vesicular stomatitis indiana virus


Summary: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.

Top Publications

  1. Cesaire R, Oliere S, Sharif Askari E, Loignon M, Lezin A, Olindo S, et al. Oncolytic activity of vesicular stomatitis virus in primary adult T-cell leukemia. Oncogene. 2006;25:349-58 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our findings provide the first essential information for the development of a VSV-based treatment for ATL. ..
  2. Ireland D, Reiss C. Gene expression contributing to recruitment of circulating cells in response to vesicular stomatitis virus infection of the CNS. Viral Immunol. 2006;19:536-45 pubmed
    ..Neutrophils are the first recruited cell type, appearing as early as 24 h after intranasal application of the virus. NK cells follow, but T cells are not detected until 6 days postinfection. ..
  3. Iannacone M, Moseman E, Tonti E, Bosurgi L, Junt T, Henrickson S, et al. Subcapsular sinus macrophages prevent CNS invasion on peripheral infection with a neurotropic virus. Nature. 2010;465:1079-83 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify SCS macrophages as crucial gatekeepers to the CNS that prevent fatal viral invasion of the nervous system on peripheral infection. ..
  4. Barber G. VSV-tumor selective replication and protein translation. Oncogene. 2005;24:7710-9 pubmed
    ..Using VSV as a model, this review will discuss some of the recent developments in the fields of innate immunity and translational regulation that may help explain mechanisms of viral oncolysis. ..
  5. Daddario DiCaprio K, Geisbert T, Stroher U, Geisbert J, Grolla A, Fritz E, et al. Postexposure protection against Marburg haemorrhagic fever with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors in non-human primates: an efficacy assessment. Lancet. 2006;367:1399-404 pubmed
    ..Indeed, these data suggest that rVSV-based filoviral vaccines might not only have potential as preventive vaccines, but also could be equally useful for postexposure treatment of filoviral infections. ..
  6. Munoz Fontela C, Garcia M, Garcia Cao I, Collado M, Arroyo J, Esteban M, et al. Resistance to viral infection of super p53 mice. Oncogene. 2005;24:3059-62 pubmed
    ..These findings unequivocally demonstrate an antiviral activity of p53, a process that may contribute to inhibit the spread of the virus in vivo. ..
  7. Green T, Luo M. Structure of the vesicular stomatitis virus nucleocapsid in complex with the nucleocapsid-binding domain of the small polymerase cofactor, P. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11713-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Localization of phosphorylation sites within P and their proximity to the RNA cavity give insight into how the L protein might be oriented to access the RNA template. ..
  8. Fensterl V, White C, Yamashita M, Sen G. Novel characteristics of the function and induction of murine p56 family proteins. J Virol. 2008;82:11045-53 pubmed publisher
    ..These results revealed novel cell type-, inducer-, and gene-specific regulation of the ISG56 family of genes. ..
  9. Roth S, Whittaker G. Promotion of vesicular stomatitis virus fusion by the endosome-specific phospholipid bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP). FEBS Lett. 2011;585:865-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide a biological rationale for a two-step infection reaction during VSV entry, and suggest that BMP preferentially affects the ability of VSV G to mediate lipid mixing during membrane fusion...

More Information


  1. Ogino T, Banerjee A. Unconventional mechanism of mRNA capping by the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of vesicular stomatitis virus. Mol Cell. 2007;25:85-97 pubmed
    ..Thus, the L proteins of VSV and, by extension, other NNS RNA viruses represent a new class of viral CEs, which have evolved independently from known eukaryotic CEs. ..
  2. Roche S, Rey F, Gaudin Y, Bressanelli S. Structure of the prefusion form of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G. Science. 2007;315:843-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A large number of G glycoproteins, perhaps organized as in the crystals, act cooperatively to induce membrane merging...
