Summary: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.

Top Publications

  1. Pauszek S, Allende R, Rodriguez L. Characterization of the full-length genomic sequences of vesicular stomatitis Cocal and Alagoas viruses. Arch Virol. 2008;153:1353-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analyses consistently grouped COCV, VSAV and VSIV in a monophyletic group distinct from VSNJV, supporting the classification of these viruses within the Indiana serogroup...
  2. Cobleigh M, Buonocore L, Uprichard S, Rose J, Robek M. A vesicular stomatitis virus-based hepatitis B virus vaccine vector provides protection against challenge in a single dose. J Virol. 2010;84:7513-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the similar antibody titers and superior T-cell responses elicited from a single immunization, a VSV-based HBV vaccine may have advantages over the current recombinant protein vaccine. ..
  3. Geisbert T, Bausch D, Feldmann H. Prospects for immunisation against Marburg and Ebola viruses. Rev Med Virol. 2010;20:344-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The rVSV-based vaccine has also shown utility when administered for postexposure prophylaxis against filovirus infections. A VSV-based Ebola vaccine was recently used to manage a potential laboratory exposure. ..
  4. Geisbert T, Daddario DiCaprio K, Williams K, Geisbert J, Leung A, Feldmann F, et al. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vector mediates postexposure protection against Sudan Ebola hemorrhagic fever in nonhuman primates. J Virol. 2008;82:5664-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first demonstration of complete postexposure protection against an Ebola virus in nonhuman primates and provides further evidence that postexposure vaccination may have utility in treating exposures to filoviruses. ..
  5. Ogino T, Banerjee A. The HR motif in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase L protein of Chandipura virus is required for unconventional mRNA-capping activity. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:1311-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the rhabdoviral L proteins universally use the active-site HR motif for the PRNTase reaction at the step of the enzyme-pRNA intermediate formation. ..
  6. Luyet P, Falguières T, Pons V, Pattnaik A, Gruenberg J. The ESCRT-I subunit TSG101 controls endosome-to-cytosol release of viral RNA. Traffic. 2008;9:2279-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Tsg101, through selective interactions with its partners including Hrs and Alix, may link receptor sorting and lysosome targeting to the back-fusion process involved in viral capsid release. ..
  7. Smith M, Bayless A, Goddard E, Davido D. CK2 inhibitors increase the sensitivity of HSV-1 to interferon-?. Antiviral Res. 2011;91:259-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data suggest that the activity of CK2 is required for an early function during viral infection that assists the growth of HSV-1 in IFN-?-treated cells. ..
  8. Martín Acebes M, González Magaldi M, Vázquez Calvo A, Armas Portela R, Sobrino F. Internalization of swine vesicular disease virus into cultured cells: a comparative study with foot-and-mouth disease virus. J Virol. 2009;83:4216-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that different clathrin-mediated routes are responsible for the internalization of these viruses. ..
  9. Obiang L, Raux H, Ouldali M, Blondel D, Gaudin Y. Phenotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus mutants with mutations in the PSAP motif of the matrix protein. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:857-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have implications for the VSV budding pathway that will be discussed. ..

More Information


  1. Marozin S, Altomonte J, Stadler F, Thasler W, Schmid R, Ebert O. Inhibition of the IFN-beta response in hepatocellular carcinoma by alternative spliced isoform of IFN regulatory factor-3. Mol Ther. 2008;16:1789-97 pubmed publisher
    ..This work may provide a potential molecular basis for selecting HCC patients for oncolytic VSV therapy in future clinical trials. ..
  2. Gunther S, Feldmann H, Geisbert T, Hensley L, Rollin P, Nichol S, et al. Management of accidental exposure to Ebola virus in the biosafety level 4 laboratory, Hamburg, Germany. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 3:S785-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Otherwise, the person remained healthy, and ZEBOV RNA, except for the glycoprotein gene expressed in the vaccine, was never detected in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells during the 3-week observation period. ..
