human coronavirus 229e


Summary: A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.

Top Publications

  1. Bellau Pujol S, Vabret A, Legrand L, Dina J, Gouarin S, Petitjean Lecherbonnier J, et al. Development of three multiplex RT-PCR assays for the detection of 12 respiratory RNA viruses. J Virol Methods. 2005;126:53-63 pubmed
  2. Tang B, Chan K, Cheng V, Woo P, Lau S, Lam C, et al. Comparative host gene transcription by microarray analysis early after infection of the Huh7 cell line by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and human coronavirus 229E. J Virol. 2005;79:6180-93 pubmed
    ..Huh7 cells were found to be susceptible to both SARS-CoV, associated with SARS, and human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), usually associated with the common cold...
  3. Kolb A, Hegyi A, Siddell S. Identification of residues critical for the human coronavirus 229E receptor function of human aminopeptidase N. J Gen Virol. 1997;78 ( Pt 11):2795-802 pubmed
    ..These changes were sufficient to convert porcine APN into a functional receptor for HCV 229E and thus define a small number of residues that are critically important for the HCV 229E receptor function of human APN. ..
  4. Pfefferle S, Oppong S, Drexler J, Gloza Rausch F, Ipsen A, Seebens A, et al. Distant relatives of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and close relatives of human coronavirus 229E in bats, Ghana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1377-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The most recent common ancestor of hCoV-229E and GhanaBt-CoVGrp1 existed in approximately 1686-1800 ad. The GhanaBt-CoVGrp2 shared an old ancestor (approximately 2,400 years) with the severe acute respiratory syndrome-like group of CoV. ..
  5. de Souza Luna L, Heiser V, Regamey N, Panning M, Drexler J, Mulangu S, et al. Generic detection of coronaviruses and differentiation at the prototype strain level by reverse transcription-PCR and nonfluorescent low-density microarray. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:1049-52 pubmed
    ..In 39 children suffering from coronavirus 229E, NL63, OC43, or HKU1, the sensitivity was equal to that of individual real-time RT-PCRs. ..
  6. Anand K, Ziebuhr J, Wadhwani P, Mesters J, Hilgenfeld R. Coronavirus main proteinase (3CLpro) structure: basis for design of anti-SARS drugs. Science. 2003;300:1763-7 pubmed
    ..Molecular modeling suggests that available rhinovirus 3Cpro inhibitors may be modified to make them useful for treating SARS. ..
  7. Ivanov K, Ziebuhr J. Human coronavirus 229E nonstructural protein 13: characterization of duplex-unwinding, nucleoside triphosphatase, and RNA 5'-triphosphatase activities. J Virol. 2004;78:7833-8 pubmed
    The human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) replicase gene-encoded nonstructural protein 13 (nsp13) contains an N-terminal zinc-binding domain and a C-terminal superfamily 1 helicase domain...
  8. Chibo D, Birch C. Analysis of human coronavirus 229E spike and nucleoprotein genes demonstrates genetic drift between chronologically distinct strains. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1203-8 pubmed
    ..Previous studies of geographically and chronologically distinct Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) isolates have found only limited variation within S gene nucleotide sequences...
  9. Gerna G, Campanini G, Rovida F, Percivalle E, Sarasini A, Marchi A, et al. Genetic variability of human coronavirus OC43-, 229E-, and NL63-like strains and their association with lower respiratory tract infections of hospitalized infants and immunocompromised patients. J Med Virol. 2006;78:938-49 pubmed
    ..Finally, hCoVs should be screened routinely for in both infants and immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory infection. ..

More Information


  1. Wu Y, Tseng C, Cheng M, Ho H, Shih S, Chiu D. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency enhances human coronavirus 229E infection. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:812-6 pubmed publisher
    ..All experimental data indicated that oxidative stress in host cells is an important factor in HCoV 229E infectivity. ..
  2. Cheng P, Ng L, Chiang L, Lin C. Antiviral effects of saikosaponins on human coronavirus 229E in vitro. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2006;33:612-6 pubmed
    ..In the time-of-addition studies, saikosaponin B2, at 6 micromol/L, significantly inhibited human coronavirus 229E infection following its addition at various time pre-infection (-4 to -1 h), coinfection (0 h) and post-..
