sars virus


Summary: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.

Top Publications

  1. Rockx B, Donaldson E, Frieman M, Sheahan T, Corti D, Lanzavecchia A, et al. Escape from human monoclonal antibody neutralization affects in vitro and in vivo fitness of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:946-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously characterized a panel of neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), but the majority of epitopes recognized by the MAbs remain unknown...
  2. Tong T. Drug targets in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) virus and other coronavirus infections. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2009;9:223-45 pubmed
    ..This review presents the results of current research...
  3. Hui D, Chan P. Severe acute respiratory syndrome and coronavirus. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2010;24:619-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Horseshoe bats are implicated in the emergence of novel coronavirus infection in humans. Further studies are needed to examine host genetic markers that may predict clinical outcome. ..
  4. Zornetzer G, Frieman M, Rosenzweig E, Korth M, Page C, Baric R, et al. Transcriptomic analysis reveals a mechanism for a prefibrotic phenotype in STAT1 knockout mice during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. J Virol. 2010;84:11297-309 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that a combination of impaired viral clearance and T-cell/macrophage dysregulation causes the formation of prefibrotic lesions in the lungs of rMA15-infected STAT1-/- mice...
  5. Chen S, Olsthoorn R. Group-specific structural features of the 5'-proximal sequences of coronavirus genomic RNAs. Virology. 2010;401:29-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In general, the pattern of the 5' cis-acting elements is highly related to the lineage of CoVs, including features of the conserved hairpins in SL5. The function of these conserved hairpins as a putative packaging signal is discussed. ..
  6. Bouvet M, Debarnot C, Imbert I, Selisko B, Snijder E, Canard B, et al. In vitro reconstitution of SARS-coronavirus mRNA cap methylation. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000863 pubmed publisher
  7. Pfefferle S, Oppong S, Drexler J, Gloza Rausch F, Ipsen A, Seebens A, et al. Distant relatives of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and close relatives of human coronavirus 229E in bats, Ghana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1377-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The most recent common ancestor of hCoV-229E and GhanaBt-CoVGrp1 existed in approximately 1686-1800 ad. The GhanaBt-CoVGrp2 shared an old ancestor (approximately 2,400 years) with the severe acute respiratory syndrome-like group of CoV. ..
  8. Frieman M, Ratia K, Johnston R, Mesecar A, Baric R. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus papain-like protease ubiquitin-like domain and catalytic domain regulate antagonism of IRF3 and NF-kappaB signaling. J Virol. 2009;83:6689-705 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential mechanism of PLP antagonism and its role in pathogenesis are discussed. ..
  9. Graham R, Baric R. Recombination, reservoirs, and the modular spike: mechanisms of coronavirus cross-species transmission. J Virol. 2010;84:3134-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We pay particular attention to how changes in the Spike attachment protein, both within and outside of the receptor binding domain, mediate the emergence of coronaviruses in new host populations. ..

More Information


  1. Lu B, Huang Y, Huang L, Li B, Zheng Z, Chen Z, et al. Effect of mucosal and systemic immunization with virus-like particles of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in mice. Immunology. 2010;130:254-61 pubmed publisher
  2. Frieman M, Chen J, Morrison T, Whitmore A, Funkhouser W, Ward J, et al. SARS-CoV pathogenesis is regulated by a STAT1 dependent but a type I, II and III interferon receptor independent mechanism. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000849 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to a well documented role in innate immunity, we propose that STAT1 also protects mice via its role as an antagonist of unrestrained cell proliferation...
  3. Lau S, Li K, Huang Y, Shek C, Tse H, Wang M, et al. Ecoepidemiology and complete genome comparison of different strains of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related Rhinolophus bat coronavirus in China reveal bats as a reservoir for acute, self-limiting infection that allows recombination events. J Virol. 2010;84:2808-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Such frequent recombination, coupled with rapid evolution especially in ORF7b/ORF8 region, in these animals may have accounted for the cross-species transmission and emergence of SARS. ..
