porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus

Summary

Summary: A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.

Top Publications

  1. de Wilde A, Li Y, van der Meer Y, Vuagniaux G, Lysek R, Fang Y, et al. Cyclophilin inhibitors block arterivirus replication by interfering with viral RNA synthesis. J Virol. 2013;87:1454-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that CypA is an essential component of the viral RNA-synthesizing machinery. ..
  2. Han Y, Kim S, Rahman M, Uyangaa E, Lee B, Kim J, et al. Systemic and mucosal immunity induced by attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing ORF7 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;34:335-45 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate the value of attenuated S. enterica serovar Typhimurium as an oral carrier of PRRSV antigenic proteins to induce effective systemic and mucosal immunity. ..
  3. Wu J, Chen N, Han W, Cao Z, Deng X, Wang L, et al. Complete genome sequence of an overattenuated highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. J Virol. 2012;86:6381-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with the parental virus JXA1, JXA1-P170 contains 1 nucleotide (nt) deletion and 113 nt mutations leading to 59 amino acid substitutions. Here we announce the first complete genome sequence of the overattenuated HP-PRRSV. ..
  4. Leng X, Li Z, Xia M, Li X, Wang F, Wang W, et al. Mutations in the genome of the highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus potentially related to attenuation. Vet Microbiol. 2012;157:50-60 pubmed publisher
  5. Sinha A, Shen H, Schalk S, Beach N, Huang Y, Meng X, et al. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) influences infection dynamics of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) subtypes PCV2a and PCV2b by prolonging PCV2 viremia and shedding. Vet Microbiol. 2011;152:235-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The results from this study highlight the interaction between PRRSV and PCV2 and the importance of controlling PRRSV infection in order to reduce PCV2 virus loads in pig populations...
  6. Velasova M, Alarcon P, Williamson S, Wieland B. Risk factors for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection and resulting challenges for effective disease surveillance. BMC Vet Res. 2012;8:184 pubmed publisher
    ..The results further indicate that a combined approach of surveillance for infection and disease diagnosis is needed to assist effective control and/or elimination of PRRSV from the pig population. ..
  7. Sun X, Wertz N, Lager K, Tobin G, Butler J. Antibody repertoire development in fetal and neonatal piglets. XXIII: fetal piglets infected with a vaccine strain of PRRS Virus display the same immune dysregulation seen in isolator piglets. Vaccine. 2012;30:3646-52 pubmed publisher
  8. Shi Y, Hu Z, Xiong Z, Zhou Y, Jin X, Gu C, et al. Analysis of molecular variation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Central China from 2006 to 2012. Arch Virol. 2013;158:717-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we found that the number of potential N-glycosylation sites had apparently increased since 2006. These findings increase our knowledge of PRRSV epidemiology in Central China...
  9. Dwivedi V, Manickam C, Binjawadagi B, Linhares D, Murtaugh M, Renukaradhya G. Evaluation of immune responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs during early stage of infection under farm conditions. Virol J. 2012;9:45 pubmed publisher
    ..As the study was performed in pigs maintained under commercial environmental conditions, this study has practical implications in design of protective vaccines. ..

More Information

Publications82

  1. Zhou Z, Li X, Liu Q, Hu D, Yue X, Ni J, et al. Complete genome sequence of two novel Chinese virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus variants. J Virol. 2012;86:6373-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the complete genomic sequence of two novel Chinese virulent PRRSV variants with additional NSP2-gene deletions, which will help us understand the molecular and evolutionary characteristics of PRRSV in Asia. ..
  2. Morgan S, Graham S, Salguero F, Sánchez Cordón P, Mokhtar H, Rebel J, et al. Increased pathogenicity of European porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is associated with enhanced adaptive responses and viral clearance. Vet Microbiol. 2013;163:13-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the increased clinical and pathological effect of the SU1-bel strain is more likely to be caused by an enhanced inflammatory immune response rather than higher levels of virus replication...