  3. Leyrat C, Jensen M, Ribeiro E, Gerard F, Ruigrok R, Blackledge M, et al. The N(0)-binding region of the vesicular stomatitis virus phosphoprotein is globally disordered but contains transient α-helices. Protein Sci. 2011;20:542-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results are interpreted in the context of a scenario whereby VSV P(NTR) constitutes a molecular recognition element undergoing a disorder-to-order transition upon binding to its partner when forming the N(0)-P complex. ..
  4. Shelly S, Lukinova N, Bambina S, Berman A, Cherry S. Autophagy is an essential component of Drosophila immunity against vesicular stomatitis virus. Immunity. 2009;30:588-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these data uncover an intrinsic antiviral program that links viral recognition to the evolutionarily conserved nutrient-signaling and autophagy pathways. ..
  5. Nayak D, Panda D, Das S, Luo M, Pattnaik A. Single-amino-acid alterations in a highly conserved central region of vesicular stomatitis virus N protein differentially affect the viral nucleocapsid template functions. J Virol. 2009;83:5525-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the structure of the N protein and the resulting N-RNA complex, in part, regulate the viral template functions in transcription and replication...
  6. Rahmeh A, Li J, Kranzusch P, Whelan S. Ribose 2'-O methylation of the vesicular stomatitis virus mRNA cap precedes and facilitates subsequent guanine-N-7 methylation by the large polymerase protein. J Virol. 2009;83:11043-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model of regulation of the activity of the C terminus of L protein in 2'-O and G-N-7 methylation of the cap structure. ..
  7. Barefoot B, Sample C, Ramsburg E. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus expressing influenza nucleoprotein induces CD8 T-cell responses that enhance antibody-mediated protection after lethal challenge with influenza virus. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:488-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Influenza NP is a highly conserved antigen, and induction of protective anti-NP responses may be a productive strategy for generating heterologous protection against divergent influenza strains. ..
  8. Kalhoro N, Veits J, Rautenschlein S, Zimmer G. A recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus replicon vaccine protects chickens from highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H7N1). Vaccine. 2009;27:1174-83 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that VSV replicons have the potential to be developed to high-quality vaccines for protection of poultry against different subtypes of avian influenza viruses. ..
  9. Jadi R, Sudeep A, Kumar S, Arankalle V, Mishra A. Chandipura virus growth kinetics in vertebrate cell lines, insect cell lines & embryonated eggs. Indian J Med Res. 2010;132:155-9 pubmed
    ..However, the PP-9 cell line had an edge over the others due to its high sensitivity to the virus which might be useful for detection and isolation of the virus during epidemics. ..
  10. Parvatiyar K, Barber G, Harhaj E. TAX1BP1 and A20 inhibit antiviral signaling by targeting TBK1-IKKi kinases. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:14999-5009 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results demonstrate TBK1-IKKi to be novel substrates for A20 and further identify a novel mechanism whereby A20 and TAX1BP1 restrict antiviral signaling by disrupting a TRAF3-TBK1-IKKi signaling complex. ..
  11. Chattopadhyay A, Wang E, Seymour R, Weaver S, Rose J. A chimeric vesiculo/alphavirus is an effective alphavirus vaccine. J Virol. 2013;87:395-402 pubmed publisher
    ..VSVΔG-alphavirus chimeras could have general applicability as alphavirus vaccines. ..
  12. Ogino T, Yadav S, Banerjee A. Histidine-mediated RNA transfer to GDP for unique mRNA capping by vesicular stomatitis virus RNA polymerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3463-8 pubmed publisher
  13. Chakraborty P, Seemann J, Mishra R, Wei J, Weil L, Nussenzveig D, et al. Vesicular stomatitis virus inhibits mitotic progression and triggers cell death. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:1154-60 pubmed publisher
    ..VSV is an oncolytic (anti-tumour) agent as it preferentially replicates and kills tumour cells. As tumour cells have a high mitotic index, VSV-mediated mitotic cell death probably contributes to its oncolytic activity. ..
  14. Whitt M. Generation of VSV pseudotypes using recombinant ?G-VSV for studies on virus entry, identification of entry inhibitors, and immune responses to vaccines. J Virol Methods. 2010;169:365-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These protocols should allow any laboratory knowledgeable in general virological and cell culture techniques to produce successfully replication-restricted rVSV-?G pseudotypes for subsequent analysis. ..