  4. te Velthuis A, Arnold J, Cameron C, van den Worm S, Snijder E. The RNA polymerase activity of SARS-coronavirus nsp12 is primer dependent. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:203-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The SARS-CoV nsp12 is primer dependent on both homo- and heteropolymeric templates, supporting the likeliness of a close enzymatic collaboration with the intriguing RNA primase activity that was recently proposed for coronavirus nsp8. ..
  5. Zhao J, Falcón A, Zhou H, Netland J, Enjuanes L, Pérez Breña P, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein 6 is required for optimal replication. J Virol. 2009;83:2368-73 pubmed publisher
  6. McBride C, Machamer C. Palmitoylation of SARS-CoV S protein is necessary for partitioning into detergent-resistant membranes and cell-cell fusion but not interaction with M protein. Virology. 2010;405:139-48 pubmed publisher
    ..This contrasts with the requirement for palmitoylation of mouse hepatitis virus S protein for interaction with M protein and may point to important differences in assembly and infectivity of these two coronaviruses. ..
  7. Tong S, Conrardy C, Ruone S, Kuzmin I, Guo X, Tao Y, et al. Detection of novel SARS-like and other coronaviruses in bats from Kenya. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:482-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The sequence diversity suggests that bats are well-established reservoirs for and likely sources of coronaviruses for many species, including humans. ..
  8. Becker M, Graham R, Donaldson E, Rockx B, Sims A, Sheahan T, et al. Synthetic recombinant bat SARS-like coronavirus is infectious in cultured cells and in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19944-9 pubmed publisher
  9. Drexler J, Gloza Rausch F, Glende J, Corman V, Muth D, Goettsche M, et al. Genomic characterization of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus in European bats and classification of coronaviruses based on partial RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene sequences. J Virol. 2010;84:11336-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Critical spike domains 472 and 487 were identical and similar, respectively. This study underlines the importance of assessments of the zoonotic potential of widely distributed bat-borne CoV...
  10. Chan R, Chan M, Agnihothram S, Chan L, Kuok D, Fong J, et al. Tropism of and innate immune responses to the novel human betacoronavirus lineage C virus in human ex vivo respiratory organ cultures. J Virol. 2013;87:6604-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of human lung tissue ex vivo organ cultures with type I IFNs (alpha and beta IFNs) at 1 h postinfection reduced the replication of HCoV-EMC, suggesting a potential therapeutic use of IFNs for treatment of human infection...
  11. Lee N, Kwon H, Park K, Oh S, Jeong Y, Kim D. Cooperative translocation enhances the unwinding of duplex DNA by SARS coronavirus helicase nsP13. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:7626-36 pubmed publisher
  12. Du L, Zhao G, Chan C, Li L, He Y, Zhou Y, et al. A 219-mer CHO-expressing receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV S protein induces potent immune responses and protective immunity. Viral Immunol. 2010;23:211-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the recombinant RBD219-CHO protein has great potential for the development of an effective and safe SARS subunit vaccine...
  13. Lu X, Pan J, Tao J, Guo D. SARS-CoV nucleocapsid protein antagonizes IFN-? response by targeting initial step of IFN-? induction pathway, and its C-terminal region is critical for the antagonism. Virus Genes. 2011;42:37-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results contribute to our further understanding of the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV. ..
  14. Bolles M, Deming D, Long K, Agnihothram S, Whitmore A, FERRIS M, et al. A double-inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus vaccine provides incomplete protection in mice and induces increased eosinophilic proinflammatory pulmonary response upon challenge. J Virol. 2011;85:12201-15 pubmed publisher
  15. Voss D, Pfefferle S, Drosten C, Stevermann L, Traggiai E, Lanzavecchia A, et al. Studies on membrane topology, N-glycosylation and functionality of SARS-CoV membrane protein. Virol J. 2009;6:79 pubmed publisher
  16. Zielecki F, Weber M, Eickmann M, Spiegelberg L, Zaki A, Matrosovich M, et al. Human cell tropism and innate immune system interactions of human respiratory coronavirus EMC compared to those of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. J Virol. 2013;87:5300-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, HCoV-EMC can utilize a broad range of human cell substrates and suppress IFN induction, but it does not reach the IFN resistance of SARS-CoV...