  3. Lu Z, Zhang J, Huang C, Go Y, Faaberg K, Rowland R, et al. Chimeric viruses containing the N-terminal ectodomains of GP5 and M proteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus do not change the cellular tropism of equine arteritis virus. Virology. 2012;432:99-109 pubmed publisher
    ..2012)...
  4. Parida R, Choi I, Peterson D, Pattnaik A, Laegreid W, Zuckermann F, et al. Location of T-cell epitopes in nonstructural proteins 9 and 10 of type-II porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Virus Res. 2012;169:13-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The identified epitopes may be important in the formulation of immunogens to provide broad cross-protection against diverse PRRSV strains. ..
  5. Ni Y, Opriessnig T, Zhou L, Cao D, Huang Y, Halbur P, et al. Attenuation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by molecular breeding of virus envelope genes from genetically divergent strains. J Virol. 2013;87:304-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The results have important implications for future vaccine development and will generate broad general interest in the scientific community in rapidly attenuating other important human and veterinary viruses...
  6. Lu Q, Bai J, Zhang L, Liu J, Jiang Z, Michal J, et al. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling approach revealed first proteome profiles of pulmonary alveolar macrophages infected with porcine repr. J Proteome Res. 2012;11:2890-903 pubmed publisher
  7. Linhares D, Cano J, Wetzell T, Nerem J, Torremorell M, Dee S. Effect of modified-live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) vaccine on the shedding of wild-type virus from an infected population of growing pigs. Vaccine. 2012;30:407-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The challenge-vaccine group had significant less PRRSv-positive oral fluids at 36 dpi. Moreover, the challenge-vaccine group had significant reduction in the cumulative PRRSv shed in the air. ..
  8. Kvisgaard L, Hjulsager C, Kristensen C, Lauritsen K, Larsen L. Genetic and antigenic characterization of complete genomes of Type 1 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) isolated in Denmark over a period of 10 years. Virus Res. 2013;178:197-205 pubmed publisher
    ..7-97.9%. The study strongly indicated that there have been at least two independent introductions of Type 1 PRRSV in Denmark and analysis of the full genomes revealed a significant drift in several regions of the virus. ..
  9. Gao L, Zhang W, Sun Y, Yang Q, Ren J, Liu J, et al. Cryptoporus volvatus extract inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in vitro and in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63767 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings imply that the aqueous extract from the fruiting body of Cryptoporus volvatus has the potential to be used for anti-PRRSV therapies...
  10. Opriessnig T, Patel D, Wang R, Halbur P, Meng X, Stein D, et al. Inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in piglets by a peptide-conjugated morpholino oligomer. Antiviral Res. 2011;91:36-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides further data indicating that the 5UP2 PPMO can be considered a candidate component for a novel PRRS control strategy...
  11. Opriessnig T, Gimenez Lirola L, Halbur P. Polymicrobial respiratory disease in pigs. Anim Health Res Rev. 2011;12:133-48 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses the latest findings on polymicrobial respiratory disease in pigs. ..
  12. Karniychuk U, Van Breedam W, Van Roy N, Rogel Gaillard C, Nauwynck H. Demonstration of microchimerism in pregnant sows and effects of congenital PRRSV infection. Vet Res. 2012;43:19 pubmed publisher
    ..Sex-typing FISH showed the presence of male cells in the female fetal organs and vice versa. PRRSV infection did not influence microchimerism, but might misuse maternal and sibling microchimeric cells to enter fetuses...
  13. Wei Z, Lin T, Sun L, Li Y, Wang X, Gao F, et al. N-linked glycosylation of GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus is critically important for virus replication in vivo. J Virol. 2012;86:9941-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained from the present study have made significant contributions to better understanding the importance of glycosylation of GP5 in the biology of PRRSV...