  3. Putics A, Slaby J, Filipowicz W, Gorbalenya A, Ziebuhr J. ADP-ribose-1"-phosphatase activities of the human coronavirus 229E and SARS coronavirus X domains. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;581:93-6 pubmed publisher
  4. Kawase M, Shirato K, Matsuyama S, Taguchi F. Protease-mediated entry via the endosome of human coronavirus 229E. J Virol. 2009;83:712-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Human coronavirus 229E, classified as a group I coronavirus, utilizes human aminopeptidase N (APN) as a receptor; however, its entry mechanism has not yet been fully elucidated...
  5. Thiel V, Herold J, Schelle B, Siddell S. Infectious RNA transcribed in vitro from a cDNA copy of the human coronavirus genome cloned in vaccinia virus. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:1273-81 pubmed
    ..This system is based upon the in vitro transcription of infectious RNA from a cDNA copy of the human coronavirus 229E genome that has been cloned and propagated in vaccinia virus...
  6. Lassnig C, Sanchez C, Egerbacher M, Walter I, Majer S, Kolbe T, et al. Development of a transgenic mouse model susceptible to human coronavirus 229E. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:8275-80 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these mice provide an important tool for the evaluation of biosafety and efficacy of coronavirus-based vectors. ..
  7. Ziebuhr J, Heusipp G, Siddell S. Biosynthesis, purification, and characterization of the human coronavirus 229E 3C-like proteinase. J Virol. 1997;71:3992-7 pubmed
    ..In this report, we describe the biosynthesis of the human coronavirus 229E 3C-like proteinase in Escherichia coli and the enzymatic properties, inhibitor profile, and substrate ..
  8. Ziebuhr J, Siddell S. Processing of the human coronavirus 229E replicase polyproteins by the virus-encoded 3C-like proteinase: identification of proteolytic products and cleavage sites common to pp1a and pp1ab. J Virol. 1999;73:177-85 pubmed
    Replicase gene expression by the human coronavirus 229E involves the synthesis of two large polyproteins, pp1a and pp1ab. Experimental evidence suggests that these precursor molecules are subject to extensive proteolytic processing...
  9. Dijkman R, Jebbink M, Wilbrink B, Pyrc K, Zaaijer H, Minor P, et al. Human coronavirus 229E encodes a single ORF4 protein between the spike and the envelope genes. Virol J. 2006;3:106 pubmed publisher
    ..This may indicate that the protein is not essential in cell culture, but the highly conserved amino acid sequence of the ORF4 protein among clinical isolates suggests that the protein plays an important role in vivo...
  10. Warnes S, Little Z, Keevil C. Human Coronavirus 229E Remains Infectious on Common Touch Surface Materials. MBio. 2015;6:e01697-15 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that pathogenic human coronavirus 229E remained infectious in a human lung cell culture model following at least 5 days of persistence on a range ..
  11. Nomura R. [Caveolar endocytosis and virus entry]. Uirusu. 2005;55:19-26 pubmed
    ..In addition, it was demonstrated that human coronavirus-229E enters the cell through caveolae. This review examines the involvement of caveolae in endocytosis used by the viral entry system. ..
  12. Pavić K, Perković I, Gilja P, Kozlina F, Ester K, Kralj M, et al. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Primaquine-Cinnamic Acid Conjugates of the Amide and Acylsemicarbazide Type. Molecules. 2016;21: pubmed
    ..The dimethoxy derivative 7d was the most potent LOX inhibitor (IC50 = 10 ??). The performed biological tests gave evidence of acylsemicarbazide functional group as superior binding group in PQ-CAD conjugates. ..
  13. Hofmann H, Pyrc K, van der Hoek L, Geier M, Berkhout B, Pohlmann S. Human coronavirus NL63 employs the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus receptor for cellular entry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7988-93 pubmed
    ..The frequent HCoV-NL63 infection of humans suggests that highly pathogenic variants have ample opportunity to evolve, underlining the need for vaccines against HCoVs. ..
  14. Thiel V, Rashtchian A, Herold J, Schuster D, Guan N, Siddell S. Effective amplification of 20-kb DNA by reverse transcription PCR. Anal Biochem. 1997;252:62-70 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we report a system to effectively amplify fragments up to 20 kilobases from human coronavirus 229E genomic RNA...
