feline coronavirus


Summary: A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.

Top Publications

  1. Kummrow M, Meli M, Haessig M, Goenczi E, Poland A, Pedersen N, et al. Feline coronavirus serotypes 1 and 2: seroprevalence and association with disease in Switzerland. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2005;12:1209-15 pubmed
    To determine the prevalence of antibodies to feline coronavirus (FCoV) serotypes 1 and 2 in Switzerland and their association with different disease manifestations, a serological study based on immunofluorescence tests was conducted with ..
  2. Lin C, Su B, Wang C, Hsieh M, Chueh T, Chueh L. Genetic diversity and correlation with feline infectious peritonitis of feline coronavirus type I and II: a 5-year study in Taiwan. Vet Microbiol. 2009;136:233-9 pubmed publisher
    The outcomes of feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection vary greatly from asymptomatic or mild enteric infection to fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)...
  3. Hohdatsu T, Okada S, Ishizuka Y, Yamada H, Koyama H. The prevalence of types I and II feline coronavirus infections in cats. J Vet Med Sci. 1992;54:557-62 pubmed
    ..1%) with FIPV or FECV Type II. All of the 57 apparently non-diseased cases seemed to have been infected with FIPV or FECV Type I. These results indicated that feline coronavirus Type I is more high prevalent in Japan.
  4. Lin C, Su B, Huang H, Lee J, Hsieh M, Chueh L. Field strain feline coronaviruses with small deletions in ORF7b associated with both enteric infection and feline infectious peritonitis. J Feline Med Surg. 2009;11:413-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Feline coronavirus (FCoV) varies greatly from causing subclinical or mild enteric infections to fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)...
  5. de Groot Mijnes J, van Dun J, van der Most R, de Groot R. Natural history of a recurrent feline coronavirus infection and the role of cellular immunity in survival and disease. J Virol. 2005;79:1036-44 pubmed
    ..Experimental FIP presents a relevant, safe, and well-defined model to study coronavirus-mediated immunosuppression and should provide an attractive and convenient system for in vivo testing of anticoronaviral drugs...
  6. Chang H, de Groot R, Egberink H, Rottier P. Feline infectious peritonitis: insights into feline coronavirus pathobiogenesis and epidemiology based on genetic analysis of the viral 3c gene. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:415-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Apparently, 3c-inactivated viruses replicate not at all--or only poorly--in the gut, explaining the rare incidence of FIP outbreaks. ..
  7. Duarte A, Veiga I, Tavares L. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Feline Coronavirus sequences from Portugal. Vet Microbiol. 2009;138:163-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study confirmed the presence of FCoV Types I and II circulating in Portugal and detected high genetic diversity between circulating strains suggesting that the virus persists within the host as mixed viral populations. ..
  8. Kipar A, Kohler K, Leukert W, Reinacher M. A comparison of lymphatic tissues from cats with spontaneous feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), cats with FIP virus infection but no FIP, and cats with no infection. J Comp Pathol. 2001;125:182-91 pubmed
    ..The findings indicated that the major difference in lymphatic tissues between FIPV-infected cats with FIP and those without FIP was the development of lymphocyte depletion in the first group and lymphocyte proliferation in the second...
  9. Benetka V, Kübber Heiss A, Kolodziejek J, Nowotny N, Hofmann Parisot M, Möstl K. Prevalence of feline coronavirus types I and II in cats with histopathologically verified feline infectious peritonitis. Vet Microbiol. 2004;99:31-42 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that in FIP cases FCoV type I predominates, too, nonetheless, in 14% of the cases FCoV type II was detected, suggesting its causative involvement in cases of FIP...

More Information


  1. Campolo M, Desario C, Ricci D, Elia G, Decaro N, Martella V, et al. Identification of a feline coronavirus type I strain from a cat with feline infectious peritonitis by RT-pCR and phylogenetic analysis. New Microbiol. 2005;28:127-33 pubmed
    ..Lesions typical of a mixed form (effusive and non-effusive) of FIP were observed and by RT-PCR a feline coronavirus (FCoV) type I strain was detected in several tissues...