  14. Renukaradhya G, Dwivedi V, Manickam C, Binjawadagi B, BENFIELD D. Mucosal vaccines to prevent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: a new perspective. Anim Health Res Rev. 2012;13:21-37 pubmed publisher
    ..This information may help in the design of innovative mucosal vaccines to elicit superior cross-protective immunity against divergent field strains of PRRSV. ..
  15. Hou J, Wang L, He W, Zhang H, Feng W. Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus impairs LPS- and poly(I:C)-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha release by inhibiting ERK signaling pathway. Virus Res. 2012;167:106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicated that HP-PRRSV infection could impair TNF-? production by inhibiting ERK signaling pathway, which might partially contribute to the pathogenesis of HP-PRRSV. ..
  16. Li B, Fang L, Guo X, Gao J, Song T, Bi J, et al. Epidemiology and evolutionary characteristics of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in China between 2006 and 2010. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:3175-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Information from this study will help in understanding the evolutionary characteristics of Chinese PRRSV and assist ongoing efforts to develop and use PRRSV vaccines in the future...
  17. Delisle B, Gagnon C, Lambert M, D Allaire S. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus diversity of Eastern Canada swine herds in a large sequence dataset reveals two hypervariable regions under positive selection. Infect Genet Evol. 2012;12:1111-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis of this dataset increased knowledge of evolutionary change inferred from genetic data, more specifically regarding the implications of both HVRs in PRRSV diversity...
  18. Guo B, Lager K, Henningson J, Miller L, Schlink S, Kappes M, et al. Experimental infection of United States swine with a Chinese highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Virology. 2013;435:372-84 pubmed publisher
  19. Kittawornrat A, Prickett J, Wang C, Olsen C, Irwin C, Panyasing Y, et al. Detection of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) antibodies in oral fluid specimens using a commercial PRRSV serum antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2012;24:262-9 pubmed publisher
    ..40. The results of the study suggest that the IgG oral fluid ELISA can provide efficient, cost-effective PRRSV monitoring in commercial herds and PRRSV surveillance in elimination programs. ..
  20. Wang D, Cao L, Xu Z, Fang L, Zhong Y, Chen Q, et al. MiR-125b reduces porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication by negatively regulating the NF-κB pathway. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55838 pubmed publisher
  21. Murtaugh M, Genzow M. Immunological solutions for treatment and prevention of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS). Vaccine. 2011;29:8192-204 pubmed publisher
  22. Sagong M, Park C, Kim S, Lee K, Lee O, Lee D, et al. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase-immortalized porcine monomyeloid cell lines for the production of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. J Virol Methods. 2012;179:26-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest that the hTERT-immortalized PAM cell lines can enable us to facilitate the continued use of PAMs for virus isolation and production and to provide a promising tool for viral pathogenesis and immune function studies. ..
  23. Zhang S, Zhou Y, Jiang Y, Li G, Yan L, Yu H, et al. Generation of an infectious clone of HuN4-F112, an attenuated live vaccine strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Virol J. 2011;8:410 pubmed publisher
    ..In this regard, HuN4-F112, a live-attenuated North-American-type PRRSV vaccine strain, could serve as an excellent model...
  24. Du Y, Qi J, Lu Y, Wu J, Yoo D, Liu X, et al. Evaluation of a DNA vaccine candidate co-expressing GP3 and GP5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) with interferon ?/? in immediate and long-lasting protection against HP-PRRSV challenge. Virus Genes. 2012;45:474-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The DNA vaccine pVAX1(©)-?-?-GP35 might be an attractive candidate vaccine for the prevention and control of HP-PRRSV infections...
  25. Geldhof M, Vanhee M, Van Breedam W, Van Doorsselaere J, Karniychuk U, Nauwynck H. Comparison of the efficacy of autogenous inactivated Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) vaccines with that of commercial vaccines against homologous and heterologous challenges. BMC Vet Res. 2012;8:182 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the induction of challenge virus-specific (neutralizing) antibodies by the different vaccines was assessed...
