromal cells together with type 1 fibers and associated extracellular matrix degenerated in lymphoid spheroids, while type 2 or reticular fibers proliferated and encapsulated the spheroids...
  44. Busayarat N, Senapin S, Tonganunt M, Phiwsaiya K, Meemetta W, Unajak S, et al. Shrimp laminin receptor binds with capsid proteins of two additional shrimp RNA viruses YHV and IMNV. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;31:66-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro pull-down assay also confirmed the interaction between Lamr and YHV gp116 envelope protein, and injection of recombinant Lamr (rLamr) protein produced in yeast cells protected shrimp against YHV in laboratory challenge tests. ..
  45. Sriphaijit T, Senapin S. High expression of a novel leucine-rich repeat protein in hemocytes and the lymphoid organ of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;22:264-71 pubmed
    ..e. highest in hemocytes, intestine and lymphoid organ) suggesting that it may play some roles in shrimp defense against pathogens. A preliminary test suggested that PmLRR may be down-regulated after viral injection. ..
  46. Gangnonngiw W, Kanthong N, Flegel T. Successful propagation of shrimp yellow head virus in immortal mosquito cells. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;90:77-83 pubmed publisher
    ..This partially solves the problem of lack of continuous shrimp cell lines for cultivation of YHV. ..
  47. Ongvarrasopone C, Chanasakulniyom M, Sritunyalucksana K, Panyim S. Suppression of PmRab7 by dsRNA inhibits WSSV or YHV infection in shrimp. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2008;10:374-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Silencing of PmRab7 could be a novel approach to prevent both DNA virus (WSSV) and RNA virus (YHV) infection of shrimp. ..
  48. Sellars M, Rao M, Arnold S, Wade N, Cowley J. Penaeus monodon is protected against gill-associated virus by muscle injection but not oral delivery of bacterially expressed dsRNAs. Dis Aquat Organ. 2011;95:19-30 pubmed publisher
  49. Munro J, Callinan R, Owens L. Gill-associated virus and its association with decreased production of Penaeus monodon in Australian prawn farms. J Fish Dis. 2011;34:13-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Emergency harvest when a disease outbreak occurs will significantly limit mortality losses. ..
  50. Soowannayan C, Chanarpakorn N, Phanthura M, Deekhlai N, Kunasol C, Sriurairatana S. N-Linked glycosylation is essential for the yellow head virus replication cycle. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:2458-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the results indicated that blocking glycosylation with tunicamycin inhibited the formation of mature YHV virions and their subsequent release into shrimp haemolymph, reducing the severity of disease. ..
  51. Mekata T, Sudhakaran R, Kono T, U taynapun K, Supamattaya K, Suzuki Y, et al. Real-time reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of yellow head virus in shrimp. J Virol Methods. 2009;162:81-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that this assay is applicable widely as a new quantitative detection method in the pursuit of YHV-free shrimp culture. ..
  52. Sriphaijit T, Flegel T, Senapin S. Characterization of a shrimp serine protease homolog, a binding protein of yellow head virus. Dev Comp Immunol. 2007;31:1145-58 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody raised against shrimp protein SPH516-C heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli revealed that SPH516 was present almost exclusively in the shrimp hemolymph. ..