  15. López Muñoz A, Roca F, Meseguer J, Mulero V. New insights into the evolution of IFNs: zebrafish group II IFNs induce a rapid and transient expression of IFN-dependent genes and display powerful antiviral activities. J Immunol. 2009;182:3440-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results suggest nonredundant, complementary roles of type I zfIFNs in viral infections and provide evidence for a pivotal role of the recently identified group II IFN of fish in the early stages of viral infections. ..
  16. Bridle B, Boudreau J, Lichty B, Brunellière J, Stephenson K, Koshy S, et al. Vesicular stomatitis virus as a novel cancer vaccine vector to prime antitumor immunity amenable to rapid boosting with adenovirus. Mol Ther. 2009;17:1814-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, VSV-hDCT could increase DCT-specific T-cell responses primed by Ad-hDCT, suggesting VSV is efficient for both priming and boosting of the immune response against a self-tumor antigen. ..
  17. Raux H, Obiang L, Richard N, Harper F, Blondel D, Gaudin Y. The matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus binds dynamin for efficient viral assembly. J Virol. 2010;84:12609-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we showed that M-dynamin interaction affects clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Our study suggests that hijacking the endocytic pathway might be an important feature for enveloped virus assembly and budding at the plasma membrane. ..
  18. Falzarano D, Feldmann F, Grolla A, Leung A, Ebihara H, Strong J, et al. Single immunization with a monovalent vesicular stomatitis virus-based vaccine protects nonhuman primates against heterologous challenge with Bundibugyo ebolavirus. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 3:S1082-9 pubmed publisher
  19. Romanutti C, Bruttomesso A, Castilla V, Bisceglia J, Galagovsky L, Wachsman M. In vitro antiviral activity of dehydroepiandrosterone and its synthetic derivatives against vesicular stomatitis virus. Vet J. 2009;182:327-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of RNA and protein synthesis indicated that DHEA adversely affected positive strand RNA synthesis and viral mature particle formation. ..
  20. Wang C, Chen T, Zhang J, Yang M, Li N, Xu X, et al. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Nrdp1 'preferentially' promotes TLR-mediated production of type I interferon. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:744-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Nrdp1 functions as both an adaptor protein and an E3 unbiquitin ligase to regulate TLR responses in different ways...
  21. Chen H, Liu H, Liu Z, He J, Gao L, Shi X, et al. Characterization of the complete genome sequence of pike fry rhabdovirus. Arch Virol. 2009;154:1489-94 pubmed publisher
    ..3 to 91.4%. Phylogenetic analysis of the five proteins showed that PFRV clusters with SVCV and is closely related to the mammalian vesiculoviruses, 903/87, STRV and SCRV...
  22. Quinn K, Brindley M, Weller M, Kaludov N, Kondratowicz A, Hunt C, et al. Rho GTPases modulate entry of Ebola virus and vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotyped vectors. J Virol. 2009;83:10176-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In total, our studies implicate RhoB and RhoC in enhanced productive entry of some pseudovirions and suggest the involvement of actin-mediated macropinocytosis as a mechanism of uptake of EBOV GP and VSVG pseudotyped viral particles. ..
  23. Rajan J, Rodriguez D, Miao E, Aderem A. The NLRP3 inflammasome detects encephalomyocarditis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus infection. J Virol. 2011;85:4167-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the NLRP3 inflammasome may be a common pathway for RNA virus detection, but its precise role in the host response may be variable...
  24. Benfield C, Lyall J, Tiley L. The cytoplasmic location of chicken mx is not the determining factor for its lack of antiviral activity. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12151 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the natural cytoplasmic localisation of the chicken Mx protein does not account for its lack of antiviral activity. ..
  25. Kottke T, Diaz R, Kaluza K, Pulido J, Galivo F, Wongthida P, et al. Use of biological therapy to enhance both virotherapy and adoptive T-cell therapy for cancer. Mol Ther. 2008;16:1910-8 pubmed publisher
  26. Haseltine E, Lam V, Yin J, Rawlings J. Image-guided modeling of virus growth and spread. Bull Math Biol. 2008;70:1730-48 pubmed publisher
    ..This work demonstrates how model building can facilitate the interpretation of experiments by highlighting contributions from both biological and methodological factors. ..