  26. Karniychuk U, Saha D, Geldhof M, Vanhee M, Cornillie P, van den Broeck W, et al. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes apoptosis during its replication in fetal implantation sites. Microb Pathog. 2011;51:194-202 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible mode of PRRSV replication in the fetal implantation sites and the events that might contribute to the reproductive disorders are discussed. ..
  27. Sang Y, Rowland R, Blecha F. Interaction between innate immunity and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Anim Health Res Rev. 2011;12:149-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Strategies for targeting innate immune components and other host metabolic factors to induce ideal anti-PRRSV protection are also discussed. ..
  28. Kvisgaard L, Hjulsager C, Brar M, Leung F, Larsen L. Genetic dissection of complete genomes of Type 2 PRRS viruses isolated in Denmark over a period of 15 years. Vet Microbiol. 2013;167:334-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis in a global Type 2 PRRSV framework classified all Danish isolates to a single cluster (sub-lineage 5.1) which comprised strains closely-related to the Type 2 prototype isolate VR2332. ..
  29. Rammohan L, Xue L, Wang C, Chittick W, Ganesan S, Ramamoorthy S. Increased prevalence of torque teno viruses in porcine respiratory disease complex affected pigs. Vet Microbiol. 2012;157:61-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies to define their possible role in the pathogenesis of swine respiratory diseases are warranted. ..
  30. Manickam C, Dwivedi V, Miller J, Papenfuss T, Renukaradhya G. Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole cell lysate enhances proliferation of CD8 positive lymphocytes and nitric oxide secretion in the lungs of live porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus vaccinated pigs. Viral Immunol. 2013;26:102-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the adjuvant effects of Mtb WCL to PRRS-MLV resulted in favorable anti-PRRSV immune microenvironment in the lungs to help better viral clearance. ..
  31. Lambert M, Arsenault J, Poljak Z, D Allaire S. Epidemiological investigations in regard to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in Quebec, Canada. Part 2: prevalence and risk factors in breeding sites. Prev Vet Med. 2012;104:84-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These two latter biosecurity measures, manageable directly on the site, should be prioritized and be part of any intervention strategy designed for PRRSV control. ..
  32. Karuppannan A, Wu K, Qiang J, Chu J, Kwang J. Natural compounds inhibiting the replication of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Antiviral Res. 2012;94:188-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we have identified 15 other compounds which can inhibit the PRRSV replication at the concentration of 8?M. This study provides a basis for further development of pharmacological agents to inhibit PRRSV replication. ..
  33. Han K, Seo H, Oh Y, Kang I, Park C, Chae C. Effects of North American porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-based modified live vaccines on preimmunized sows artificially inseminated with European PRRSV-spiked semen. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:319-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study has demonstrated that vaccinating sows with the North American PRRSV-based modified live vaccine does not prevent reproductive failure after insemination with European PRRSV-spiked semen...
  34. Hou J, Wang L, Quan R, Fu Y, Zhang H, Feng W. Induction of interleukin-10 is dependent on p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in macrophages infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Virol J. 2012;9:165 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrated that a full-length glycoprotein was essential for GP5 to induce IL-10 production. PRRSV strain CH-1a could significantly up-regulate IL-10 production through p38 MAPK activation...
  35. Wang C, Zhao Q, Liang C, Dang L, Ma Y, Gao J, et al. Complete genome sequence of a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus variant. J Virol. 2012;86:8906 pubmed publisher
    ..The sequence data indicate that the HP-PRRSV variant continues to prevail and accelerate evolution, especially in the nonstructural protein. ..
  36. Zhang H, Guo X, Nelson E, Christopher Hennings J, Wang X. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus activates the transcription of interferon alpha/beta (IFN-?/?) in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DC). Vet Microbiol. 2012;159:494-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that PRRSV inhibits the induction of IFN-? in Mo-DC by as yet undefined post-transcriptional mechanisms...