  3. Das S, Nayak D, Zhou Y, Pattnaik A. Visualization of intracellular transport of vesicular stomatitis virus nucleocapsids in living cells. J Virol. 2006;80:6368-77 pubmed
    ..These findings are compatible with a model in which the progeny viral nucleocapsids are transported toward the cell periphery by MT and the transport may be facilitated by mitochondria. ..
  4. Roche S, Albertini A, Lepault J, Bressanelli S, Gaudin Y. Structures of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein: membrane fusion revisited. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:1716-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides the similarities with other viral fusion machineries, the fusion properties and structures of G also reveal some striking particularities that invite us to reconsider a few dogmas concerning fusion proteins. ..
  5. Ahmed M, Marino T, Puckett S, Kock N, Lyles D. Immune response in the absence of neurovirulence in mice infected with m protein mutant vesicular stomatitis virus. J Virol. 2008;82:9273-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the use of M protein mutants of VSV as vaccine vectors...
  6. Jenks N, Myers R, Greiner S, Thompson J, Mader E, Greenslade A, et al. Safety studies on intrahepatic or intratumoral injection of oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus expressing interferon-beta in rodents and nonhuman primates. Hum Gene Ther. 2010;21:451-62 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these studies, we will be proposing a cautious approach to dose escalation in a phase I clinical trial among patients with HCC. ..
  7. Majid A, Ezelle H, Shah S, Barber G. Evaluating replication-defective vesicular stomatitis virus as a vaccine vehicle. J Virol. 2006;80:6993-7008 pubmed
    ..In addition, this strategy may therefore serve in effective vaccine and immunotherapy-based approaches to the treatment of HCV-related disease. ..
  8. Roche S, Bressanelli S, Rey F, Gaudin Y. Crystal structure of the low-pH form of the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G. Science. 2006;313:187-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure provides a framework for understanding the reversibility of the G conformational change. Unexpectedly, G is homologous to gB of herpesviruses, which raises important questions on viral evolution...
  9. Gao Y, Whitaker Dowling P, Watkins S, Griffin J, Bergman I. Rapid adaptation of a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus to a targeted cell line. J Virol. 2006;80:8603-12 pubmed
    ..The specificity for cells expressing the Her2/neu receptor was unchanged. These studies demonstrate that serial passage can be used to rapidly evolve a VSV genome encoding an improved chimeric glycoprotein. ..
  10. Green T, Zhang X, Wertz G, Luo M. Structure of the vesicular stomatitis virus nucleoprotein-RNA complex. Science. 2006;313:357-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This serves to protect the RNA in the absence of polynucleotide synthesis. For the RNA to be accessed, some conformational change in the N protein should be necessary...
  11. Sun Q, Sun L, Liu H, Chen X, Seth R, Forman J, et al. The specific and essential role of MAVS in antiviral innate immune responses. Immunity. 2006;24:633-42 pubmed
    ..These results provide the in vivo evidence that the cytosolic viral signaling pathway through MAVS is specifically required for innate immune responses against viral infection. ..
  12. Li J, Wang J, Whelan S. A unique strategy for mRNA cap methylation used by vesicular stomatitis virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:8493-8 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that VSV evolved an unusual strategy of mRNA cap methylation that may be shared by other nsNS RNA viruses. ..
  13. Schott D, Cureton D, Whelan S, Hunter C. An antiviral role for the RNA interference machinery in Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18420-4 pubmed
    ..Our observation that multiple genes required for RNAi are also required for resistance to vesicular stomatitis virus suggests that the RNAi machinery functions in resistance to viruses in nature. ..
  14. Li J, Fontaine Rodriguez E, Whelan S. Amino acid residues within conserved domain VI of the vesicular stomatitis virus large polymerase protein essential for mRNA cap methyltransferase activity. J Virol. 2005;79:13373-84 pubmed
    ..A model of mRNA processing consistent with these data is presented. ..