  27. Ge P, Tsao J, Schein S, Green T, Luo M, Zhou Z. Cryo-EM model of the bullet-shaped vesicular stomatitis virus. Science. 2010;327:689-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data suggest a mechanism of VSV assembly in which the nucleocapsid spirals from the tip to become the helical trunk, both subsequently framed and rigidified by the M layer. ..
  28. Johnson J, McNeil L, Megati S, Witko S, Roopchand V, Obregon J, et al. Non-propagating, recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors encoding respiratory syncytial virus proteins generate potent humoral and cellular immunity against RSV and are protective in mice. Immunol Lett. 2013;150:134-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, addition of an RSV glycoprotein (G)-expressing Gstem vector significantly improved the incomplete protection achieved with a single low dose of Gstem-RSV-F vector alone. ..
  29. Schwartz J, Buonocore L, Suguitan A, Silaghi A, Kobasa D, Kobinger G, et al. Potent vesicular stomatitis virus-based avian influenza vaccines provide long-term sterilizing immunity against heterologous challenge. J Virol. 2010;84:4611-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Postchallenge pulmonary virus loads show that these vectors provide sterilizing immunity. Therefore, VSV-based AIV vaccines are potent, broadly cross-protective pandemic vaccine candidates. ..
  30. Vasilakis N, WIDEN S, Travassos da Rosa A, Wood T, Walker P, Holmes E, et al. Malpais spring virus is a new species in the genus vesiculovirus. Virol J. 2013;10:69 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, our analysis indicates MSPV should be classified as a member of the genus Vesiculovirus, family Rhabdoviridae...
  31. Mire C, Whitt M. The protease-sensitive loop of the vesicular stomatitis virus matrix protein is involved in virus assembly and protein translation. Virology. 2011;416:16-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the LXD motif is involved in both virus assembly and VSV protein translation. ..
  32. Berger Rentsch M, Zimmer G. A vesicular stomatitis virus replicon-based bioassay for the rapid and sensitive determination of multi-species type I interferon. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25858 pubmed publisher
    ..This safe bioassay will be useful for the rapid and sensitive quantification of multi-species type I IFN and potentially other antiviral cytokines. ..
  33. Erickson A, Gale M. Regulation of interferon production and innate antiviral immunity through translational control of IRF-7. Cell Res. 2008;18:433-5 pubmed publisher
  34. Davis J, van den Pol A. Viral mutagenesis as a means for generating novel proteins. J Virol. 2010;84:1625-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar methods may be useful in the development of physiologically sensitive fluorescent reporter proteins and directed evolution or mutagenesis of proteins in general. ..
  35. Hao L, Sakurai A, Watanabe T, Sorensen E, Nidom C, Newton M, et al. Drosophila RNAi screen identifies host genes important for influenza virus replication. Nature. 2008;454:890-3 pubmed publisher
  36. Johannsdottir H, Mancini R, Kartenbeck J, Amato L, Helenius A. Host cell factors and functions involved in vesicular stomatitis virus entry. J Virol. 2009;83:440-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Dynamin-2 was recruited to plasma membrane-confined virus particles. Thus, VSV can induce productive internalization by exploiting a specific combination of the clathrin-associated proteins and cellular functions. ..
  37. Li J, Rahmeh A, Brusic V, Whelan S. Opposing effects of inhibiting cap addition and cap methylation on polyadenylation during vesicular stomatitis virus mRNA synthesis. J Virol. 2009;83:1930-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This work reveals that inhibiting cap addition and cap methylation have opposing effects on polyadenylation during VSV mRNA synthesis and provides evidence in support of a link between correct 5' cap formation and 3' polyadenylation...
  38. Detje C, Meyer T, Schmidt H, Kreuz D, Rose J, Bechmann I, et al. Local type I IFN receptor signaling protects against virus spread within the central nervous system. J Immunol. 2009;182:2297-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that upon intranasal VSV instillation, early and localized IFNAR triggering in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb is critically required to prevent viral spread over the entire CNS and thus confers survival...