  15. Sung H, Park S, Woo Y, Choi B, Kim M. [Evaluation of Seeplex RV detection kit for detecting rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, and coronavirus]. Korean J Lab Med. 2008;28:109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiplex reverse transcriptase-PCR method using Seeplex RV Detection kit is a reliable test to detect rhinovirus, hMPV, and coronavirus. It may improve the diagnostic sensitivity for RSV, influenza virus, PIV, and adenovirus. ..
  16. Breslin J, Mørk I, Smith M, Vogel L, Hemmila E, Bonavia A, et al. Human coronavirus 229E: receptor binding domain and neutralization by soluble receptor at 37 degrees C. J Virol. 2003;77:4435-8 pubmed
    ..Soluble hAPN neutralized the infectivity of HCoV-229E virions at 37 degrees C, but not 4 degrees C. Binding of hAPN may therefore trigger conformational changes in the viral spike protein at 37 degrees C that facilitate virus entry. ..
  17. Gagneur A, Legrand M, Picard B, Baron R, Talbot P, de Parscau L, et al. [Nosocomial infections due to human coronaviruses in the newborn]. Arch Pediatr. 2002;9:61-9 pubmed
    ..Universal precautions with hand washing and surface desinfection could be proposed to prevent coronavirus transmission. ..
  18. Scandella E, Eriksson K, Hertzig T, Drosten C, Chen L, Gui C, et al. Identification and evaluation of coronavirus replicase inhibitors using a replicon cell line. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;581:609-13 pubmed
  19. Kahn J, McIntosh K. History and recent advances in coronavirus discovery. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:S223-7, discussion S226 pubmed
    ..Coronavirology has advanced significantly in the past few years. The SARS epidemic put the animal coronaviruses in the spotlight. The background and history relative to this important and expanding research area are reviewed here. ..
  20. Mills J. Peptides derived from HIV-1, HIV-2, Ebola virus, SARS coronavirus and coronavirus 229E exhibit high affinity binding to the formyl peptide receptor. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1762:693-703 pubmed
    ..This indicates that formyl peptide receptor may be important in viral infections and that variations in its sequence among individuals may affect their likelihood of viral and bacterial infections. ..
  21. Herold J, Gorbalenya A, Thiel V, Schelle B, Siddell S. Proteolytic processing at the amino terminus of human coronavirus 229E gene 1-encoded polyproteins: identification of a papain-like proteinase and its substrate. J Virol. 1998;72:910-8 pubmed
    ..In this study, we used transfection and immunoprecipitation assays to show that the human coronavirus 229E-encoded papain-like cysteine proteinase, PCP1, is responsible for the release of an amino-terminal protein,..
  22. Kono M, Tatsumi K, Imai A, Saito K, Kuriyama T, Shirasawa H. Inhibition of human coronavirus 229E infection in human epithelial lung cells (L132) by chloroquine: involvement of p38 MAPK and ERK. Antiviral Res. 2008;77:150-2 pubmed
    The antiviral effects of chloroquine (CQ) on human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) infection of human fetal lung cell line, L132 are reported. CQ significantly decreased the viral replication at concentrations lower than in clinical usage...
  23. Rüdiger A, Mayrhofer P, Ma Lauer Y, Pohlentz G, Muthing J, von Brunn A, et al. Tubulins interact with porcine and human S proteins of the genus Alphacoronavirus and support successful assembly and release of infectious viral particles. Virology. 2016;497:185-197 pubmed publisher
    ..we demonstrated that the last 39 amino acid stretches of Alphacoronavirus spike cytoplasmic domains of the human coronavirus 229E, NL63, and the porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus TGEV interact with tubulin alpha and beta ..
  24. Thiel V, Siddell S. Reverse genetics of coronaviruses using vaccinia virus vectors. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2005;287:199-227 pubmed
    ..generic approach to coronavirus reverse genetics and was first described for the generation of recombinant human coronavirus 229E representing a group I coronavirus...
  25. de Wilde A, Zevenhoven Dobbe J, Beugeling C, Chatterji U, de Jong D, Gallay P, et al. Coronaviruses and arteriviruses display striking differences in their cyclophilin A-dependence during replication in cell culture. Virology. 2018;517:148-156 pubmed publisher
    ..that can all replicate in Huh7 cells: the arterivirus equine arteritis virus (EAV), the alphacoronavirus human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), and the betacoronavirus Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV)...