  2. Dewerchin H, Cornelissen E, Nauwynck H. Replication of feline coronaviruses in peripheral blood monocytes. Arch Virol. 2005;150:2483-500 pubmed
    ..The rest could be infected with FECV and FIPV but 10/22 cats had monocytes that only sustained FIPV infection and 9/22 sustained neither FIPV nor FECV infection...
  3. Bell E, Malik R, Norris J. The relationship between the feline coronavirus antibody titre and the age, breed, gender and health status of Australian cats. Aust Vet J. 2006;84:2-7 pubmed
    To investigate the relationship between Feline Coronavirus (FCoV) antibody titres and age, breed, gender and health status of Australian cats
  4. Wojdyla J, Manolaridis I, Snijder E, Gorbalenya A, Coutard B, Piotrowski Y, et al. Structure of the X (ADRP) domain of nsp3 from feline coronavirus. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2009;65:1292-300 pubmed publisher
    The structure of the X (or ADRP) domain of a pathogenic variant of feline coronavirus (FCoV) has been determined in tetragonal and cubic crystal forms to 3.1 and 2.2 A resolution, respectively...
  5. Kipar A, Meli M, Baptiste K, Bowker L, Lutz H. Sites of feline coronavirus persistence in healthy cats. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:1698-707 pubmed publisher
    b>Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is transmitted via the faecal-oral route and primarily infects enterocytes, but subsequently spreads by monocyte-associated viraemia...
  6. Shiba N, Maeda K, Kato H, Mochizuki M, Iwata H. Differentiation of feline coronavirus type I and II infections by virus neutralization test. Vet Microbiol. 2007;124:348-52 pubmed
    b>Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is divided into two types I and II, based on their growth in vitro and antigenicity. In this study, virus neutralization (VN) test was applied for type differentiation of FCoV infections...
  7. Pesteanu Somogyi L, Radzai C, Pressler B. Prevalence of feline infectious peritonitis in specific cat breeds. J Feline Med Surg. 2006;8:1-5 pubmed
    ..Although additional factors doubtlessly influence the relative prevalence of FIP, this study provides additional guidance when prioritizing differentials in ill purebreed cats...
  8. Bell E, Toribio J, White J, Malik R, Norris J. Seroprevalence study of feline coronavirus in owned and feral cats in Sydney, Australia. Aust Vet J. 2006;84:74-81 pubmed
    i) To establish the seroprevalence of Feline Coronavirus (FCoV) infection in two defined groups of cats in Sydney: owned and feral cats; ii) to identify factors associated with an increased risk of infection with FCoV; and iii) to ..
  9. Pedersen N, Allen C, Lyons L. Pathogenesis of feline enteric coronavirus infection. J Feline Med Surg. 2008;10:529-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Cats with higher feline coronavirus (FCoV) antibody titers were significantly more likely to shed virus, while cats with lower titers were ..
  10. Muirden A. Prevalence of feline leukaemia virus and antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus and feline coronavirus in stray cats sent to an RSPCA hospital. Vet Rec. 2002;150:621-5 pubmed
    A total of 517 stray cats at an RSPCA veterinary hospital were tested for feline leukaemia virus (FeLV), feline coronavirus (FCoV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). The prevalence of FeLV was 3.5 per cent in all the cats, 1...
  11. Haijema B, Volders H, Rottier P. Switching species tropism: an effective way to manipulate the feline coronavirus genome. J Virol. 2003;77:4528-38 pubmed
    ..We establish the second targeted RNA recombination system for coronaviruses and provide a powerful tool for the genetic engineering of the FIPV genome...
  12. Kennedy M, Citino S, McNabb A, Moffatt A, Gertz K, Kania S. Detection of feline coronavirus in captive Felidae in the USA. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2002;14:520-2 pubmed
    b>Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is an important pathogen of domestic and nondomestic Felidae. Investigation into the prevalence of FCoV in exotic Felidae has relied primarily on serology...
  13. Dye C, Siddell S. Genomic RNA sequence of feline coronavirus strain FCoV C1Je. J Feline Med Surg. 2007;9:202-13 pubmed
    This paper reports the first genomic RNA sequence of a field strain feline coronavirus (FCoV). Viral RNA was isolated at post mortem from the jejunum and liver of a cat with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)...