  39. Obar J, Molloy M, Jellison E, Stoklasek T, Zhang W, Usherwood E, et al. CD4+ T cell regulation of CD25 expression controls development of short-lived effector CD8+ T cells in primary and secondary responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:193-8 pubmed publisher
  40. Kato H, Takeuchi O, Mikamo Satoh E, Hirai R, Kawai T, Matsushita K, et al. Length-dependent recognition of double-stranded ribonucleic acids by retinoic acid-inducible gene-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5. J Exp Med. 2008;205:1601-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, RIG-I detects dsRNAs without a 5'-triphosphate end, and RIG-I and MDA5 selectively recognize short and long dsRNAs, respectively. ..
  41. Hastie E, Grdzelishvili V. Vesicular stomatitis virus as a flexible platform for oncolytic virotherapy against cancer. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:2529-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Preclinical studies with various cancers have demonstrated that VSV is a promising OV; as a result, a human clinical trial using VSV is currently in progress. ..
  42. Galloway S, Wertz G. S-adenosyl homocysteine-induced hyperpolyadenylation of vesicular stomatitis virus mRNA requires the methyltransferase activity of L protein. J Virol. 2008;82:12280-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, the data presented here show that the wild-type L protein hyperpolyadenylates a percentage of VSV mRNAs in infected cells as well as in vitro. ..
  43. Cureton D, Massol R, Saffarian S, KIRCHHAUSEN T, Whelan S. Vesicular stomatitis virus enters cells through vesicles incompletely coated with clathrin that depend upon actin for internalization. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000394 pubmed publisher
    ..This work provides new mechanistic insights into the process of virus internalization as well as uptake of unconventional cargo by the clathrin-dependent endocytic machinery. ..
  44. Chattopadhyay A, Rose J. Complementing defective viruses that express separate paramyxovirus glycoproteins provide a new vaccine vector approach. J Virol. 2011;85:2004-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Such an approach minimizes biosafety concerns that could apply to single, replication-competent VSV recombinants expressing all proteins required for infection...
  45. Rahmeh A, Schenk A, Danek E, Kranzusch P, Liang B, Walz T, et al. Molecular architecture of the vesicular stomatitis virus RNA polymerase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:20075-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the arrangement of conserved regions involved in catalysis is homologous, the structural insights obtained for VSV L likely extend to all NNS RNA viruses. ..
  46. Gurav Y, Tandale B, Jadi R, Gunjikar R, Tikute S, Jamgaonkar A, et al. Chandipura virus encephalitis outbreak among children in Nagpur division, Maharashtra, 2007. Indian J Med Res. 2010;132:395-9 pubmed
    ..7%) and diarrhoea (23.7%). CHPV RNA was detected in one of two pools of sandflies from affected locality. Chandipura virus was confirmed as the aetiological agent of this acute encephalitis outbreak with high case-fatality among children...
  47. You F, Sun H, Zhou X, Sun W, Liang S, Zhai Z, et al. PCBP2 mediates degradation of the adaptor MAVS via the HECT ubiquitin ligase AIP4. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:1300-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The PCBP2-AIP4 axis defines a new signaling cascade for MAVS degradation and 'fine tuning' of antiviral innate immunity. ..
  48. Remold S, Rambaut A, Turner P. Evolutionary genomics of host adaptation in vesicular stomatitis virus. Mol Biol Evol. 2008;25:1138-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the degree to which current genetic architecture is expected to constrain future evolution of complex traits, such as host use by RNA viruses. ..
  49. Green T, Rowse M, Tsao J, Kang J, Ge P, Zhou Z, et al. Access to RNA encapsidated in the nucleocapsid of vesicular stomatitis virus. J Virol. 2011;85:2714-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Polyribonucleotides were reencapsidated into the empty NLP, and the crystal structures were determined. The crystal structures revealed variable degrees of association of the N protein with a specific RNA sequence...
  50. Alain T, Lun X, Martineau Y, Sean P, Pulendran B, Petroulakis E, et al. Vesicular stomatitis virus oncolysis is potentiated by impairing mTORC1-dependent type I IFN production. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1576-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that reducing type I IFNs through inhibition of mTORC1 is an effective strategy to augment the therapeutic activity of VSV(DeltaM51). ..