  26. Lambert F, Jacomy H, Marceau G, Talbot P. Titration of human coronaviruses, HcoV-229E and HCoV-OC43, by an indirect immunoperoxidase assay. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;454:93-102 pubmed publisher
    ..This technique is a reliable method for the titration of HCoV in biological samples (cells, tissues, or fluids). ..
  27. Wu G, Yan S. Prediction of amino acid pairs sensitive to mutations in the spike protein from SARS related coronavirus. Peptides. 2003;24:1837-45 pubmed
    ..These findings are identical to our several recent studies, i.e. the mutations represent a process of degeneration inducing human diseases. ..
  28. Poppe M, Wittig S, Jurida L, Bartkuhn M, Wilhelm J, Müller H, et al. The NF-κB-dependent and -independent transcriptome and chromatin landscapes of human coronavirus 229E-infected cells. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006286 pubmed publisher responses in the nucleus of coronavirus-infected cells, first, transcriptome dynamics was studied in human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)-infected A549 and HuH7 cells, respectively, revealing a core signature of upregulated genes in ..
  29. Kolb A, Hegyi A, Maile J, Heister A, Hagemann M, Siddell S. Molecular analysis of the coronavirus-receptor function of aminopeptidase N. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1998;440:61-7 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that human coronavirus 229E (HCV 229E) is distinct from the other serogroup I coronaviruses in that determinants located within the N-..
  30. Pène F, Merlat A, Vabret A, Rozenberg F, Buzyn A, Dreyfus F, et al. Coronavirus 229E-related pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:929-32 pubmed
    ..On the basis of this report, coronaviruses should be considered as potential causative microorganisms of pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. ..
  31. Qiu L, Wang Y, Liao Z, Wen K, Che X. [Antigenicity analysis of nucleocapsid proteins of 3 human coronaviruses SARS-CoV, 229E and OC43 with their monoclonal antibodies]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2006;26:290-3 pubmed
    ..No cross-reactivity was found between the 3 N proteins. The prepared mAbs against the recombinant N proteins may provide valuable assistance in studying antigenic relationships of N proteins between the 3 human coronaviruses. ..
  32. Jeffers S, Hemmila E, Holmes K. Human coronavirus 229E can use CD209L (L-SIGN) to enter cells. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;581:265-9 pubmed
  33. Tang T, Wu M, Chen S, Hou M, Hong M, Pan F, et al. Biochemical and immunological studies of nucleocapsid proteins of severe acute respiratory syndrome and 229E human coronaviruses. Proteomics. 2005;5:925-37 pubmed
    ..was able to clearly detect SARS virus grown in Vero E6 cells and did not cross-react with the NP from the human coronavirus 229E. We have predicted several antigenic sites (15-20 amino acids) of S, M and N proteins and produced ..
  34. Bonavia A, Zelus B, Wentworth D, Talbot P, Holmes K. Identification of a receptor-binding domain of the spike glycoprotein of human coronavirus HCoV-229E. J Virol. 2003;77:2530-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the data suggest that the domain of the spike protein between amino acids 417 and 547 is required for the binding of HCoV-229E to its hAPN receptor. ..
  35. von Brunn A, Ciesek S, von Brunn B, Carbajo Lozoya J. Genetic deficiency and polymorphisms of cyclophilin A reveal its essential role for Human Coronavirus 229E replication. Curr Opin Virol. 2015;14:56-61 pubmed publisher
  36. Putics A, Filipowicz W, Hall J, Gorbalenya A, Ziebuhr J. ADP-ribose-1"-monophosphatase: a conserved coronavirus enzyme that is dispensable for viral replication in tissue culture. J Virol. 2005;79:12721-31 pubmed
    ..Bacterially expressed forms of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) and severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus X domains were shown to dephosphorylate Appr-..
  37. Chan K, Cheng V, Woo P, Lau S, Poon L, Guan Y, et al. Serological responses in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection and cross-reactivity with human coronaviruses 229E, OC43, and NL63. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005;12:1317-21 pubmed
    ..There is a need for awareness of cross-reactive antibody responses between coronaviruses when interpreting IF serology. ..