  17. Smits S, van den Brand J, de Lang A, Leijten L, Van Ijcken W, van Amerongen G, et al. Distinct severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-induced acute lung injury pathways in two different nonhuman primate species. J Virol. 2011;85:4234-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Induction of distinct proinflammatory genes after SARS-CoV infection in different nonhuman primate species needs to be taken into account when analyzing outcomes of intervention strategies in these species...
  18. Almazán F, Galan C, Enjuanes L. Engineering infectious cDNAs of coronavirus as bacterial artificial chromosomes. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;454:275-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The procedure is illustrated by the cloning of the genome of SARS coronavirus, Urbani strain. ..
  19. Yuan J, Hon C, Li Y, Wang D, Xu G, Zhang H, et al. Intraspecies diversity of SARS-like coronaviruses in Rhinolophus sinicus and its implications for the origin of SARS coronaviruses in humans. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:1058-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a closer evolutionary linkage between SCoV in humans and SLCoVs in R. sinicus, defining the scope of surveillance to search for the direct ancestor of human SCoVs. ..
  20. Wu C, Yeh S, Tsay Y, Shieh Y, Kao C, Chen Y, et al. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 regulates the phosphorylation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein and viral replication. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:5229-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This study, thus, provides new avenues to further investigate the specific role of N protein phosphorylation in CoV replication. ..
  21. Bertram S, Glowacka I, M ller M, Lavender H, Gnirss K, Nehlmeier I, et al. Cleavage and activation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein by human airway trypsin-like protease. J Virol. 2011;85:13363-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results show that HAT cleaves and activates SARS-S and might support viral spread in patients...
  22. Lugari A, Betzi S, Decroly E, Bonnaud E, Hermant A, Guillemot J, et al. Molecular mapping of the RNA Cap 2'-O-methyltransferase activation interface between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nsp10 and nsp16. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:33230-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the nsp10-nsp16 interface may represent an attractive target for antivirals against human and animal pathogenic coronaviruses. ..
  23. Teoh K, Siu Y, Chan W, Schlüter M, Liu C, Peiris J, et al. The SARS coronavirus E protein interacts with PALS1 and alters tight junction formation and epithelial morphogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:3838-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that hijacking of PALS1 by SARS-CoV E plays a determinant role in the disruption of the lung epithelium in SARS patients. ..
  24. Jaume M, Yip M, Cheung C, Leung H, Li P, Kien F, et al. Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike antibodies trigger infection of human immune cells via a pH- and cysteine protease-independent FcγR pathway. J Virol. 2011;85:10582-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest a novel mechanism by which SARS-CoV can enter target cells and illustrate the potential pitfalls associated with immunization against it. These findings should prompt further investigations into SARS pathogenesis. ..
  25. Glowacka I, Bertram S, M ller M, Allen P, Soilleux E, Pfefferle S, et al. Evidence that TMPRSS2 activates the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein for membrane fusion and reduces viral control by the humoral immune response. J Virol. 2011;85:4122-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we show that TMPRSS2 might promote viral spread and pathogenesis by diminishing viral recognition by neutralizing antibodies and by activating SARS S for cell-cell and virus-cell fusion...
  26. TSENG C, Sbrana E, Iwata Yoshikawa N, Newman P, Garron T, Atmar R, et al. Immunization with SARS coronavirus vaccines leads to pulmonary immunopathology on challenge with the SARS virus. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35421 pubmed publisher
    ..Caution in proceeding to application of a SARS-CoV vaccine in humans is indicated. ..
  27. Sun L, Xing Y, Chen X, Zheng Y, Yang Y, Nichols D, et al. Coronavirus papain-like proteases negatively regulate antiviral innate immune response through disruption of STING-mediated signaling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30802 pubmed publisher
    ..These results describe a new mechanism used by CoVs in which CoV PLPs negatively regulate antiviral defenses by disrupting the STING-mediated IFN induction...
