Summary: Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.

Top Publications

  1. Woo P, Lau S, Li K, Poon R, Wong B, Tsoi H, et al. Molecular diversity of coronaviruses in bats. Virology. 2006;351:180-7 pubmed
    ..An astonishing diversity of coronaviruses was observed in bats. ..
  2. Woo P, Lau S, Lam C, Lau C, Tsang A, Lau J, et al. Discovery of seven novel Mammalian and avian coronaviruses in the genus deltacoronavirus supports bat coronaviruses as the gene source of alphacoronavirus and betacoronavirus and avian coronaviruses as the gene source of gammacoronavirus and deltacor. J Virol. 2012;86:3995-4008 pubmed publisher
  3. Cavanagh D. Nidovirales: a new order comprising Coronaviridae and Arteriviridae. Arch Virol. 1997;142:629-33 pubmed
  4. Gonzalez J, Gomez Puertas P, Cavanagh D, Gorbalenya A, Enjuanes L. A comparative sequence analysis to revise the current taxonomy of the family Coronaviridae. Arch Virol. 2003;148:2207-35 pubmed
    The Coronaviridae family, comprising the Coronavirus and Torovirus genera, is part of the Nidovirales order that also includes two other families, Arteriviridae and Roniviridae...
  5. de Haan C, Rottier P. Molecular interactions in the assembly of coronaviruses. Adv Virus Res. 2005;64:165-230 pubmed
  6. Woo P, Wang M, Lau S, Xu H, Poon R, Guo R, et al. Comparative analysis of twelve genomes of three novel group 2c and group 2d coronaviruses reveals unique group and subgroup features. J Virol. 2007;81:1574-85 pubmed
    ..Further molecular epidemiological studies on coronaviruses in the bats of other countries, as well as in other animals, and complete genome sequencing will shed more light on coronavirus diversity and their evolutionary histories. ..
  7. Vijaykrishna D, Smith G, Zhang J, Peiris J, Chen H, Guan Y. Evolutionary insights into the ecology of coronaviruses. J Virol. 2007;81:4012-20 pubmed
    Although many novel members of the Coronaviridae have recently been recognized in different species, the ecology of coronaviruses has not been established...
  8. O Keefe B, Giomarelli B, Barnard D, Shenoy S, Chan P, McMahon J, et al. Broad-spectrum in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy of the antiviral protein griffithsin against emerging viruses of the family Coronaviridae. J Virol. 2010;84:2511-21 pubmed publisher
    Viruses of the family Coronaviridae have recently emerged through zoonotic transmission to become serious human pathogens...
  9. de Haan C, Molinari M, Reggiori F. Autophagy-independent LC3 function in vesicular traffic. Autophagy. 2010;6:994-6 pubmed publisher
    ..While it seems clear that CoVs hijack ER-derived host cell membranes for replication, the mechanism by which these DMVs are assembled has remained completely mysterious...

More Information

Publications105 found, 100 shown here

  1. Falcón A, Vazquez Moron S, Casas I, Aznar C, Ruiz G, Pozo F, et al. Detection of alpha and betacoronaviruses in multiple Iberian bat species. Arch Virol. 2011;156:1883-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, although some of these viruses are related to other European BatCoV, or to Asian CoV, some of the viruses found in Spain cluster in new groups of ? and ? CoV...
  2. Ziebuhr J, Snijder E, Gorbalenya A. Virus-encoded proteinases and proteolytic processing in the Nidovirales. J Gen Virol. 2000;81:853-79 pubmed publisher
  3. Kindler E, Jónsdóttir H, Muth D, Hamming O, Hartmann R, Rodriguez R, et al. Efficient replication of the novel human betacoronavirus EMC on primary human epithelium highlights its zoonotic potential. MBio. 2013;4:e00611-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, type I and type III interferon treatment can efficiently reduce HCoV-EMC replication in the human airway epithelium, providing a possible avenue for treatment of emerging virus infections...
  4. Kuo L, Masters P. Functional analysis of the murine coronavirus genomic RNA packaging signal. J Virol. 2013;87:5182-92 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the PS was found to provide a distinct selective advantage to MHV. Viruses containing the PS readily outcompeted their otherwise isogenic counterparts lacking the PS...