  38. Yap Y, Zhang X, Danchin A. Relationship of SARS-CoV to other pathogenic RNA viruses explored by tetranucleotide usage profiling. BMC Bioinformatics. 2003;4:43 pubmed
    ..The congruence of the relationship outcomes with the known classification indicates that there exist phylogenetic signals in the tetra-nucleotide usage patterns, that is most prominent in the replicase open reading frames. ..
  39. Taylor J, Coleman C, Postel S, Sisk J, Bernbaum J, Venkataraman T, et al. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus ORF7a Inhibits Bone Marrow Stromal Antigen 2 Virion Tethering through a Novel Mechanism of Glycosylation Interference. J Virol. 2015;89:11820-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Further work has shown that BST-2 restricts the release of many other viruses, including the human coronavirus 229E (hCoV-229E), and the genomes of many of these viruses encode BST-2 antagonists to overcome BST-2 ..
  40. Shirato K, Kanou K, Kawase M, Matsuyama S. Clinical Isolates of Human Coronavirus 229E Bypass the Endosome for Cell Entry. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed
    b>Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), a causative agent of the common cold, enters host cells via two distinct pathways: one is mediated by cell surface proteases, particularly transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and the other by ..
  41. Ziebuhr J, Schelle B, Karl N, Minskaia E, Bayer S, Siddell S, et al. Human coronavirus 229E papain-like proteases have overlapping specificities but distinct functions in viral replication. J Virol. 2007;81:3922-32 pubmed
    ..Here, we characterized the proteolytic processing of the human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) amino-proximal pp1a/pp1ab region by two paralogous PLpro activities...
  42. Nomura R, Kiyota A, Suzaki E, Kataoka K, Ohe Y, Miyamoto K, et al. Human coronavirus 229E binds to CD13 in rafts and enters the cell through caveolae. J Virol. 2004;78:8701-8 pubmed
    CD13, a receptor for human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E), was identified as a major component of the Triton X-100-resistant membrane microdomain in human fibroblasts...
  43. Che X, Qiu L, Liao Z, Wang Y, Wen K, Pan Y, et al. Antigenic cross-reactivity between severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus and human coronaviruses 229E and OC43. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:2033-7 pubmed
    ..Overall, serum samples from convalescent patients who had SARS had a 1-way cross-reactivity with the 2 known HCoVs. Antigens of SARS-CoV and HCoV-OC43 were more cross-reactive than were those of SARS-CoV and HCoV-229E. ..
  44. Esposito S, Bosis S, Niesters H, Tremolati E, Begliatti E, Rognoni A, et al. Impact of human coronavirus infections in otherwise healthy children who attended an emergency department. J Med Virol. 2006;78:1609-15 pubmed
    ..The quantitative and qualitative role of HCoV-HKU1 genotype A is apparently very marginal. ..
  45. van der Hoek L. Human coronaviruses: what do they cause?. Antivir Ther. 2007;12:651-8 pubmed
    ..This report presents an overview of the current knowledge of the four human coronavirus that are now circulating in the human population. ..
  46. Theamboonlers A, Samransamruajkit R, Thongme C, Amonsin A, Chongsrisawat V, Poovorawan Y. Human coronavirus infection among children with acute lower respiratory tract infection in Thailand. Intervirology. 2007;50:71-7 pubmed
    This study was performed to further identify the previously uncharacterized human coronavirus 229E (hCoV-229E) and human coronavirus OC43 (hCoV-OC43) in Thailand by using the RT-PCR technique...
  47. Xu Y, Cong L, Chen C, Wei L, Zhao Q, Xu X, et al. Crystal structures of two coronavirus ADP-ribose-1''-monophosphatases and their complexes with ADP-Ribose: a systematic structural analysis of the viral ADRP domain. J Virol. 2009;83:1083-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We have determined the crystal structures of two viral ADRP domains, from the group I human coronavirus 229E and the group III avian infectious bronchitis virus, as well as their respective complexes with ADP-ribose...
  48. Simon A, Volz S, Höfling K, Kehl A, Tillman R, Muller A, et al. Acute life threatening event (ALTE) in an infant with human coronavirus HCoV-229E infection. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2007;42:393-6 pubmed
    ..PCR-based techniques should be utilized to increase the sensitivity of detection for old and new respiratory viral pathogens in comparable cases. ..