  28. Liu Y, Massare M, Barnard D, Kort T, Nathan M, Wang L, et al. Chimeric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) S glycoprotein and influenza matrix 1 efficiently form virus-like particles (VLPs) that protect mice against challenge with SARS-CoV. Vaccine. 2011;29:6606-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed a novel method to produce high levels of a recombinant SARS virus-like particles (VLPs) vaccine containing the SARS spike (S) protein and the influenza M1 protein using the ..
  29. Ahn D, Lee W, Choi J, Kim S, Plant E, Almazán F, et al. Interference of ribosomal frameshifting by antisense peptide nucleic acids suppresses SARS coronavirus replication. Antiviral Res. 2011;91:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that -1 PRF, critical for SARS-CoV viral replication, can be inhibited by CPP-PNA, providing an effective antisense strategy for blocking -1 PRF signals. ..
  30. Nieto Torres J, DeDiego M, Alvarez E, Jiménez Guardeño J, Regla Nava J, Llorente M, et al. Subcellular location and topology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus envelope protein. Virology. 2011;415:69-82 pubmed publisher
    ..A topological conformation in which SARS-CoV E protein amino terminus is oriented towards the lumen of intracellular membranes and carboxy terminus faces cell cytoplasm is proposed. ..
  31. Shen H, Fang S, Chen B, Chen G, Tay F, Liu D. Towards construction of viral vectors based on avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus for gene delivery and vaccine development. J Virol Methods. 2009;160:48-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This represents a promising system for development of coronavirus-based gene delivery vectors and vaccines against coronavirus and other viral infections in chicken. ..
  32. Sheahan T, Whitmore A, Long K, FERRIS M, Rockx B, Funkhouser W, et al. Successful vaccination strategies that protect aged mice from lethal challenge from influenza virus and heterologous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. J Virol. 2011;85:217-30 pubmed publisher
  33. Matsuyama S, Nagata N, Shirato K, Kawase M, Takeda M, Taguchi F. Efficient activation of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein by the transmembrane protease TMPRSS2. J Virol. 2010;84:12658-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the TMPRSS2 expressed in lung tissues may be a determinant of viral tropism and pathogenicity at the initial site of SARS-CoV infection...
  34. Shum K, Tanner J. Differential inhibitory activities and stabilisation of DNA aptamers against the SARS coronavirus helicase. Chembiochem. 2008;9:3037-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Structural diversity in selection coupled to post-selection stabilisation has provided new insights into the aptamers that were selected for a helicase target. These aptamers are being further developed to inhibit SARS-CoV replication. ..
  35. Yang J, James E, Roti M, Huston L, Gebe J, Kwok W. Searching immunodominant epitopes prior to epidemic: HLA class II-restricted SARS-CoV spike protein epitopes in unexposed individuals. Int Immunol. 2009;21:63-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrates a strategy to determine potential immunodominant epitopes for emerging infectious pathogens prior to their epidemic circulation. ..
  36. Zhang L, Zhang Z, Zhang X, Lin F, Ge F. Quantitative proteomics analysis reveals BAG3 as a potential target to suppress severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus replication. J Virol. 2010;84:6050-9 pubmed publisher
    ..By correlating the proteomic data with these functional studies, the findings of this study provide important information for understanding SARS-CoV replication. ..
  37. Plant E, Rakauskaite R, Taylor D, Dinman J. Achieving a golden mean: mechanisms by which coronaviruses ensure synthesis of the correct stoichiometric ratios of viral proteins. J Virol. 2010;84:4330-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings of these analyses all support a "golden mean" model in which viruses use both programmed ribosomal frameshifting and translational attenuation to control the relative ratios of their encoded proteins. ..
  38. Yoshikawa T, Hill T, Yoshikawa N, Popov V, Galindo C, Garner H, et al. Dynamic innate immune responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infection. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8729 pubmed publisher
  39. Chang G, Dividson A, Lin L, Wilson M, Siddell S, Zhu Q. Establishment of the eukaryotic cell lines for inducible control of SARS-CoV nucleocapsid gene expression. Virol Sin. 2010;25:361-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The constructed BHK-Tet-SARS-N cell strains will facilitate the rescue of SARS-CoV in vitro and the further reverse genetic research of SARS-CoV. ..