  5. Shimizu M, Shimizu Y. Lymphocyte proliferative response to viral antigen in pigs infected with transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Infect Immun. 1979;23:239-43 pubmed
    ..Lymphocytes reactive to the viral antigen and phytohemagglutinin belonged mainly to the erythrocyte rosette-forming cell fraction, whereas those reactive to lipopolysaccharides were mostly found in the rosette-nonforming cell fraction. ..
  6. Wesley R, Woods R, Hill H, Biwer J. Evidence for a porcine respiratory coronavirus, antigenically similar to transmissible gastroenteritis virus, in the United States. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1990;2:312-7 pubmed
    ..Radioimmunoassays with a panel of monoclonal antibodies indicated that the Indiana respiratory variant and the European PRCV are antigenically similar. ..
  7. Hok K. Demonstration of feline infectious peritonitis virus in conjunctival epithelial cells from cats. A simple and reliable method for clinical veterinary virology screening. APMIS. 1989;97:820-4 pubmed
    ..The results obtained by the M3 test were up to 85% in concordance with these other tests. Furthermore, the M3 test was easier and quicker to perform and should be well suited for clinical practice...
  8. Laude H, Van Reeth K, Pensaert M. Porcine respiratory coronavirus: molecular features and virus-host interactions. Vet Res. 1993;24:125-50 pubmed
    ..The authors' views concerning the impact of the emergence of PRCV on both coronavirus research and swine production are presented in the conclusion. ..
  9. Wacharapluesadee S, Sintunawa C, Kaewpom T, Khongnomnan K, Olival K, Epstein J, et al. Group C betacoronavirus in bat guano fertilizer, Thailand. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:1349-51 pubmed publisher
  10. Alexander D, Gough R. Isolation of avian infectious bronchitis virus from experimentally infected chickens. Res Vet Sci. 1977;23:344-7 pubmed
  11. O Toole D, Brown I, Bridges A, Cartwright S. Pathogenicity of experimental infection with 'pneumotropic' porcine coronavirus. Res Vet Sci. 1989;47:23-9 pubmed
    ..Both PCV and TGEV infected bronchiolar epithelium and alveolar macrophages but, unlike TGEV, replication by PCV in villous enterocytes was limited and did not cause villous atrophy. ..
  12. Eiros Bouza J, Bachiller Luque M, Ortiz de Lejarazu R. [Emergent riboviruses implicated in gastroenteritis]. An Esp Pediatr. 2001;54:136-44 pubmed
  13. Wang X, Ohnstad M, Nelsen A, Nelson E. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus does not replicate in porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells, but activates the transcription of type I interferon and chemokine. Vet Microbiol. 2017;208:77-81 pubmed publisher
    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) belongs to the alphacoronavirus of the Coronaviridae. It is the major etiological agent of the recent outbreaks of piglet diarrhea and death in the US...
  14. Cubero M, Leon L, Contreras A, Lanza I, Zamora E, Caro M. Sero-epidemiological survey of porcine respiratory coronavirus (PRCV) infection in breeding herds in southeastern Spain. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B. 1992;39:290-8 pubmed
    ..However, a significant association (p less than 0.01) was observed between geographical zone and the prevalence of PRCV-infection. A herd size of greater than 50 breeding pigs had a greater risk (p less than 0.01) of PRCV-infection. ..
  15. Dea S, Tijssen P. Identification of the structural proteins of turkey enteric coronavirus. Arch Virol. 1988;99:173-86 pubmed
  16. Chan R, Poon L. The emergence of human coronavirus EMC: how scared should we be?. MBio. 2013;4:e00191-13 pubmed publisher
    ..More importantly, the authors demonstrate the potential use of type I and type III interferons (IFNs) to control viral infection. ..
  17. Balkhy H, Perl T, Arabi Y. Preventing healthcare-associated transmission of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Our Achilles heel. J Infect Public Health. 2016;9:208-12 pubmed publisher
    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus is the most recent among the Coronaviridae family to jump species and infect humans...
  18. Neuman B, Buchmeier M. Supramolecular Architecture of the Coronavirus Particle. Adv Virus Res. 2016;96:1-27 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential wider conservation of the nucleoprotein fold identified in the Arteriviridae and Coronaviridae families and a speculative model for the evolution of corona-like virus architecture are discussed.
  19. Payne H, Storz J. Scanning electron microscopic characterization of bovine coronavirus plaques in HRT cells. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B. 1990;37:501-8 pubmed
    ..The survival of cells in the plaque interior reflects a non-productively infected population with evidence of viral persistence. ..