  49. Desforges M, Miletti T, Gagnon M, Talbot P. HCoV-229E infects and activates monocytes. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;581:511-4 pubmed
  50. Galan C, Enjuanes L, Almazán F. Differential role of N-terminal polyprotein processing in coronavirus genome replication and minigenome amplification. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;581:79-83 pubmed
  51. Van Elden L, van Loon A, van Alphen F, Hendriksen K, Hoepelman A, van Kraaij M, et al. Frequent detection of human coronaviruses in clinical specimens from patients with respiratory tract infection by use of a novel real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:652-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that HCoVs can be frequently detected in patients presenting with RTI. Real-time RT-PCR provides a tool for large-scale epidemiological studies to further clarify the role that coronavirus infection plays in RTI in humans. ..
  52. Kiemer L, Lund O, Brunak S, Blom N. Coronavirus 3CLpro proteinase cleavage sites: possible relevance to SARS virus pathology. BMC Bioinformatics. 2004;5:72 pubmed
    ..It is made available for public use at our website: ..
  53. Adachi D, Johnson G, Draker R, Ayers M, Mazzulli T, Talbot P, et al. Comprehensive detection and identification of human coronaviruses, including the SARS-associated coronavirus, with a single RT-PCR assay. J Virol Methods. 2004;122:29-36 pubmed
    ..Species identification is provided by sequencing the amplicon, although a rapid screening test by restriction enzyme analysis has proved to be very useful for the analysis of samples obtained during the SARS outbreak in Toronto, Canada. ..
  54. Lodes M, Suciu D, Wilmoth J, Ross M, Munro S, Dix K, et al. Identification of upper respiratory tract pathogens using electrochemical detection on an oligonucleotide microarray. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e924 pubmed
    ..We show assay sensitivity and specificity that are excellent for a multiplexed format. ..
  55. Dijkman R, van der Hoek L. Human coronaviruses 229E and NL63: close yet still so far. J Formos Med Assoc. 2009;108:270-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present an overview of the current knowledge on both human coronaviruses, focusing on similarities and differences. ..
  56. Eriksson K, Makia D, Thiel V. Generation of recombinant coronaviruses using vaccinia virus as the cloning vector and stable cell lines containing coronaviral replicon RNAs. Methods Mol Biol. 2008;454:237-54 pubmed publisher
    ..the vaccinia virus-based reverse genetic system was established for the generation of recombinant human coronavirus 229E. However, it is also applicable to the generation of other coronaviruses, such as the avian infectious ..
  57. Kahn J. The widening scope of coronaviruses. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2006;18:42-7 pubmed
    ..The discovery of at least three new human coronaviruses represents significant advances in the investigation of human respiratory tract disease. Further studies are required to fully define the impact of these new pathogens. ..
  58. Li W, Sui J, Huang I, Kuhn J, Radoshitzky S, Marasco W, et al. The S proteins of human coronavirus NL63 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus bind overlapping regions of ACE2. Virology. 2007;367:367-74 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that HCoV-NL63, like SARS-CoV, associates region of human ACE2 that includes a key loop formed by beta-strands 4 and 5. ..
  59. Skuballa J, Oehme R, Hartelt K, Petney T, Bucher T, Kimmig P, et al. European Hedgehogs as Hosts for Borrelia spp., Germany. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:952-3 pubmed
  60. Hegyi A, Kolb A. Characterization of determinants involved in the feline infectious peritonitis virus receptor function of feline aminopeptidase N. J Gen Virol. 1998;79 ( Pt 6):1387-91 pubmed
    ..receptor for feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), human coronavirus 229E (HCV 229E) and canine coronavirus (CCV)...
  61. Tresnan D, Levis R, Holmes K. Feline aminopeptidase N serves as a receptor for feline, canine, porcine, and human coronaviruses in serogroup I. J Virol. 1996;70:8669-74 pubmed
    ..Therefore, host factors in addition to receptor specificity apparently affect the virulence and transmissibility of nonfeline serogroup I coronaviruses in the cat. ..
