Summary: A genus in the family RHABDOVIRIDAE, infecting numerous species of fish with broad geographic distribution. The type species is INFECTIOUS HEMATOPOIETIC NECROSIS VIRUS.

Top Publications

  1. Brudeseth B, Castric J, Evensen O. Studies on pathogenesis following single and double infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Vet Pathol. 2002;39:180-9 pubmed
  2. Einer Jensen K, Winton J, Lorenzen N. Genotyping of the fish rhabdovirus, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus, by restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Vet Microbiol. 2005;106:167-78 pubmed
    ..While the assay was able to distinguish between marine and continental isolates of VHSV, the differences did not correlate with the pathogenicity of the isolates. ..
  3. Kim R, Faisal M. Comparative susceptibility of representative Great Lakes fish species to the North American viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus Sublineage IVb. Dis Aquat Organ. 2010;91:23-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight the variations among fish species susceptibility to this emerging strain of VHSV and offer insights into the potential impact of VHSV-IVb on the Laurentian Great Lakes fish community. ..
  4. Chang M, Collet B, Nie P, Lester K, Campbell S, Secombes C, et al. Expression and functional characterization of the RIG-I-like receptors MDA5 and LGP2 in Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J Virol. 2011;85:8403-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, MDA5 expression was not affected by overexpressed LGP2 in transfected cells and vice versa, suggesting that they likely act in parallel as positive regulators for IFN production...
  5. Lumsden J, Morrison B, Yason C, Russell S, Young K, Yazdanpanah A, et al. Mortality event in freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens from Lake Ontario, Canada, associated with viral haemorrhagic septicemia virus, type IV. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;76:99-111 pubmed
    ..The effects of ongoing mortality in freshwater drum and in multiple species during spring 2006 suggest that this newly recognised virus in the Great Lakes will have continued impact in the near future...
  6. Quillet E, Dorson M, Aubard G, Torhy C. In vitro assay to select rainbow trout with variable resistance/susceptibility to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;76:7-16 pubmed
    ..Possible implications of the relationship between VREFT and resistance for the study of resistance mechanisms are discussed...
  7. Mas V, Perez L, Encinar J, Pastor M, Rocha A, Perez Paya E, et al. Salmonid viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus: fusion-related enhancement of virus infectivity by peptides derived from viral glycoprotein G or a combinatorial library. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:2671-81 pubmed
    ..Further investigations into VHSV enhancer peptides might shed some light on the mechanisms of VHSV fusion. ..
  8. Hope K, Casey R, Groocock G, Getchell R, Bowser P, Casey J. Comparison of quantitative RT-PCR with cell culture to detect viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) IVb infections in the Great Lakes. J Aquat Anim Health. 2010;22:50-61 pubmed publisher
  9. Einer Jensen K, Ahrens P, Forsberg R, Lorenzen N. Evolution of the fish rhabdovirus viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:1167-79 pubmed
    ..Virus from the marine environment will therefore continue to represent a threat to the trout aquaculture industry. ..