  20. Zheng X, Qin Y, Wang J. A Poisson model of sequence comparison and its application to coronavirus phylogeny. Math Biosci. 2009;217:159-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic trees of 25 viruses including SARS-CoVs are constructed to illustrate our approach. ..
  21. Marthaler D, Raymond L, Jiang Y, Collins J, Rossow K, Rovira A. Rapid detection, complete genome sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of porcine deltacoronavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:1347-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Four additional PDCoV genomes from the United States were sequenced; these had ?99%-100% nt similarity to the other US PDCoV strains. ..
  22. Müller C, Hardt M, Schwudke D, Neuman B, Pleschka S, Ziebuhr J. Inhibition of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2? Impairs an Early Step of Coronavirus Replication in Cell Culture. J Virol. 2018;92: pubmed publisher
    ..Py-2 also displayed antiviral activities against other viruses representing the Coronaviridae and Togaviridae families, while members of the Picornaviridae were not affected...
  23. Godson D, Campos M, Babiuk L. The role of bovine intraepithelial leukocyte-mediated cytotoxicity in enteric antiviral defense. Viral Immunol. 1992;5:1-13 pubmed
    ..This type of interaction could serve to enhance the efficiency of IEL cytotoxic cells in vivo. Thus IEL-mediated cytotoxicity has the potential to serve as a mechanism of defense to enteric viral infection. ..
  24. Godson D, Campos M, Babiuk L. Non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxicity of bovine coronavirus-infected target cells mediated by bovine intestinal intraepithelial leukocytes. J Gen Virol. 1991;72 ( Pt 10):2457-65 pubmed
    ..Although further analysis of the cytotoxic effector cells present in the intestinal epithelium is required, the present study indicates that the IEL population may play a role in enteric antiviral activity. ..
  25. Hofmann M, Wyler R. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus antibodies in swine sera. Vet Microbiol. 1990;21:263-73 pubmed
    ..Three different antigen purification methods and the advantages of the ELISA compared with an immunofluorescence test are discussed. ..
  26. Watanabe R, Wege H, ter Meulen V. Comparative analysis of coronavirus JHM-induced demyelinating encephalomyelitis in Lewis and Brown Norway rats. Lab Invest. 1987;57:375-84 pubmed
    ..These observations demonstrate the pathogenetic importance of host factors in the development of virus-induced demyelination...
  27. Zschock M, Herbst W, Lange H, Hamann H, Schliesser T. [Microbiological study results (bacteriology and electron microscopy) of diarrhea in dog whelps]. Tierarztl Prax. 1989;17:93-5 pubmed
    ..coli strains for the parvovirus enteritis of dogs. ..
  28. Gaertner D, Winograd D, Compton S, Paturzo F, Smith A. Development and optimization of plaque assays for rat coronaviruses. J Virol Methods. 1993;43:53-64 pubmed
    ..These methods will facilitate production of cloned virus stocks for study of RCV biology and virus quantification for in vitro and in vivo studies of RCVs...
  29. Have P, Moving V, Svansson V, Uttenthal A, Bloch B. Coronavirus infection in mink (Mustela vison). Serological evidence of infection with a coronavirus related to transmissible gastroenteritis virus and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. Vet Microbiol. 1992;31:1-10 pubmed
    ..Thus MCV may occupy an intermediate position between the TGEV group of coronavirus and PEDV. The possibility that MCV may be associated with syndromes of acute enteritis in preweaning mink is discussed. ..
  30. Garner M, Ramsell K, Morera N, Juan Sallés C, Jimenez J, Ardiaca M, et al. Clinicopathologic features of a systemic coronavirus-associated disease resembling feline infectious peritonitis in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius). Vet Pathol. 2008;45:236-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Partial sequencing of the coronavirus spike gene obtained from frozen tissue indicates that the virus is related to ferret enteric coronavirus. ..
  31. Wang Y, Zhu N, Li Y, Lu R, Wang H, Liu G, et al. Metagenomic analysis of viral genetic diversity in respiratory samples from children with severe acute respiratory infection in China. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2016;22:458.e1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that members of the Paramyxoviridae, Coronaviridae, Parvoviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Picornaviridae, Anelloviridae and Adenoviridae families represented the most ..