  37. Lu J, Gao F, Wei Z, Liu P, Liu C, Zheng H, et al. A 5'-proximal stem-loop structure of 5' untranslated region of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus genome is key for virus replication. Virol J. 2011;8:172 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we concluded that the phylogenetically conserved SL2 in the 5' UTR was crucial for PRRSV virus replication, subgenomic mRNA synthesis in particular. ..
  38. Leng X, Li Z, Xia M, He Y, Wu H. Evaluation of the efficacy of an attenuated live vaccine against highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in young pigs. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:1199-206 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, strain TJM is a good candidate for an efficacious modified live virus vaccine as well as a useful molecular marker vaccine against HP-PRRSV. ..
  39. Nan Y, Wang R, Shen M, Faaberg K, Samal S, Zhang Y. Induction of type I interferons by a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolate. Virology. 2012;432:261-70 pubmed publisher
    ..8% at the nucleotide level. The identification of this IFN-inducing PRRSV isolate may be beneficial for vaccine development against PRRS. ..
  40. Van Doorsselaere J, Brar M, Shi M, Karniychuk U, Leung F, Nauwynck H. Complete genome characterization of a East European Type 1 subtype 3 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Virus Genes. 2012;44:51-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The availability of the European subtype 3 PRRSV full genome may be important for the understanding of PRRSV evolution and the more pronounced pathogenic nature of Lena. ..
  41. Du Y, Pattnaik A, Song C, Yoo D, Li G. Glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored membrane association of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus GP4 glycoprotein and its co-localization with CD163 in lipid rafts. Virology. 2012;424:18-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Since CD163 has been reported as a cellular receptor for PRRSV and GP4 has been shown to interact with this receptor, our data implicates an important role of lipid rafts during entry of the virus...
  42. Martinez Lobo F, Díez Fuertes F, Segales J, García Artiga C, Simarro I, Castro J, et al. Comparative pathogenicity of type 1 and type 2 isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in a young pig infection model. Vet Microbiol. 2011;154:58-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the general idea that type 2 isolates induce more severe respiratory disease than type 1 isolates. ..
  43. Shi X, Wang L, Li X, Zhang G, Guo J, Zhao D, et al. Endoribonuclease activities of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp11 was essential for nsp11 to inhibit IFN-? induction. Mol Immunol. 2011;48:1568-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our present work indicated that the endoribonuclease activity of nsp11 was essential for nsp11 to inhibit the IFN-? induction. ..
  44. Ni Y, Huang Y, Cao D, Opriessnig T, Meng X. Establishment of a DNA-launched infectious clone for a highly pneumovirulent strain of type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: identification and in vitro and in vivo characterization of a large spontaneous deletion in the nsp2 re. Virus Res. 2011;160:264-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The results from this study indicates that the spontaneous nsp2 deletion plays a role for enhanced PRRSV replication in vitro but has no effect on the pathogenicity of the virus. ..
  45. Fu Y, Quan R, Zhang H, Hou J, Tang J, Feng W. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus induces interleukin-15 through the NF-?B signaling pathway. J Virol. 2012;86:7625-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underling the IL-15 production induced by PRRSV infection. ..
  46. Kwong G, Poljak Z, Deardon R, Dewey C. Bayesian analysis of risk factors for infection with a genotype of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in Ontario swine herds using monitoring data. Prev Vet Med. 2013;110:405-17 pubmed publisher
  47. Zhou L, Ni Y, Piñeyro P, Sanford B, Cossaboom C, Dryman B, et al. DNA shuffling of the GP3 genes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) produces a chimeric virus with an improved cross-neutralizing ability against a heterologous PRRSV strain. Virology. 2012;434:96-109 pubmed publisher
    ..One chimera GP3TS22 induced significantly higher levels of cross-neutralizing antibodies in pigs against a heterologous PRRSV strain FL-12...