  14. Addie D, Schaap I, Nicolson L, Jarrett O. Persistence and transmission of natural type I feline coronavirus infection. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:2735-44 pubmed
    To examine the mode of natural transmission and persistence of feline coronavirus (FCoV), FCoV strains shed by domestic cats were investigated over periods of up to 7 years...
  15. Paltrinieri S, Metzger C, Battilani M, Pocacqua V, Gelain M, Giordano A. Serum alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) concentration in non-symptomatic cats with feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection. J Feline Med Surg. 2007;9:271-7 pubmed
    ..the concentration of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) transiently increases in asymptomatic cats infected with feline coronavirus (FCoV)...
  16. Gelain M, Meli M, Paltrinieri S. Whole blood cytokine profiles in cats infected by feline coronavirus and healthy non-FCoV infected specific pathogen-free cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2006;8:389-99 pubmed
    In this study, the cytokine profiles of clinically healthy cats naturally infected with feline coronavirus (FCoV), of cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) and of specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats were investigated in whole blood ..
  17. Dye C, Temperton N, Siddell S. Type I feline coronavirus spike glycoprotein fails to recognize aminopeptidase N as a functional receptor on feline cell lines. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1753-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our approach was to produce retroviral pseudotypes that bear the type I or type II feline coronavirus surface glycoprotein and to screen a range of feline cell lines for the expression of a functional receptor ..
  18. Kipar A, Meli M, Failing K, Euler T, Gomes Keller M, Schwartz D, et al. Natural feline coronavirus infection: differences in cytokine patterns in association with the outcome of infection. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2006;112:141-55 pubmed
    Natural and experimental feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection leads to systemic viral spread via monocyte-associated viraemia and induces systemic proliferation of monocytes/macrophages...
  19. Rottier P, Nakamura K, Schellen P, Volders H, Haijema B. Acquisition of macrophage tropism during the pathogenesis of feline infectious peritonitis is determined by mutations in the feline coronavirus spike protein. J Virol. 2005;79:14122-30 pubmed
    In feline coronavirus (FCoV) pathogenesis, the ability to infect macrophages is an essential virulence factor...
  20. Kennedy M, Boedeker N, Gibbs P, Kania S. Deletions in the 7a ORF of feline coronavirus associated with an epidemic of feline infectious peritonitis. Vet Microbiol. 2001;81:227-34 pubmed
    ..Cats contracting FIP were all genetically related through the sire. Feline coronavirus (FCoV) genomic RNA was detected consistently in this study in biologic samples from adult cats, kittens ..
  21. Addie D, Jarrett O. Use of a reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for monitoring the shedding of feline coronavirus by healthy cats. Vet Rec. 2001;148:649-53 pubmed
    The pattern of shedding of feline coronavirus (FCoV) was established in 155 naturally infected pet cats from 29 households over periods of up to five years...
  22. Sharif S, Arshad S, Hair Bejo M, Omar A, Zeenathul N, Hafidz M. Prevalence of feline coronavirus in two cat populations in Malaysia. J Feline Med Surg. 2009;11:1031-4 pubmed publisher
    The prevalence of feline coronavirus (FCoV) was studied in two catteries in Malaysia. Rectal swabs or faecal samples were collected from a total of 44 clinically healthy Persian purebred and mix-breed cats...
  23. Simons F, Vennema H, Rofina J, Pol J, Horzinek M, Rottier P, et al. A mRNA PCR for the diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis. J Virol Methods. 2005;124:111-6 pubmed
    A reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of feline coronavirus (FCoV) messenger RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is described...
  24. Kennedy M, Abd Eldaim M, Zika S, Mankin J, Kania S. Evaluation of antibodies against feline coronavirus 7b protein for diagnosis of feline infectious peritonitis in cats. Am J Vet Res. 2008;69:1179-82 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether expression of feline coronavirus (FCoV) 7b protein, as indicated by the presence of specific serum antibodies, consistently correlated with occurrence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) in cats.
  25. Meli M, Kipar A, Muller C, Jenal K, Gönczi E, Borel N, et al. High viral loads despite absence of clinical and pathological findings in cats experimentally infected with feline coronavirus (FCoV) type I and in naturally FCoV-infected cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2004;6:69-81 pubmed
    ..Pathological findings were restricted to generalized lymphatic hyperplasia. These findings demonstrate the presence of systemic FCoV infection with high viral loads in the absence of clinical and pathological signs. ..