  32. van Nieuwstadt A, Zetstra T. Use of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to monitor antibody responses in swine with experimentally induced infection with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus. Am J Vet Res. 1991;52:1044-50 pubmed
    ..The latter technique is easier to perform and discriminates well between infected and noninfected pigs, which makes this test useful for routine diagnosis and serologic surveys of porcine epidemic diarrhea...
  33. Sasaki I, Kazusa Y, Shirai J, Taniguchi T, Honda E. Neutralizing test of hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (HEV) in FS-L3 cells cultured without serum. J Vet Med Sci. 2003;65:381-3 pubmed
    ..Our results support the idea that the VN is a more reliable measure of HEV infection than the conventionally used HI test...
  34. Posthuma C, Nedialkova D, Zevenhoven Dobbe J, Blokhuis J, Gorbalenya A, Snijder E. Site-directed mutagenesis of the Nidovirus replicative endoribonuclease NendoU exerts pleiotropic effects on the arterivirus life cycle. J Virol. 2006;80:1653-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the arterivirus nsp11 is a multifunctional protein with a key role in viral RNA synthesis and additional functions in the viral life cycle that are as yet poorly defined...
  35. Liu J, Dai S, Wang M, Hu Z, Wang H, Deng F. Virus like particle-based vaccines against emerging infectious disease viruses. Virol Sin. 2016;31:279-87 pubmed publisher
    ..agents discussed include RNA viruses from different virus families, such as the Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Caliciviridae, Coronaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Togaviridae families.
  36. Lucchiari M, Longo M, Pereira C. Nonfatal demyelinating encephalomyelitis induced by coronavirus (JHM strain) infection in mice. Braz J Med Biol Res. 1989;22:77-80 pubmed
    ..Most of the animals recovered from the first phase of disease and some (11.1%) came down with paralysis 6 to 7 weeks after the infection, with no histological changes or virus detectable in their tissues. ..
  37. Schliephake A, Korner H, Flory E, Wege H. An immunodominant CD4+ T cell site on the nucleocapsid protein of murine coronavirus contributes to protection against encephalomyelitis. J Gen Virol. 1993;74 ( Pt 7):1287-94 pubmed
    ..By contrast, all truncated N protein fragments elicited a humoral immune response and contained antigenic sites recognized by antibodies from diseased rats. ..
  38. Raj V, Smits S, Provacia L, van den Brand J, Wiersma L, Ouwendijk W, et al. Adenosine deaminase acts as a natural antagonist for dipeptidyl peptidase 4-mediated entry of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. J Virol. 2014;88:1834-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Adenosine deaminase (ADA), a DPP4 binding protein, competed for virus binding, acting as a natural antagonist for MERS-CoV infection...
  39. Dominguez S, Shrivastava S, Berglund A, Qian Z, Góes L, Halpin R, et al. Isolation, propagation, genome analysis and epidemiology of HKU1 betacoronaviruses. J Gen Virol. 2014;95:836-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Elucidating the function of and mechanisms responsible for the formation of these varying tandem repeats will increase our understanding of the replication process and pathogenicity of HKU1 and potentially of other coronaviruses. ..
  40. Gallagher T, Escarmis C, Buchmeier M. Alteration of the pH dependence of coronavirus-induced cell fusion: effect of mutations in the spike glycoprotein. J Virol. 1991;65:1916-28 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that the pH dependence of coronavirus fusion is highly variable and that this variability can be determined by as few as three amino acid residues. ..
  41. Hanke D, Pohlmann A, Sauter Louis C, Höper D, Stadler J, Ritzmann M, et al. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea in Europe: In-Detail Analyses of Disease Dynamics and Molecular Epidemiology. Viruses. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..of swine caused by the eponymous virus (PEDV) which belongs to the genus Alphacoronavirus within the Coronaviridae virus family...
  42. Williams A, Wang L, Sneed L, Collisson E. Comparative analyses of the nucleocapsid genes of several strains of infectious bronchitis virus and other coronaviruses. Virus Res. 1992;25:213-22 pubmed
  43. Benfield D, Saif L. Cell culture propagation of a coronavirus isolated from cows with winter dysentery. J Clin Microbiol. 1990;28:1454-7 pubmed
    ..Cytopathic effects were observed on human rectal tumor cells but not bovine cell cultures. The winter dysentery isolates morphologically and antigenically resembled the Mebus strain of bovine coronavirus...