  48. Wang Y, Zhou Y, Li G, Zhang S, Jiang Y, Xu A, et al. Identification of immunodominant T-cell epitopes in membrane protein of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Virus Res. 2011;158:108-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding of 4 T-cell immunodominant epitopes in the M protein of PRRSV will be beneficial to the understanding of the development of cell-mediated immunity. ..
  49. Boddicker N, Waide E, Rowland R, Lunney J, Garrick D, Reecy J, et al. Evidence for a major QTL associated with host response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus challenge. J Anim Sci. 2012;90:1733-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These results could have a major impact in the swine industry by enabling marker-assisted selection to reduce the impact of PRRS but need to be validated in additional populations. ..
  50. Diaz I, Gimeno M, Darwich L, Navarro N, Kuzemtseva L, Lopez S, et al. Characterization of homologous and heterologous adaptive immune responses in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection. Vet Res. 2012;43:30 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, inoculation with different PRRSV strains result in different virological and immunological outcomes and in different degrees of homologous and heterologous protection...
  51. Martínez Lobo F, Díez Fuertes F, Simarro I, Castro J, Prieto C. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus isolates differ in their susceptibility to neutralization. Vaccine. 2011;29:6928-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The classification of the isolates provides a useful tool to facilitate the systematic characterization of neutralizing antibody production elicited by new vaccine candidates. ..
  52. Nieuwenhuis N, Duinhof T, van Nes A. Economic analysis of outbreaks of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in nine sow herds. Vet Rec. 2012;170:225 pubmed publisher
    ..The calculated costs in this study correlate with the costs of the initial outbreak in The Netherlands of 98 per sow...
  53. Zhou P, Zhai S, Zhou X, Lin P, Jiang T, Hu X, et al. Molecular characterization of transcriptome-wide interactions between highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine alveolar macrophages in vivo. Int J Biol Sci. 2011;7:947-59 pubmed
    ..Transcriptomic analysis of PAMs in vivo could lead to a better understanding of the HP-PRRSV-host interaction, and to the identification of novel antiviral therapies and genetic components of swine tolerance/susceptibility to HP-PRRS. ..
  54. Karniychuk U, Nauwynck H. Pathogenesis and prevention of placental and transplacental porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection. Vet Res. 2013;44:95 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, strategies to control placental and transplacental PRRSV infection are discussed. ..
  55. Brockmeier S, Loving C, Nelson E, Miller L, Nicholson T, Register K, et al. The presence of alpha interferon at the time of infection alters the innate and adaptive immune responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:508-14 pubmed publisher
  56. Tun H, Shi M, Wong C, Ayudhya S, Amonsin A, Thanawonguwech R, et al. Genetic diversity and multiple introductions of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses in Thailand. Virol J. 2011;8:164 pubmed publisher
  57. Barranco I, Gómez Laguna J, Rodríguez Gómez I, Quereda J, Salguero F, Pallares F, et al. Immunohistochemical expression of IL-12, IL-10, IFN-α and IFN-γ in lymphoid organs of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus-infected pigs. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2012;149:262-71 pubmed publisher
  58. Sun Y, Han M, Kim C, Calvert J, Yoo D. Interplay between interferon-mediated innate immunity and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Viruses. 2012;4:424-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The understanding of molecular bases for virus-mediated modulation of host innate immune signaling will help us design new generation vaccines and control PRRS. ..
  59. Fang Y, Fang L, Wang Y, Lei Y, Luo R, Wang D, et al. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nonstructural protein 2 contributes to NF-κB activation. Virol J. 2012;9:83 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that PRRSV Nsp2 is a multifunctional protein participating in the modulation of host inflammatory response, which suggests an important role of Nsp2 in pathogenesis and disease outcomes. ..
  60. Li J, Murtaugh M. Dissociation of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus neutralization from antibodies specific to major envelope protein surface epitopes. Virology. 2012;433:367-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the GP5/M ectodomain peptide epitopes are accessible for host antibody recognition, but are not associated with antibody-mediated virus neutralization. ..