  26. Paltrinieri S, Gelain M, Ceciliani F, Ribera A, Battilani M. Association between faecal shedding of feline coronavirus and serum alpha1-acid glycoprotein sialylation. J Feline Med Surg. 2008;10:514-8 pubmed publisher
    The sialylation pattern of serum alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) in non-symptomatic cats infected by feline coronavirus (FCoV) and its possible relationship with the amount of FCoVs shed in faeces were investigated...
  27. Holst B, Englund L, Palacios S, Renström L, Berndtsson L. Prevalence of antibodies against feline coronavirus and Chlamydophila felis in Swedish cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2006;8:207-11 pubmed
    ..the presence of antibodies against Chlamydophila felis (Cp felis), while 209 of these were also analysed for feline coronavirus (FCoV) antibodies...
  28. Can Sahna K, Soydal Ataseven V, Pinar D, Oguzoglu T. The detection of feline coronaviruses in blood samples from cats by mRNA RT-PCR. J Feline Med Surg. 2007;9:369-72 pubmed
    ..Blood samples were tested for feline coronavirus (FCoV) messenger RNA (mRNA) by an reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay which has ..
  29. Pearks Wilkerson A, Teeling E, Troyer J, Bar Gal G, Roelke M, Marker L, et al. Coronavirus outbreak in cheetahs: lessons for SARS. Curr Biol. 2004;14:R227-8 pubmed
  30. Haijema B, Volders H, Rottier P. Live, attenuated coronavirus vaccines through the directed deletion of group-specific genes provide protection against feline infectious peritonitis. J Virol. 2004;78:3863-71 pubmed
    ..More generally, our approach may allow the development of vaccines against infections with other pathogenic coronaviruses, including that causing severe acute respiratory syndrome in humans...
  31. Tresnan D, Levis R, Holmes K. Feline aminopeptidase N serves as a receptor for feline, canine, porcine, and human coronaviruses in serogroup I. J Virol. 1996;70:8669-74 pubmed
    ..Therefore, host factors in addition to receptor specificity apparently affect the virulence and transmissibility of nonfeline serogroup I coronaviruses in the cat. ..
  32. Vennema H, Poland A, Foley J, Pedersen N. Feline infectious peritonitis viruses arise by mutation from endemic feline enteric coronaviruses. Virology. 1998;243:150-7 pubmed
    ..When the study was extended to include 7 additional FIPV isolates, 11/13 of the FIPVs sequenced were found to have mutated 3c ORFs. ..
  33. Kipar A, Baptiste K, Barth A, Reinacher M. Natural FCoV infection: cats with FIP exhibit significantly higher viral loads than healthy infected cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2006;8:69-72 pubmed
    Natural feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection has been shown to not only induce intestinal infection with viral shedding, but also systemic infection which either remains without clinical signs or leads to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)..
  34. Tekes G, Hofmann Lehmann R, Stallkamp I, Thiel V, Thiel H. Genome organization and reverse genetic analysis of a type I feline coronavirus. J Virol. 2008;82:1851-9 pubmed
    In this study we report the complete sequence and genome organization of the serotype I feline coronavirus (FCoV) strain Black...
  35. Giordano A, Paltrinieri S. Interferon-gamma in the serum and effusions of cats with feline coronavirus infection. Vet J. 2009;180:396-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and compare interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) concentrations in the serum of clinically normal cats infected with feline coronavirus (FCoV) with its concentration in the sera and effusions of cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a ..
  36. Dye C, Siddell S. Genomic RNA sequence of Feline coronavirus strain FIPV WSU-79/1146. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:2249-53 pubmed
    A consensus sequence of the Feline coronavirus (FCoV) (strain FIPV WSU-79/1146) genome was determined from overlapping cDNA fragments produced by RT-PCR amplification of viral RNA...
  37. Addie D, McLachlan S, Golder M, Ramsey I, Jarrett O. Evaluation of an in-practice test for feline coronavirus antibodies. J Feline Med Surg. 2004;6:63-7 pubmed
    A commercially available in-practice test for feline coronavirus (FCoV) antibodies (FCoV Immunocomb, Biogal Galed Laboratories) was evaluated by comparison with the gold standard FCoV immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) test...