  44. Jany B. [Molecular cloning of human respiratory tract mucin and studies of mucin gene expression in tracheobronchial epithelium of the rat]. Pneumologie. 1993;47:479-87 pubmed
    ..This could represent an important initial step in the pathogenesis of tracheobronchial hypersecretion. ..
  45. Song D, Kang B, Lee S, Yang J, Moon H, Oh J, et al. Use of an internal control in a quantitative RT-PCR assay for quantitation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus shedding in pigs. J Virol Methods. 2006;133:27-33 pubmed
    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of the family Coronaviridae, has caused a devastating enteric disease in the Korean swine industry...
  46. Sawicki S, Sawicki D, Younker D, Meyer Y, Thiel V, Stokes H, et al. Functional and genetic analysis of coronavirus replicase-transcriptase proteins. PLoS Pathog. 2005;1:e39 pubmed
    ..Further biochemical analysis of these mutants should allow us to identify intermediates in this pathway and elucidate the precise function(s) of the viral replicase proteins involved. ..
  47. Tsukamoto T, Hirano N, Iwasaki Y, Haga S, Terunuma H, Yamamoto T. Vacuolar degeneration in mice infected with a coronavirus JHM-CC strain. Neurology. 1990;40:904-10 pubmed
    ..This model could provide a better understanding of new types of neurologic disorders associated with viral infections, including vacuolar myelopathy in AIDS...
  48. Kapil S, Trent A, Goyal S. Excretion and persistence of bovine coronavirus in neonatal calves. Arch Virol. 1990;115:127-32 pubmed
    ..However, viral antigen was detected in crypt or Peyer's patches for at least 3 weeks after infection in 1 of 3 calves given virulent virus and 1 of 2 calves given attenuated virus. ..
  49. van Nieuwstadt A, Zetstra T, Boonstra J. Infection with porcine respiratory coronavirus does not fully protect pigs against intestinal transmissible gastroenteritis virus. Vet Rec. 1989;125:58-60 pubmed
    ..By using a peroxidase conjugate of a monoclonal antibody which recognises a specific antigenic site on TGEV, antibodies against TGEV could be distinguished from antibodies against PRCV in an ELISA blocking test. ..
  50. Stoddart M, Gaskell R, Harbour D, Pearson G. The sites of early viral replication in feline infectious peritonitis. Vet Microbiol. 1988;18:259-71 pubmed
    ..Virus was recovered from the oropharynx and the faeces from as early as the second or third day after inoculation, and shedding continued until euthanasia. ..
  51. Cowley J, Dimmock C, Spann K, Walker P. Detection of Australian gill-associated virus (GAV) and lymphoid organ virus (LOV) of Penaeus monodon by RT-nested PCR. Dis Aquat Organ. 2000;39:159-67 pubmed
    ..The speed and sensitivity of the RT-nPCR make it a useful adjunct to TEM for diagnosing LOV/GAV infection of P. monodon, with the additional benefit that screening of gill biopsies may facilitate selection of LOV-free broodstock. ..
  52. Sampath R, Hofstadler S, Blyn L, Eshoo M, Hall T, Massire C, et al. Rapid identification of emerging pathogens: coronavirus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005;11:373-9 pubmed
    ..This approach, applicable to the surveillance of bacterial, viral, fungal, or protozoal pathogens, is capable of automated analysis of >900 PCR reactions per day. ..
  53. Yang X, Qi X, Cheng A, Wang M, Zhu D, Jia R, et al. Intestinal mucosal immune response in ducklings following oral immunisation with an attenuated Duck enteritis virus vaccine. Vet J. 2010;185:199-203 pubmed publisher
    ..The kinetics of virus-specific IgA production closely correlated with the presence of IgA+ plasma cells in the intestinal lamina propria. ..
  54. Bohl E, Saif L. Passive immunity in transmissible gastroenteritis of swine: immunoglobulin characteristics of antibodies in milk after inoculating virus by different routes. Infect Immun. 1975;11:23-32 pubmed
    ..Passive immunity against intestinal infection with TGE virus was generally more complete in pigs ingesting antibodies of the IgA than of the IgG class. ..
  55. McArdle F, Bennett M, Gaskell R, Tennant B, Kelly D, Gaskell C. Induction and enhancement of feline infectious peritonitis by canine coronavirus. Am J Vet Res. 1992;53:1500-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, sequential inoculation of cats with another strain of CCV caused lesions indistinguishable from those of FIP, without exposure at any time to FIPV. ..