  61. Vanhee M, Van Breedam W, Costers S, Geldhof M, Noppe Y, Nauwynck H. Characterization of antigenic regions in the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by the use of peptide-specific serum antibodies. Vaccine. 2011;29:4794-804 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides new insights into PRRSV antigenicity, and contributes to the knowledge on protective immunity and immune evasion strategies of the virus. ..
  62. Tian D, Wei Z, Zevenhoven Dobbe J, Liu R, Tong G, Snijder E, et al. Arterivirus minor envelope proteins are a major determinant of viral tropism in cell culture. J Virol. 2012;86:3701-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that chimeric arteriviruses of this kind will be a powerful tool for further dissection of the arterivirus replicative cycle, including virus entry, subgenomic RNA synthesis, and virion assembly...
  63. Silva Campa E, Mata Haro V, Mateu E, Hernandez J. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus induces CD4+CD8+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Virology. 2012;430:73-80 pubmed publisher
    ..TGF-? was only observed in the CD4(+)CD8(+)Foxp3(high) population after PRRSV stimulation. In conclusion, PRRSV infection increases the frequency of Tregs with the phenotype CD4(+)CD8(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(high) and produces TGF-?...
  64. Lambert M, Poljak Z, Arsenault J, D Allaire S. Epidemiological investigations in regard to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) in Quebec, Canada. Part 1: biosecurity practices and their geographical distribution in two areas of different swine density. Prev Vet Med. 2012;104:74-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Vicinity of sites with different biosecurity levels also suggests difficulties in planning priorities of intervention based on geographical distribution of sites. ..
  65. Chand R, Trible B, Rowland R. Pathogenesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:256-63 pubmed publisher
    ..A mechanistic basis for persistence includes the evasion of innate and adaptive immune responses. Recent advances include the study of how the non-structural proteins (nsp's) inhibit the induction of type 1 interferon genes. ..
  66. Lee Y, Lee C. Stress-activated protein kinases are involved in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection and modulate virus-induced cytokine production. Virology. 2012;427:80-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data suggest that the p38 and JNK signaling pathways play pivotal roles in PRRSV replication and may regulate immune responses during virus infection...
  67. Karniychuk U, Saha D, Vanhee M, Geldhof M, Cornillie P, Caij A, et al. Impact of a novel inactivated PRRS virus vaccine on virus replication and virus-induced pathology in fetal implantation sites and fetuses upon challenge. Theriogenology. 2012;78:1527-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The reduction of fetal infection and pathology is most probably attributable to the vaccine-mediated decrease of PRRSV transfer from the endometrium to the fetal placenta...
  68. Van Breedam W, Costers S, Vanhee M, Gagnon C, Rodríguez Gómez I, Geldhof M, et al. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-specific mAbs: supporting diagnostics and providing new insights into the antigenic properties of the virus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011;141:246-57 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is also clear that findings concerning a specific PRRSV epitope cannot always be generalized, as the antigenic determinants and their biological properties may differ radically between different virus isolates. ..
  69. Lawson S, Li Y, Patton J, Langenhorst R, Sun Z, Jiang Z, et al. Interleukin-1? expression by a recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. Virus Res. 2012;163:461-8 pubmed publisher
  70. Cao J, Grauwet K, Vermeulen B, Devriendt B, Jiang P, Favoreel H, et al. Suppression of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages in vitro. Vet Microbiol. 2013;164:261-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PRRSV-infected PAMs showed a reduced susceptibility toward NK cytotoxicity, which may represent one of the multiple evasion strategies of PRRSV. ..
  71. Dwivedi V, Manickam C, Binjawadagi B, Joyappa D, Renukaradhya G. Biodegradable nanoparticle-entrapped vaccine induces cross-protective immune response against a virulent heterologous respiratory viral infection in pigs. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51794 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we demonstrated the benefits of intranasal delivery of nanoparticle-based viral vaccine in eliciting cross-protective immune response in pigs, a potential large animal model. ..
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