  51. Hoffmann M, Wu Y, Gerber M, Berger Rentsch M, Heimrich B, Schwemmle M, et al. Fusion-active glycoprotein G mediates the cytotoxicity of vesicular stomatitis virus M mutants lacking host shut-off activity. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:2782-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the host shut-off activity of the M protein dominates VSV cytotoxicty, whilst the fusion-active G protein is mainly responsible for the cytotoxicity remaining with M-mutant VSV...
  52. Kelly E, Nace R, Barber G, Russell S. Attenuation of vesicular stomatitis virus encephalitis through microRNA targeting. J Virol. 2010;84:1550-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Neurotoxicity was most profoundly reduced in a virus carrying four tandem copies of a neuronal mir125 target sequence inserted in the 3'-untranslated region of the viral polymerase (L) gene. ..
  53. Padhi A, Verghese B. Molecular evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of a highly pathogenic fish rhabdovirus, the spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Vet Microbiol. 2012;156:54-63 pubmed publisher
  54. Mondal A, Bhattacharya R, Ganguly T, Mukhopadhyay S, Basu A, Basak S, et al. Elucidation of functional domains of Chandipura virus Nucleocapsid protein involved in oligomerization and RNA binding: implication in viral genome encapsidation. Virology. 2010;407:33-42 pubmed publisher
    Chandipura virus, a member of the vesiculovirus genera, has been recently recognized as an emerging human pathogen...
  55. Oshiumi H, Matsumoto M, Hatakeyama S, Seya T. Riplet/RNF135, a RING finger protein, ubiquitinates RIG-I to promote interferon-beta induction during the early phase of viral infection. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:807-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We infer that a variety of RIG-I-ubiquitinating molecular complexes sustain RIG-I activation to modulate RNA virus replication in the cytoplasm. ..
  56. Mata M, Satterly N, Versteeg G, Frantz D, Wei S, Williams N, et al. Chemical inhibition of RNA viruses reveals REDD1 as a host defense factor. Nat Chem Biol. 2011;7:712-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, REDD1 is a new host defense factor, and chemical activation of REDD1 expression represents a potent antiviral intervention strategy. ..
  57. Iyer A, Pahar B, Boudreaux M, Wakamatsu N, Roy A, Chouljenko V, et al. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based west Nile vaccine elicits strong humoral and cellular immune responses and protects mice against lethal challenge with the virulent west Nile virus strain LSU-AR01. Vaccine. 2009;27:893-903 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that VSV-vectored vaccines administered intranasally can efficiently induce protective humoral and cellular immune responses against WNV infections. ..
  58. Venkateswarlu C, Arankalle V. Recombinant glycoprotein based vaccine for Chandipura virus infection. Vaccine. 2009;27:2845-50 pubmed publisher
    ..There was 60% T cell proliferation observed against rGp in immunized mice. The study shows that rGp induces both arms of immune response and represents an ideal vaccine candidate for further evaluations...
  59. Mire C, Dube D, Delos S, White J, Whitt M. Glycoprotein-dependent acidification of vesicular stomatitis virus enhances release of matrix protein. J Virol. 2009;83:12139-50 pubmed publisher
    ..From these data we propose that low-pH conformational changes in G protein promote acidification of the virus interior, which facilitates the release of M from ribonucleoprotein particles during uncoating...
  60. Marzi A, Ebihara H, Callison J, Groseth A, Williams K, Geisbert T, et al. Vesicular stomatitis virus-based Ebola vaccines with improved cross-protective efficacy. J Infect Dis. 2011;204 Suppl 3:S1066-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that cross-protection between the EBOV species can be achieved, although EBOV-GP alone cannot induce the required immune response. ..
  61. Leyrat C, Yabukarski F, Tarbouriech N, Ribeiro E, Jensen M, Blackledge M, et al. Structure of the vesicular stomatitis virus N?-P complex. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002248 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure of this complex also suggests a mechanism for the initiation of viral RNA synthesis. ..