  15. Whitlow Z, Connor J, Lyles D. Preferential translation of vesicular stomatitis virus mRNAs is conferred by transcription from the viral genome. J Virol. 2006;80:11733-42 pubmed
    ..This indicated that VSV mRNAs do contain cis-acting structural elements (that are not sequence based), which enhance translation efficiency of viral mRNAs. ..
  16. Johnson J, Nasar F, Coleman J, Price R, Javadian A, Draper K, et al. Neurovirulence properties of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors in non-human primates. Virology. 2007;360:36-49 pubmed
    ..The implications of these findings for rVSV vaccine development are discussed. ..
  17. Terenzi F, White C, Pal S, Williams B, Sen G. Tissue-specific and inducer-specific differential induction of ISG56 and ISG54 in mice. J Virol. 2007;81:8656-65 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our findings provide the first evidence of a differential pattern of expression of ISG54 and ISG56 genes by IFN-alpha and IFN-beta. ..
  18. Waibler Z, Detje C, Bell J, Kalinke U. Matrix protein mediated shutdown of host cell metabolism limits vesicular stomatitis virus-induced interferon-alpha responses to plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Immunobiology. 2007;212:887-94 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results indicated that cell types induced to produce IFN-alpha upon viral infection are not primarily defined by cellular receptor configurations but rather by complex virus/host cell interactions. ..
  19. Clarke D, Nasar F, Lee M, Johnson J, Wright K, Calderon P, et al. Synergistic attenuation of vesicular stomatitis virus by combination of specific G gene truncations and N gene translocations. J Virol. 2007;81:2056-64 pubmed
    ..The results show synergistic rather than cumulative increases in attenuation and demonstrate a new approach to the attenuation of VSV and possibly other viruses. ..
  20. Lee H, Lund J, Ramanathan B, Mizushima N, Iwasaki A. Autophagy-dependent viral recognition by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Science. 2007;315:1398-401 pubmed
    ..These results support a key role for autophagy in mediating ssRNA virus detection and interferon-alpha secretion by pDCs and suggest that cytosolic replication intermediates of viruses serve as pathogen signatures recognized by TLR7. ..
  21. Bergman I, Griffin J, Gao Y, Whitaker Dowling P. Treatment of implanted mammary tumors with recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus targeted to Her2/neu. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:425-30 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that targeted rrVSV eliminated peritoneal implants of Her2/neu expressing tumor and elicited an anti-tumor T-cell immunologic response. ..
  22. Diaz R, Galivo F, Kottke T, Wongthida P, Qiao J, Thompson J, et al. Oncolytic immunovirotherapy for melanoma using vesicular stomatitis virus. Cancer Res. 2007;67:2840-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, our results show that strategies which enhance immune activation against tumor-associated antigens can also be used to enhance the efficacy of virotherapy. ..
  23. Goel A, Carlson S, Classic K, Greiner S, Naik S, Power A, et al. Radioiodide imaging and radiovirotherapy of multiple myeloma using VSV(Delta51)-NIS, an attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus encoding the sodium iodide symporter gene. Blood. 2007;110:2342-50 pubmed
    ..These results show that VSV(Delta51)-NIS is a safe oncolytic agent with significant therapeutic potential in multiple myeloma. ..
  24. Hadaschik B, Zhang K, So A, Fazli L, Jia W, Bell J, et al. Oncolytic vesicular stomatitis viruses are potent agents for intravesical treatment of high-risk bladder cancer. Cancer Res. 2008;68:4506-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide preclinical proof-of-principle for the intravesical use of VSV against non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, especially in IFN-refractory patients. ..
  25. Capo Chichi C, Yeasky T, Heiber J, Wang Y, Barber G, Xu X. Explicit targeting of transformed cells by VSV in ovarian epithelial tumor-bearing Wv mouse models. Gynecol Oncol. 2010;116:269-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrated the explicit targeting of ovarian epithelial tumors by VSV in immune competent, ovarian tumor-bearing mouse models, and further support the utility of VSV as an effective and safe anti-cancer agent. ..