  38. Pratelli A, Martella V, Decaro N, Tinelli A, Camero M, Cirone F, et al. Genetic diversity of a canine coronavirus detected in pups with diarrhoea in Italy. J Virol Methods. 2003;110:9-17 pubmed
    ..The highest correlation (77% nt and 81.7% aa) was found with feline coronavirus type I...
  39. Priestnall S, Pratelli A, Brownlie J, Erles K. Serological prevalence of canine respiratory coronavirus in southern Italy and epidemiological relationship with canine enteric coronavirus. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2007;19:176-80 pubmed
    ..Of adult domestic dogs, 23.3% had antibodies to CRCoV, compared with 86.1% with antibodies to CECoV. Amongst a population of kenneled pups, 4.0% had antibodies to CRCoV, and 97.0% had antibodies to CECoV. ..
  40. Takano T, Katada Y, Moritoh S, Ogasawara M, Satoh K, Satoh R, et al. Analysis of the mechanism of antibody-dependent enhancement of feline infectious peritonitis virus infection: aminopeptidase N is not important and a process of acidification of the endosome is necessary. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1025-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may be very important for understanding the mechanism of ADE of FIPV infection. ..
  41. Hu C, Chang W, Fang Z, Chen Y, Wang W, Tsai H, et al. Nanoparticulate vacuolar ATPase blocker exhibits potent host-targeted antiviral activity against feline coronavirus. Sci Rep. 2017;7:13043 pubmed publisher
    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), caused by a mutated feline coronavirus, is one of the most serious and fatal viral diseases in cats. The disease remains incurable, and there is no effective vaccine available...
  42. Regan A, Whittaker G. Utilization of DC-SIGN for entry of feline coronaviruses into host cells. J Virol. 2008;82:11992-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed that entry of the serotype II feline coronavirus strains feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) WSU 79-1146 and DF2 into nonpermissive mouse 3T3 cells ..
  43. Sattar S. Microbicides and the environmental control of nosocomial viral infections. J Hosp Infect. 2004;56 Suppl 2:S64-9 pubmed
    ..It is anticipated that these approaches will result in reducing the health and economic impact of nosocomial infections due to viruses. ..
  44. Sigurdardóttir O, Kolbjørnsen O, Lutz H. Orchitis in a cat associated with coronavirus infection. J Comp Pathol. 2001;124:219-22 pubmed
    ..However, lesions and presenting clinical signs in a single organ system such as the brain are not uncommon. The results of this case study indicate that orchitis, although rare, should be on the list of lesions of FIP. ..
  45. Raaben M, Posthuma C, Verheije M, te Lintelo E, Kikkert M, Drijfhout J, et al. The ubiquitin-proteasome system plays an important role during various stages of the coronavirus infection cycle. J Virol. 2010;84:7869-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations reveal an important role of the UPS in multiple steps of the CoV infection cycle and identify the UPS as a potential drug target to modulate the impact of CoV infection. ..
  46. Regan A, Shraybman R, Cohen R, Whittaker G. Differential role for low pH and cathepsin-mediated cleavage of the viral spike protein during entry of serotype II feline coronaviruses. Vet Microbiol. 2008;132:235-48 pubmed publisher
    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a terminal disease of cats caused by systemic infection with a feline coronavirus (FCoV)...
  47. Kennedy M, Kania S, Stylianides E, Bertschinger H, Keet D, van Vuuren M. Detection of feline coronavirus infection in southern African nondomestic felids. J Wildl Dis. 2003;39:529-35 pubmed
    b>Feline coronavirus (FCoV) infects members of the Felidae family with results ranging from seroconversion with no disease to fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)...
  48. Regan A, Ousterout D, Whittaker G. Feline lectin activity is critical for the cellular entry of feline infectious peritonitis virus. J Virol. 2010;84:7917-21 pubmed publisher
    Feline infectious peritonitis is a lethal disease of felids caused by systemic infection with a feline coronavirus. Here, we report identification and analysis of the feline homologue to the human lectin DC-SIGN and show that it is a ..