  40. Tseng Y, Wang S, Huang K, Lee A, Chiang C, Wang C. Self-assembly of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus membrane protein. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:12862-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that multiple SARS-CoV M regions are involved in M self-assembly and subcellular localization. ..
  41. Ghosh A, Takayama J, Aubin Y, Ratia K, Chaudhuri R, Baez Y, et al. Structure-based design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of novel and reversible inhibitors for the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus papain-like protease. J Med Chem. 2009;52:5228-40 pubmed publisher
    ..3 microM) and the most potent SARS antiviral activity (EC(50) = 5.2 microM) in the series. We have carried out computational docking studies and generated a predictive 3D-QSAR model for SARS-CoV PLpro inhibitors. ..
  42. Clementz M, Chen Z, Banach B, Wang Y, Sun L, Ratia K, et al. Deubiquitinating and interferon antagonism activities of coronavirus papain-like proteases. J Virol. 2010;84:4619-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results demonstrate the multifunctional nature of the coronavirus PLP domain as a viral protease, DUB, and IFN antagonist and suggest that these independent activities may provide multiple targets for antiviral therapies. ..
  43. Ghosh A, Takayama J, Rao K, Ratia K, Chaudhuri R, Mulhearn D, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus papain-like novel protease inhibitors: design, synthesis, protein-ligand X-ray structure and biological evaluation. J Med Chem. 2010;53:4968-79 pubmed publisher
    ..A protein-ligand X-ray structure of 15 g-bound SARS-CoV PLpro and a corresponding model of 15 h docked to PLpro provide intriguing molecular insight into the ligand-binding site interactions. ..
  44. Varshney B, Lal S. SARS-CoV accessory protein 3b induces AP-1 transcriptional activity through activation of JNK and ERK pathways. Biochemistry. 2011;50:5419-25 pubmed publisher
  45. Decroly E, Debarnot C, Ferron F, Bouvet M, Coutard B, Imbert I, et al. Crystal structure and functional analysis of the SARS-coronavirus RNA cap 2'-O-methyltransferase nsp10/nsp16 complex. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002059 pubmed publisher
  46. Krähling V, Stein D, Spiegel M, Weber F, Mühlberger E. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus triggers apoptosis via protein kinase R but is resistant to its antiviral activity. J Virol. 2009;83:2298-309 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our data suggest that viral activation of PKR can lead to apoptosis via a pathway that is independent of eIF2alpha phosphorylation. ..
  47. Simmons G, Bertram S, Glowacka I, Steffen I, Chaipan C, Agudelo J, et al. Different host cell proteases activate the SARS-coronavirus spike-protein for cell-cell and virus-cell fusion. Virology. 2011;413:265-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, different host cell proteases activate SARS-S for virus-cell and cell-cell fusion and SARS-S cleavage at R667 and 758-RXXR-762 can be dispensable for SARS-S activation. ..
  48. Pfefferle S, Schöpf J, Kögl M, Friedel C, Muller M, Carbajo Lozoya J, et al. The SARS-coronavirus-host interactome: identification of cyclophilins as target for pan-coronavirus inhibitors. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002331 pubmed publisher
    ..Non-immunosuppressive derivatives of CspA might serve as broad-range CoV inhibitors applicable against emerging CoVs as well as ubiquitous pathogens of humans and livestock...
  49. Rockx B, Baas T, Zornetzer G, Haagmans B, Sheahan T, Frieman M, et al. Early upregulation of acute respiratory distress syndrome-associated cytokines promotes lethal disease in an aged-mouse model of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection. J Virol. 2009;83:7062-74 pubmed publisher
  50. Kam Y, Okumura Y, Kido H, Ng L, Bruzzone R, Altmeyer R. Cleavage of the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein by airway proteases enhances virus entry into human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7870 pubmed publisher
    ..These data have direct implications for the cell entry mechanism of SARS-CoV along the respiratory system and, furthermore expand the possibility of identifying potential therapeutic agents against SARS-CoV. ..