  26. Lallemand C, Blanchard B, Palmieri M, Lebon P, May E, Tovey M. Single-stranded RNA viruses inactivate the transcriptional activity of p53 but induce NOXA-dependent apoptosis via post-translational modifications of IRF-1, IRF-3 and CREB. Oncogene. 2007;26:328-38 pubmed
    ..In addition transactivation induced by IRF-1 during viral infection correlates with a 10 kDa increase in its molecular weight, suggesting a covalent linkage with a previously unknown regulatory polypeptide. ..
  27. Weidner J, Jiang D, Pan X, Chang J, Block T, Guo J. Interferon-induced cell membrane proteins, IFITM3 and tetherin, inhibit vesicular stomatitis virus infection via distinct mechanisms. J Virol. 2010;84:12646-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our work sheds light on the mechanisms by which tetherin and IFITM3 restrict infection with rhabdoviruses and possibly other pathogenic viruses. ..
  28. Wongthida P, Diaz R, Galivo F, Kottke T, Thompson J, Melcher A, et al. VSV oncolytic virotherapy in the B16 model depends upon intact MyD88 signaling. Mol Ther. 2011;19:150-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These paradoxically conflicting roles need to be carefully considered in future strategies designed to improve the efficacy of oncolytic virotherapy. ..
  29. Jounai N, Takeshita F, Kobiyama K, Sawano A, Miyawaki A, Xin K, et al. The Atg5 Atg12 conjugate associates with innate antiviral immune responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14050-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, in contrast to its role in promoting the bactericidal process, a component of the autophagic machinery appears to block innate antiviral immune responses, thereby contributing to RNA virus replication in host cells. ..
  30. Moussavi M, Fazli L, Tearle H, Guo Y, Cox M, Bell J, et al. Oncolysis of prostate cancers induced by vesicular stomatitis virus in PTEN knockout mice. Cancer Res. 2010;70:1367-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that control of locally advanced human prostate cancer may be achievable through intraprostatic injection and amplification of a safe oncolytic virus, such as VSV(AV3). ..
  31. Wongthida P, Diaz R, Galivo F, Kottke T, Thompson J, Pulido J, et al. Type III IFN interleukin-28 mediates the antitumor efficacy of oncolytic virus VSV in immune-competent mouse models of cancer. Cancer Res. 2010;70:4539-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, the findings suggested new strategies to manipulate immune signals that may enhance viral replication, along with antitumor immune activation, and improve the efficacy of oncolytic virotherapies. ..
  32. Breitbach C, De Silva N, Falls T, Aladl U, Evgin L, Paterson J, et al. Targeting tumor vasculature with an oncolytic virus. Mol Ther. 2011;19:886-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Blocking blood clot formation with thrombin inhibitors prevented tumor vascular collapse. Our results demonstrate that the therapeutic activity of an OV can go far beyond simple infection and lysis of malignant cells. ..
  33. Simon I, Publicover J, Rose J. Replication and propagation of attenuated vesicular stomatitis virus vectors in vivo: vector spread correlates with induction of immune responses and persistence of genomic RNA. J Virol. 2007;81:2078-82 pubmed
    ..Such persistence may be important for induction of potent immune responses by VSV vectors. ..
  34. Sanjuan R, Moya A, Elena S. The distribution of fitness effects caused by single-nucleotide substitutions in an RNA virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8396-401 pubmed
    ..The proportion of beneficial mutations was unexpectedly high. Beneficial effects followed a gamma distribution, with expected fitness increases of 1% for random mutations and 5% for preobserved mutations. ..
  35. Faria P, Chakraborty P, Levay A, Barber G, Ezelle H, Enninga J, et al. VSV disrupts the Rae1/mrnp41 mRNA nuclear export pathway. Mol Cell. 2005;17:93-102 pubmed
    ..Thus, these results demonstrate that VSV M protein blocks mRNA export by disrupting Rae1 function, which can be reverted by induction of Rae1 expression. ..