  62. Thiel V, Herold J, Schelle B, Siddell S. Viral replicase gene products suffice for coronavirus discontinuous transcription. J Virol. 2001;75:6676-81 pubmed
    We have used vaccinia virus as a vector to clone a 22.5-kbp cDNA that represents the 5' and 3' ends of the human coronavirus 229E (HCoV 229E) genome, the HCoV 229E replicase gene, and a single reporter gene (coding for green fluorescent ..
  63. Wentworth D, Holmes K. Addition of a single glycosylation site to hAPN blocks human coronavirus-229E receptor activity. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2001;494:199-204 pubmed
  64. Lu R, Zhang L, Tan W, Zhou W, Wang Z, Peng K, et al. [Characterization of human coronavirus 229E infection among patients with respiratory symptom in Beijing, Oct-Dec, 2007]. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi. 2009;23:367-70 pubmed
    ..There might have a local outbreak of HCoV-229E infection in Beijing, Oct-Dec, 2007. ..
  65. Vallet S, Gagneur A, Talbot P, Legrand M, Sizun J, Picard B. Detection of human Coronavirus 229E in nasal specimens in large scale studies using an RT-PCR hybridization assay. Mol Cell Probes. 2004;18:75-80 pubmed
    ..This technique is reliable and its application for screening large number of clinical samples would improve the diagnosis of HCoVs respiratory infection and our knowledge of these viruses epidemiology. ..
  66. Keyaerts E, Vijgen L, Maes P, Duson G, Neyts J, Van Ranst M. Viral load quantitation of SARS-coronavirus RNA using a one-step real-time RT-PCR. Int J Infect Dis. 2006;10:32-7 pubmed
    ..In comparison to the current de facto cRNA Artus Biotech standard, the in-house cRNA standard gives a 100-fold higher absolute quantity, suggesting a possible underestimation of the viral load when using the Artus Biotech standard. ..
  67. Kolb A, Maile J, Heister A, Siddell S. Characterization of functional domains in the human coronavirus HCV 229E receptor. J Gen Virol. 1996;77 ( Pt 10):2515-21 pubmed
    ..We conclude that although both viruses use a homologous receptor protein, different regions of the protein are required to mediate susceptibility to infection with HCV 229E and TGEV. ..
  68. Butler N, Pewe L, Trandem K, Perlman S. HCoV-OC43-induced encephalitis is in part immune-mediated. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;581:531-4 pubmed
  69. Gagneur A, Dirson E, Audebert S, Vallet S, Legrand Quillien M, Laurent Y, et al. Materno-fetal transmission of human coronaviruses: a prospective pilot study. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008;27:863-6 pubmed publisher
    ..For case 6, only MV and NG tested positive. In case 7, only MV was positive. Possible vertical transmission of HCoV was hypothesized in this pilot study and requires further investigation on a larger scale. ..
  70. Schelle B, Karl N, Ludewig B, Siddell S, Thiel V. Selective replication of coronavirus genomes that express nucleocapsid protein. J Virol. 2005;79:6620-30 pubmed
    ..We found that human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) vector RNAs that lack the N gene were greatly impaired in their ability to replicate, whereas ..
  71. Vijgen L, Keyaerts E, Zlateva K, Van Ranst M. Identification of six new polymorphisms in the human coronavirus 229E receptor gene (aminopeptidase N/CD13). Int J Infect Dis. 2004;8:217-22 pubmed
    ..5%, 1% and 0.5% respectively. Five haplotypes were identified in the population of 100 individuals. These results demonstrate that there is a relatively broad spectrum of variations in the APN domain critical for coronavirus binding. ..
  72. Lau S, Woo P, Yip C, Tse H, Tsoi H, Cheng V, et al. Coronavirus HKU1 and other coronavirus infections in Hong Kong. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:2063-71 pubmed
    ..Similar studies in other countries are required to better determine the epidemiology and genetic diversity of CoV-HKU1. ..
  73. Shen X, Xue J, Yu C, Luo H, Qin L, Yu X, et al. Small envelope protein E of SARS: cloning, expression, purification, CD determination, and bioinformatics analysis. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2003;24:505-11 pubmed
    ..It is possible that beta-sheet I of the SARS E protein interacts with the membrane surface via hydrogen bonding, this beta-sheet may uncoil to a random structure in water solution...
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