  51. Shulla A, Heald Sargent T, Subramanya G, Zhao J, Perlman S, Gallagher T. A transmembrane serine protease is linked to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus receptor and activates virus entry. J Virol. 2011;85:873-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that a cell surface complex comprising a primary receptor and a separate endoprotease operates as a portal for activation of SARS-CoV cell entry. ..
  52. Ishikawa F, Chang H, Curreli M, Liao H, Olson C, Chen P, et al. Label-free, electrical detection of the SARS virus N-protein with nanowire biosensors utilizing antibody mimics as capture probes. ACS Nano. 2009;3:1219-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the binding constant of the AMP to Fn was determined from the concentration dependence of the response of our biosensors. ..
  53. Totura A, Baric R. SARS coronavirus pathogenesis: host innate immune responses and viral antagonism of interferon. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:264-75 pubmed publisher
    ..SARS-CoV encodes several proteins that modulate innate immune signaling through the antagonism of the induction of Interferon and by avoidance of ISG effector functions. ..
  54. Law H, Cheung C, Sia S, Chan Y, Peiris J, Lau Y. Toll-like receptors, chemokine receptors and death receptor ligands responses in SARS coronavirus infected human monocyte derived dendritic cells. BMC Immunol. 2009;10:35 pubmed publisher
    ..We also compared adult and cord blood (CB) DCs to find a possible explanation for the age-dependent severity of SARS...
  55. Chen Y, Cai H, Pan J, Xiang N, Tien P, Ahola T, et al. Functional screen reveals SARS coronavirus nonstructural protein nsp14 as a novel cap N7 methyltransferase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3484-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutational analysis in a replicon system showed that the N7-MTase activity was important for SARS virus replication/transcription and can thus be used as an attractive drug target to develop antivirals for control of ..
  56. Eckerle L, Becker M, Halpin R, Li K, Venter E, Lu X, et al. Infidelity of SARS-CoV Nsp14-exonuclease mutant virus replication is revealed by complete genome sequencing. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000896 pubmed publisher
  57. Huang C, Lokugamage K, Rozovics J, Narayanan K, Semler B, Makino S. SARS coronavirus nsp1 protein induces template-dependent endonucleolytic cleavage of mRNAs: viral mRNAs are resistant to nsp1-induced RNA cleavage. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002433 pubmed publisher
    ..The escape of viral mRNAs from nsp1-induced RNA cleavage may be an important strategy by which the virus circumvents the action of nsp1 leading to the efficient accumulation of viral mRNAs and viral proteins during infection. ..
  58. Piotrowski Y, Hansen G, Boomaars van der Zanden A, Snijder E, Gorbalenya A, Hilgenfeld R. Crystal structures of the X-domains of a Group-1 and a Group-3 coronavirus reveal that ADP-ribose-binding may not be a conserved property. Protein Sci. 2009;18:6-16 pubmed publisher
    ..For comparison, we also describe the crystal structure of the homologous X-domain from Human Coronavirus 229E, a Group-1 coronavirus, which does bind ADP-ribose. ..
  59. Lee C, Lee J, Lee N, Jin B, Jang K, Kim D, et al. Aryl diketoacids (ADK) selectively inhibit duplex DNA-unwinding activity of SARS coronavirus NTPase/helicase. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2009;19:1636-8 pubmed publisher
  60. Smits S, de Lang A, van den Brand J, Leijten L, Van Ijcken W, Eijkemans M, et al. Exacerbated innate host response to SARS-CoV in aged non-human primates. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000756 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ALI in SARS-CoV-infected aged macaques developed as a result of an exacerbated innate host response. The anti-inflammatory action of type I IFN reveals a potential intervention strategy for virus-induced ALI...
  61. Zhao J, Zhao J, Perlman S. T cell responses are required for protection from clinical disease and for virus clearance in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-infected mice. J Virol. 2010;84:9318-25 pubmed publisher
    ..They also provide a new approach to SARS vaccine design...
  62. Freundt E, Yu L, Park E, Lenardo M, Xu X. Molecular determinants for subcellular localization of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus open reading frame 3b protein. J Virol. 2009;83:6631-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings reported here reveal that for multilocalized proteins, consideration of the spatiotemporal distribution may be crucial for understanding viral protein behavior and function. ..