  56. Saif L, Brock K, Redman D, Kohler E. Winter dysentery in dairy herds: electron microscopic and serological evidence for an association with coronavirus infection. Vet Rec. 1991;128:447-9 pubmed
    ..These findings provide additional evidence for a possible role for bovine coronavirus in the aetiology of winter dysentery. Furthermore, this is the first report of a group B rotavirus associated with diarrhoea in adult cattle...
  57. Evermann J, McKeirnan A, Ott R. Perspectives on the epizootiology of feline enteric coronavirus and the pathogenesis of feline infectious peritonitis. Vet Microbiol. 1991;28:243-55 pubmed
    ..Thus, it may be that clinical forms of FIP are due to a combination of two events, the first being the generation of FIPV from FECV, and the second being the capacity of FIPV to circumvent oral tolerance. ..
  58. Alenius S, Niskanen R, Juntti N, Larsson B. Bovine coronavirus as the causative agent of winter dysentery: serological evidence. Acta Vet Scand. 1991;32:163-70 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, BCV is commonly detected in animals suffering from winter dysentery. A co-infection with BVDV appears to aggravate the disease...
  59. Rimmelzwaan G, Groen J, Egberink H, Borst G, Uytdehaag F, Osterhaus A. The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay systems for serology and antigen detection in parvovirus, coronavirus and rotavirus infections in dogs in The Netherlands. Vet Microbiol. 1991;26:25-40 pubmed
    ..It was shown that the results of the respective serological ELISAs correlated well and that CPV was the major cause of virus-induced acute diarrhea in dogs in The Netherlands. ..
  60. Pedersen N. Virologic and immunologic aspects of feline infectious peritonitis virus infection. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1987;218:529-50 pubmed
  61. Dörries R, Watanabe R, Wege H, ter Meulen V. Murine coronavirus-induced encephalomyelitis in rats: analysis of immunoglobulins and virus-specific antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. J Neuroimmunol. 1986;12:131-42 pubmed
  62. Wurzer W, Obojes K, Vlasak R. The sialate-4-O-acetylesterases of coronaviruses related to mouse hepatitis virus: a proposal to reorganize group 2 Coronaviridae. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:395-402 pubmed
    ..Combined with evidence for distinct phylogenetic lineages of group 2 coronaviruses, subdivision into subgroups 2a (MHV-like viruses) and 2b (bovine coronavirus-like viruses) is suggested. ..
  63. Riquelme C, Escors D, Ortego J, Sanchez C, Uzelac Keserovic B, Apostolov K, et al. Nature of the virus associated with endemic Balkan nephropathy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:869-70 pubmed
  64. Addie D, Jarrett O. A study of naturally occurring feline coronavirus infections in kittens. Vet Rec. 1992;130:133-7 pubmed
    ..In this survey, cases of feline infectious peritonitis occurred in kittens from households where the initial presentation had been enteritis and vice versa. Therefore no difference in epidemiology could be found...
  65. Hoblet K, Shulaw W, Saif L, Weisbrode S, Lance S, Howard R, et al. Concurrent experimentally induced infection with Eimeria bovis and coronavirus in unweaned dairy calves. Am J Vet Res. 1992;53:1400-8 pubmed
    ..Calves that were given only coccidia oocysts appeared more severely affected than calves that were given only coronavirus, but differences were not significant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  66. Hruskova J, Heinz F, Svandova E, Pennigerová S. Antibodies to human coronaviruses 229E and OC43 in the population of C.R. Acta Virol. 1990;34:346-52 pubmed
    ..Significant antibody rises to HCV strain 229E were detected in 7 (3.2%) patients 9 months to 17 years old, to HCV strain OC43 in 4 (1.8%) patients under 2 years of age. ..
  67. Dea S, Verbeek A, Tijssen P. Antigenic and genomic relationships among turkey and bovine enteric coronaviruses. J Virol. 1990;64:3112-8 pubmed
    ..Their matrix (M) proteins undergo different glycosylation processes. ..
  68. Evermann J, Heeney J, Roelke M, McKeirnan A, O Brien S. Biological and pathological consequences of feline infectious peritonitis virus infection in the cheetah. Arch Virol. 1988;102:155-71 pubmed
    ..These data provided the basis for a hypothesis that the cheetah, through intensive inbreeding, had become more susceptible to viral infections as a result of genetic homogeneity. ..