  49. Wentworth D, Holmes K. Molecular determinants of species specificity in the coronavirus receptor aminopeptidase N (CD13): influence of N-linked glycosylation. J Virol. 2001;75:9741-52 pubmed
    ..Thus, certain differences in glycosylation between coronavirus receptors from different species are critical determinants in the species specificity of infection. ..
  50. Van Hamme E, Dewerchin H, Cornelissen E, Verhasselt B, Nauwynck H. Clathrin- and caveolae-independent entry of feline infectious peritonitis virus in monocytes depends on dynamin. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2147-56 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these results indicate that FIPV enters monocytes through a clathrin- and caveolae-independent pathway that strongly depends on dynamin and is slightly sensitive to cholesterol depletion. ..
  51. Bosch B, de Haan C, Smits S, Rottier P. Spike protein assembly into the coronavirion: exploring the limits of its sequence requirements. Virology. 2005;334:306-18 pubmed
    ..The important role of the about 38-residues cytoplasmic domain in the assembly of and membrane fusion by this approximately 1300 amino acids long protein is discussed. ..
  52. Dean G, Olivry T, Stanton C, Pedersen N. In vivo cytokine response to experimental feline infectious peritonitis virus infection. Vet Microbiol. 2003;97:1-12 pubmed
    ..A possible role for TNF-alpha in the previously described FIPV-induced lymphocyte apoptosis is also suggested...
  53. Paltrinieri S, Grieco V, Comazzi S, Cammarata Parodi M. Laboratory profiles in cats with different pathological and immunohistochemical findings due to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). J Feline Med Surg. 2001;3:149-59 pubmed
    ..Cats with positive lymph nodes had the most evident changes in the protein estimations. These results suggest that differences in pathological findings might depend on different reactive patterns to the FCoVs. ..
  54. Brown M, Troyer J, Pecon Slattery J, Roelke M, O Brien S. Genetics and pathogenesis of feline infectious peritonitis virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:1445-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is endemic in feral cat populations and cat colonies, frequently preceding outbreaks of fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP)...
  55. Quimby J, Elston T, Hawley J, Brewer M, Miller A, Lappin M. Evaluation of the association of Bartonella species, feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus with chronic feline gingivostomatitis. J Feline Med Surg. 2008;10:66-72 pubmed
    ..All cats were negative for FeLV. Assay results failed to correlate to the presence of GS in the group of cats studied...
  56. Dewerchin H, Cornelissen E, Nauwynck H. Feline infectious peritonitis virus-infected monocytes internalize viral membrane-bound proteins upon antibody addition. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1685-90 pubmed
    ..In this study, the effect of antibodies on Feline coronavirus (FCoV)-infected monocytes was investigated...
  57. Ceciliani F, Grossi C, Giordano A, Pocacqua V, Paltrinieri S. Decreased sialylation of the acute phase protein alpha1-acid glycoprotein in feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2004;99:229-36 pubmed
    ..Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is an immune-mediated disease of domestic and exotic felides infected with feline coronavirus. FIP is characterized by the overexpression of an acute phase protein, the alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP)...
  58. Delmas B, Gelfi J, Sjostrom H, Noren O, Laude H. Further characterization of aminopeptidase-N as a receptor for coronaviruses. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1993;342:293-8 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the switch between TGEV and PRCV tropisms in vivo may involve other determinant(s) than receptor recognition. ..
  59. McArdle F, Bennett M, Gaskell R, Tennant B, Kelly D, Gaskell C. Induction and enhancement of feline infectious peritonitis by canine coronavirus. Am J Vet Res. 1992;53:1500-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, sequential inoculation of cats with another strain of CCV caused lesions indistinguishable from those of FIP, without exposure at any time to FIPV. ..
  60. Dowers K, Hawley J, Brewer M, Morris A, Radecki S, Lappin M. Association of Bartonella species, feline calicivirus, and feline herpesvirus 1 infection with gingivostomatitis in cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2010;12:314-21 pubmed publisher
    ..FHV-1 DNA was also not significantly different between groups. Only FCV RNA was present in significantly more cats with FGS (40.5%) than control cats (0%). The results suggest that FCV was associated with FGS in some of the cats...
  61. Hartmann K, Binder C, Hirschberger J, Cole D, Reinacher M, Schroo S, et al. Comparison of different tests to diagnose feline infectious peritonitis. J Vet Intern Med. 2003;17:781-90 pubmed
    ..Definitive diagnosis of FIP on the basis of measurement of various variables in serum was not possible. Serum tests can only be used to facilitate the decision for more invasive diagnostic methods. ..