  36. Huang T, Ebert O, Shinozaki K, Garcia Sastre A, Woo S. Oncolysis of hepatic metastasis of colorectal cancer by recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus in immune-competent mice. Mol Ther. 2003;8:434-40 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that VSV can be an effective and safe oncolytic agent against hepatic CRC metastasis in immune-competent mice and may be developed for the treatment of cancer patients in the future. ..
  37. Stojdl D, Lichty B, tenOever B, Paterson J, Power A, Knowles S, et al. VSV strains with defects in their ability to shutdown innate immunity are potent systemic anti-cancer agents. Cancer Cell. 2003;4:263-75 pubmed
    ..While highly attenuated for growth in normal mice, both AV1 and AV2 effected complete and durable cures in the majority of treated animals when delivered systemically. ..
  38. Ebert O, Harbaran S, Shinozaki K, Woo S. Systemic therapy of experimental breast cancer metastases by mutant vesicular stomatitis virus in immune-competent mice. Cancer Gene Ther. 2005;12:350-8 pubmed
  39. Barber G. Vesicular stomatitis virus as an oncolytic vector. Viral Immunol. 2004;17:516-27 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our data and others demonstrate that VSV as well as other RNA viruses could provide a promising and exciting approach to cancer therapy. ..
  40. Kawai T, Takahashi K, Sato S, Coban C, Kumar H, Kato H, et al. IPS-1, an adaptor triggering RIG-I- and Mda5-mediated type I interferon induction. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:981-8 pubmed
    ..Knockdown' of IPS-1 by small interfering RNA blocked interferon induction by virus infection. Thus, IPS-1 is an adaptor involved in RIG-I- and Mda5-mediated antiviral immune responses. ..
  41. Rybka K, Orzechowska B, Siemieniec I, Leszek J, Zaczynska E, Pajak J, et al. Age related natural antiviral non-specific immunity of human leukocytes. Med Sci Monit. 2003;9:BR413-7 pubmed
    ..Sex dependence was observed only in the group of elderly persons, where women expressed higher immunity; this is probably a reason for their statistically greater longevity. ..
  42. Porosnicu M, Mian A, Barber G. The oncolytic effect of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus is enhanced by expression of the fusion cytosine deaminase/uracil phosphoribosyltransferase suicide gene. Cancer Res. 2003;63:8366-76 pubmed
  43. Duntsch C, Zhou Q, Jayakar H, Weimar J, Robertson J, Pfeffer L, et al. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors as oncolytic agents in the treatment of high-grade gliomas in an organotypic brain tissue slice-glioma coculture model. J Neurosurg. 2004;100:1049-59 pubmed
  44. Baltzis D, Qu L, Papadopoulou S, Blais J, Bell J, Sonenberg N, et al. Resistance to vesicular stomatitis virus infection requires a functional cross talk between the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2alpha kinases PERK and PKR. J Virol. 2004;78:12747-61 pubmed
    ..These findings further implicate PERK in virus infection, and provide evidence that the antiviral and antiapoptotic roles of PERK are mediated, at least in part, via the activation of PKR. ..
  45. Chandran K, Sullivan N, Felbor U, Whelan S, Cunningham J. Endosomal proteolysis of the Ebola virus glycoprotein is necessary for infection. Science. 2005;308:1643-5 pubmed publisher
    ..CatB and CatB/CatL inhibitors diminish the multiplication of infectious EboV-Zaire in cultured cells and may merit investigation as anti-EboV drugs...
  46. Sanjuan R, Cuevas J, Moya A, Elena S. Epistasis and the adaptability of an RNA virus. Genetics. 2005;170:1001-8 pubmed
    ..Finally, for genotypes carrying two deleterious mutations, we found evidence of a negative correlation between the epistastic effect and the rate of compensatory evolution. ..