  63. Basu D, Walkiewicz M, Frieman M, Baric R, Auble D, Engel D. Novel influenza virus NS1 antagonists block replication and restore innate immune function. J Virol. 2009;83:1881-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that the function of NS1 can be modulated by chemical inhibitors and that such inhibitors will be useful as probes of biological function and as starting points for clinical drug development. ..
  64. Qi Y, Zhang H, Wang J, Jiang Y, Li J, Yuan Y, et al. In vitro anti-hepatitis B and SARS virus activities of a titanium-substituted-heteropolytungstate. Antiviral Res. 2012;93:118-25 pubmed publisher
    ..1, has been synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antiviral activities against hepatitis B (HBV) and SARS virus. The identity and high purity of compound 1 were confirmed by elemental analysis, NMR, IR analysis and single-..
  65. te Velthuis A, van den Worm S, Snijder E. The SARS-coronavirus nsp7+nsp8 complex is a unique multimeric RNA polymerase capable of both de novo initiation and primer extension. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:1737-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, site-directed mutagenesis of conserved D/ExD/E motifs was employed to identify residues crucial for nsp(7+8) RdRp activity. ..
  66. Siu K, Kok K, Ng M, Poon V, Yuen K, Zheng B, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus M protein inhibits type I interferon production by impeding the formation of TRAF3.TANK.TBK1/IKKepsilon complex. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:16202-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings reveal a new mechanism by which SARS coronavirus circumvents the production of type I interferons. ..
  67. Li S, Lai C, Ping J, Tsai F, Wan L, Lin Y, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus papain-like protease suppressed alpha interferon-induced responses through downregulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1-mediated signalling pathways. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1127-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall results proved downregulation of ERK1 by ubiquitin proteasomes and suppression of interaction between ERK1 and STAT1 as type I IFN antagonist function of SARS-CoV PLpro. ..
  68. Roberts A, Lamirande E, Vogel L, Baras B, Goossens G, Knott I, et al. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice and hamsters of a ?-propiolactone inactivated whole virus SARS-CoV vaccine. Viral Immunol. 2010;23:509-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Enhanced disease was not observed in the lungs or liver of hamsters following SARS-CoV challenge, regardless of the level of serum neutralizing antibodies...
  69. Phakthanakanok K, Ratanakhanokchai K, Kyu K, Sompornpisut P, Watts A, Pinitglang S. A computational analysis of SARS cysteine proteinase-octapeptide substrate interaction: implication for structure and active site binding mechanism. BMC Bioinformatics. 2009;10 Suppl 1:S48 pubmed publisher
    ..MD simulations were carried out on the SARS CoVMpro-octapeptide complex. The hypothesis proposed that Glu47 of SARS CoVMpro is an important residue in the S3 subsite and is involved in binding with P3Lys of the octapeptide. ..
  70. Chen J, Lau Y, Lamirande E, Paddock C, Bartlett J, Zaki S, et al. Cellular immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection in senescent BALB/c mice: CD4+ T cells are important in control of SARS-CoV infection. J Virol. 2010;84:1289-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of SARS, demonstrating the important role of CD4(+) but not CD8(+) T cells in primary SARS-CoV infection in this model...
  71. Sung S, Chao C, Jeng K, Yang J, Lai M. The 8ab protein of SARS-CoV is a luminal ER membrane-associated protein and induces the activation of ATF6. Virology. 2009;387:402-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that 8ab could modulate the UPR by activating ATF6 to facilitate protein folding and processing. Thus, the loss of 8ab in SARS-CoV through viral evolution in animals may play a role in its pathogenicity...
  72. Du L, Zhao G, Chan C, Sun S, Chen M, Liu Z, et al. Recombinant receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV spike protein expressed in mammalian, insect and E. coli cells elicits potent neutralizing antibody and protective immunity. Virology. 2009;393:144-50 pubmed publisher
    ..coli and insect cells. ..
  73. Xu K, Zheng B, Zeng R, Lu W, Lin Y, Xue L, et al. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus accessory protein 9b is a virion-associated protein. Virology. 2009;388:279-85 pubmed publisher
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