  69. Zhao J, Shi B, Huang X, Peng M, Zhang X, He D, et al. A multiplex RT-PCR assay for rapid and differential diagnosis of four porcine diarrhea associated viruses in field samples from pig farms in East China from 2010 to 2012. J Virol Methods. 2013;194:107-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, all data indicated that this mRT-PCR assay was a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective detection method for clinical diagnosis of mixed infections of porcine diarrhea associated viruses...
  70. Hu B, Ge X, Wang L, Shi Z. Bat origin of human coronaviruses. Virol J. 2015;12:221 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the bat origin of human coronaviruses is helpful for the prediction and prevention of another pandemic emergence in the future. ..
  71. Patterson S, Bingham R. Electron microscope observations on the entry of avian infectious bronchitis virus into susceptible cells. Arch Virol. 1976;52:191-200 pubmed
    ..No intracellular virus was located by electron microscopy in warmed preparations when virus was treated with specific antiserum, either before or after adsorption to the cells. ..
  72. Lappin M, Marks A, Greene C, Collins J, Carman J, Reif J, et al. Serologic prevalence of selected infectious diseases in cats with uveitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1992;201:1005-9 pubmed
    ..Serologic evaluation for T gondii infection should include assays that detect IgM, IgG, and Ag, particularly in cats coinfected with FIV...
  73. Kemp D, Percy D, Hayes M. Lack of effects of viral sialoadenitis and depletion of epidermal growth factor on initiation of hepatic carcinogenesis in the rat. Toxicol Pathol. 1991;19:156-63 pubmed
    ..Based on this model, concurrent infection with SDAV does not appear to have any significant effects on the initial stages of chemical hepatocarcinogenesis in the rat. ..
  74. Dea S, Garzon S, Tijssen P. Isolation and trypsin-enhanced propagation of turkey enteric (bluecomb) coronaviruses in a continuous human rectal adenocarcinoma cell line. Am J Vet Res. 1989;50:1310-8 pubmed
    ..Late in the infection, aggregated progeny vial particles were detected near the outer surface of infected cells. One-day-old turkey poults inoculated orally with tissue culture-adapted TCV isolates developed mild to severe diarrhea. ..
  75. Stoddart C, Barlough J, Baldwin C, Scott F. Attempted immunisation of cats against feline infectious peritonitis using canine coronavirus. Res Vet Sci. 1988;45:383-8 pubmed
    ..The five surviving cats developed FIP after subsequent challenge with a fivefold higher dose of FIPV. Thus heterotypic vaccination of cats with CCV did not provide effective protection against FIPV challenge. ..
  76. Boursnell M, Binns M, Brown T. Sequencing of coronavirus IBV genomic RNA: three open reading frames in the 5' 'unique' region of mRNA D. J Gen Virol. 1985;66 ( Pt 10):2253-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The sequence also predicts a hydrophobic, potentially membrane-anchoring, region in the N terminal half of the 12.4K polypeptide, and a hydrophilic C terminus...
  77. Saknimit M, Inatsuki I, Sugiyama Y, Yagami K. Virucidal efficacy of physico-chemical treatments against coronaviruses and parvoviruses of laboratory animals. Jikken Dobutsu. 1988;37:341-5 pubmed
    ..Ultraviolet radiation inactivated all viruses within 15 minutes. No significant differences in stability against physico-chemical treatments were seen between viruses in the same group. ..
  78. Buller R. Molecular detection of respiratory viruses. Clin Lab Med. 2013;33:439-60 pubmed publisher
  79. Lei J, Hilgenfeld R. RNA-virus proteases counteracting host innate immunity. FEBS Lett. 2017;591:3190-3210 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we discuss the multiple strategies used by proteases of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses of the families Picornaviridae, Coronaviridae, and Flaviviridae, when counteracting host innate immune responses.
  80. Schultze B, Herrler G. Bovine coronavirus uses N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminic acid as a receptor determinant to initiate the infection of cultured cells. J Gen Virol. 1992;73 ( Pt 4):901-6 pubmed
  81. Cox E, Pensaert M, Hooyberghs J, Van Deun K. Sites of replication of a porcine respiratory coronavirus in 5-week-old pigs with or without maternal antibodies. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1990;276:429-33 pubmed
    ..Upon inoculation of 10(5) or 10(7) TCID50 directly into the lumen of the cranial jejunum, no intestinal replication could be demonstrated...
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