  47. Grdzelishvili V, Smallwood S, Tower D, Hall R, Hunt D, Moyer S. A single amino acid change in the L-polymerase protein of vesicular stomatitis virus completely abolishes viral mRNA cap methylation. J Virol. 2005;79:7327-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequence analysis suggests that an aspartic acid at amino acid 1671 is a critical residue within a putative conserved S-adenosyl-l-methionine-binding domain of the L protein...
  48. Lichty B, Stojdl D, Taylor R, Miller L, Frenkel I, Atkins H, et al. Vesicular stomatitis virus: a potential therapeutic virus for the treatment of hematologic malignancy. Hum Gene Ther. 2004;15:821-31 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates the potential utility of VSV in the treatment, both ex vivo and in vivo, of hematologic malignancies. ..
  49. Irie T, Licata J, Jayakar H, Whitt M, Bell P, Harty R. Functional analysis of late-budding domain activity associated with the PSAP motif within the vesicular stomatitis virus M protein. J Virol. 2004;78:7823-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, the insertion of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 p6 L-domain and flanking sequences into the PSAP region of M protein rescued budding of a PPPY mutant of VSV to wild-type levels. ..
  50. Shinozaki K, Ebert O, Woo S. Eradication of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats via repeated hepatic arterial infusions of recombinant VSV. Hepatology. 2005;41:196-203 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this treatment regimen will be very useful in the future development of VSV-mediated virotherapy as a novel therapeutic modality for patients with advanced HCC. ..
  51. Connor J, Lyles D. Inhibition of host and viral translation during vesicular stomatitis virus infection. eIF2 is responsible for the inhibition of viral but not host translation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:13512-9 pubmed
  52. Ebert O, Shinozaki K, Kournioti C, Park M, Garcia Sastre A, Woo S. Syncytia induction enhances the oncolytic potential of vesicular stomatitis virus in virotherapy for cancer. Cancer Res. 2004;64:3265-70 pubmed
    ..0078, log-rank test). The results suggest that fusogenic VSV can be developed into an effective and safe therapeutic agent for cancer treatment in patients, including those with multifocal HCC in the liver. ..
  53. Garbutt M, Liebscher R, Wahl Jensen V, Jones S, Möller P, Wagner R, et al. Properties of replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus vectors expressing glycoproteins of filoviruses and arenaviruses. J Virol. 2004;78:5458-65 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that the recombinant VSV can be used to study the role of the viral glycoproteins in virus replication, immune response, and pathogenesis...
  54. Lund J, Alexopoulou L, Sato A, Karow M, Adams N, Gale N, et al. Recognition of single-stranded RNA viruses by Toll-like receptor 7. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:5598-603 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate microbial ligand recognition by TLR7 and provide insights into the pathways used by the innate immune cells in the recognition of viral pathogens. ..
  55. Balachandran S, Barber G. Defective translational control facilitates vesicular stomatitis virus oncolysis. Cancer Cell. 2004;5:51-65 pubmed
    ..Thus, defects in translational regulation can cooperate with impaired IFN signaling to facilitate VSV replication, and may represent a common hallmark of tumorigenesis. ..
  56. Hanika A, Larisch B, Steinmann E, Schwegmann Wessels C, Herrler G, Zimmer G. Use of influenza C virus glycoprotein HEF for generation of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotypes. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:1455-65 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that pseudotyping of viral vectors with HEF might be useful for efficient apical gene transfer into polarized epithelial cells and for targeting cells that express 9-O-acetylated sialic acids. ..
  57. Balachandran S, Thomas E, Barber G. A FADD-dependent innate immune mechanism in mammalian cells. Nature. 2004;432:401-5 pubmed
    ..These data therefore suggest the existence of a conserved pathogen recognition pathway in mammalian cells that is essential for the optimal induction of type I interferons and other genes important for host defence. ..
  58. Bergman I, Whitaker Dowling P, Gao Y, Griffin J. Preferential targeting of vesicular stomatitis virus to breast cancer cells. Virology. 2004;330:24-33 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the protein composition of the rrVSV found low expression of the modified Sindbis gp on the virus. ..