  62. Cave T, Golder M, Simpson J, Addie D. Risk factors for feline coronavirus seropositivity in cats relinquished to a UK rescue charity. J Feline Med Surg. 2004;6:53-8 pubmed
    Two thousand, two hundred and seven cats from 14 shelters of a major UK cat charity were blood tested for feline coronavirus (FCoV) antibodies...
  63. Dye C, Helps C, Siddell S. Evaluation of real-time RT-PCR for the quantification of FCoV shedding in the faeces of domestic cats. J Feline Med Surg. 2008;10:167-74 pubmed publisher
    Faecal samples were taken from cats living in multi-cat households with endemic feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection...
  64. Cornelissen E, Dewerchin H, Van Hamme E, Nauwynck H. Absence of surface expression of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) antigens on infected cells isolated from cats with FIP. Vet Microbiol. 2007;121:131-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, it can be stated that in FIP cats, FIPV replicates in cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage without carrying viral antigens in their plasma membrane, which could allow them to escape from antibody-dependent cell lysis...
  65. Takano T, Kawakami C, Yamada S, Satoh R, Hohdatsu T. Antibody-dependent enhancement occurs upon re-infection with the identical serotype virus in feline infectious peritonitis virus infection. J Vet Med Sci. 2008;70:1315-21 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that re-infection with the same serotype induces ADE in cats infected with FIPV. ..
  66. Cornelissen E, Dewerchin H, Van Hamme E, Nauwynck H. Absence of antibody-dependent, complement-mediated lysis of feline infectious peritonitis virus-infected cells. Virus Res. 2009;144:285-9 pubmed publisher
    Cats infected with virulent feline coronavirus which causes feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) usually succumb to disease despite high antibody concentrations...
  67. Hartmann K, Ritz S. Treatment of cats with feline infectious peritonitis. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008;123:172-5 pubmed publisher
    ..disease, treatment is mainly aimed at controlling the immune response triggered by the infection with the feline coronavirus (FCoV)...
  68. Benbacer L, Kut E, Besnardeau L, Laude H, Delmas B. Interspecies aminopeptidase-N chimeras reveal species-specific receptor recognition by canine coronavirus, feline infectious peritonitis virus, and transmissible gastroenteritis virus. J Virol. 1997;71:734-7 pubmed
    ..As an exception, TGEV was found to use a human/bovine APN chimera as a receptor although itself unable to replicate in bovine cells. ..
  69. Cannon M, Silkstone M, Kipar A. Cutaneous lesions associated with coronavirus-induced vasculitis in a cat with feline infectious peritonitis and concurrent feline immunodeficiency virus infection. J Feline Med Surg. 2005;7:233-6 pubmed
    ..multisystemic involvement, including multiple nodular cutaneous lesions, in a cat that was co-infected with feline coronavirus and feline immunodeficiency virus...
  70. Balzarini J, Keyaerts E, Vijgen L, Egberink H, De Clercq E, Van Ranst M, et al. Inhibition of feline (FIPV) and human (SARS) coronavirus by semisynthetic derivatives of glycopeptide antibiotics. Antiviral Res. 2006;72:20-33 pubmed
    ..There was no close correlation between the EC(50) values of the glycopeptide derivatives for FIPV or SARS-CoV. ..
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    ..AGP) increases in the blood of cats with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), a lethal disease caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV)...
  72. Pesavento P, Liu H, Ossiboff R, Stucker K, Heymer A, Millon L, et al. Characterization of a continuous feline mammary epithelial cell line susceptible to feline epitheliotropic viruses. J Virol Methods. 2009;157:105-10 pubmed publisher
    ..was shown that FMECs are susceptible to infection with feline calicivirus (FCV), feline herpesvirus (FHV-1), feline coronavirus (FeCoV), and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV)...
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    ..Furthermore, the assay will add to the value of those systems in which viral infections of the cat serve as models for human disease. ..
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    ..It also depended significantly on the particular genomic location at which the gene was inserted. The data indicate that foreign sequences are more stably maintained when replacing nonessential coronaviral genes. ..