More Information


  1. Kim D, Oh H, Eou J, Seo H, Kim S, Oh M, et al. Complete nucleotide sequence of the hirame rhabdovirus, a pathogen of marine fish. Virus Res. 2005;107:1-9 pubmed
  2. Liu Z, Teng Y, Liu H, Jiang Y, Xie X, Li H, et al. Simultaneous detection of three fish rhabdoviruses using multiplex real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay. J Virol Methods. 2008;149:103-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This assay has the potential to be used for both research applications and diagnosis. ..
  3. Hawley L, Garver K. Stability of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in freshwater and seawater at various temperatures. Dis Aquat Organ. 2008;82:171-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Virus survival was greatly enhanced in filtered freshwater with some virus strains remaining infective after 1 yr at 4 degrees C. ..
  4. Raja Halli M, Vehmas T, Rimaila Pärnänen E, Sainmaa S, Skall H, Olesen N, et al. Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) outbreaks in Finnish rainbow trout farms. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;72:201-11 pubmed
    ..As the Finnish isolates induce lower mortality than freshwater VHSV isolates in infection experiments, they could represent an intermediate stage of marine isolates evolving towards pathogenicity in rainbow trout...
  5. Quillet E, Dorson M, Le Guillou S, Benmansour A, Boudinot P. Wide range of susceptibility to rhabdoviruses in homozygous clones of rainbow trout. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;22:510-9 pubmed
    ..Although VHSV-resistant clones were not fully resistant to IHNV, the susceptibility to IHNV and VHSV tended to be correlated, suggesting that non-specific mechanisms common to both viruses were involved...
  6. Elsayed E, Faisal M, Thomas M, Whelan G, Batts W, Winton J. Isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus from muskellunge, Esox masquinongy (Mitchill), in Lake St Clair, Michigan, USA reveals a new sublineage of the North American genotype. J Fish Dis. 2006;29:611-9 pubmed
  7. Kim R, Faisal M. The Laurentian Great Lakes strain (MI03) of the viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus is highly pathogenic for juvenile muskellunge, Esox masquinongy (Mitchill). J Fish Dis. 2010;33:513-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Virus was recovered from kidney and spleen tissues through tissue culture and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
  8. Snow M, King J, Garden A, Shanks A, Raynard R. Comparative susceptibility of turbot Scophthalmus maximus to different genotypes of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;67:31-8 pubmed
    ..Finally, an increased knowledge of the relative virulence of different isolates in turbot will assist in understanding virulence determinants, which could lead to advances in disease control. ..
  9. Ohtani M, Hikima J, Kondo H, Hirono I, Jung T, Aoki T. Evolutional conservation of molecular structure and antiviral function of a viral RNA receptor, LGP2, in Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. J Immunol. 2010;185:7507-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Japanese flounder LGP2 plays an important role in the recognition of both viral ssRNA and dsRNA to induce the antiviral activity by the production of IFN-stimulated proteins...
  10. Ammayappan A, Kurath G, Thompson T, Vakharia V. A reverse genetics system for the Great Lakes strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus: the NV gene is required for pathogenicity. Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2011;13:672-83 pubmed publisher
    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), belonging to the genus Novirhabdovirus in the family of Rhabdoviridae, causes a highly contagious disease of fresh and saltwater fish worldwide...
  11. Jonstrup S, Kahns S, Skall H, Boutrup T, Olesen N. Development and validation of a novel Taqman-based real-time RT-PCR assay suitable for demonstrating freedom from viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus. J Fish Dis. 2013;36:9-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the presented real-time RT-PCR assay has the necessary qualities to be used as a VHSV surveillance tool on par with cell culture assays. ..
  12. Marroquí L, Estepa A, Perez L. Inhibitory effect of mycophenolic acid on the replication of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus. Antiviral Res. 2008;80:332-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides evidence that MPA can function as a broad-spectrum antiviral drug for use in therapy of rainbow trout diseases...
  13. Skall H, Olesen N, Mellergaard S. Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in marine fish and its implications for fish farming--a review. J Fish Dis. 2005;28:509-29 pubmed
    ..Examples of possible transfer of virus from free-living marine fish to farmed fish are discussed, as are measures to prevent introduction of VHSV from the marine environment to aquaculture...
  14. Chico V, Gomez N, Estepa A, Perez L. Rapid detection and quantitation of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in experimentally challenged rainbow trout by real-time RT-PCR. J Virol Methods. 2006;132:154-9 pubmed
    ..This is the first report showing the utility of Q-RT-PCR for VHSV detection and quantitation both in vitro and in vivo. The suitability of this method to test the efficacy of antiviral treatments is also discussed. ..
  15. Lopez Vazquez C, Dopazo C, Barja J, Bandín I. Experimental infection of turbot, Psetta maxima (L.), with strains of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus isolated from wild and farmed marine fish. J Fish Dis. 2007;30:303-12 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that Greenland halibut, as other wild fish, may play an important role in the epizootiology of VHSV and suggest a potential risk for the turbot farming industry...
  16. Bain M, Cornwell E, Hope K, Eckerlin G, Casey R, Groocock G, et al. Distribution of an invasive aquatic pathogen (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus) in the Great Lakes and its relationship to shipping. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10156 pubmed publisher
  17. Brudeseth B, Skall H, Evensen Ø. Differences in virulence of marine and freshwater isolates of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in vivo correlate with in vitro ability to infect gill epithelial cells and macrophages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J Virol. 2008;82:10359-65 pubmed publisher
  18. King J, Snow M, Smail D, Raynard R. Distribution of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in wild fish species of the North Sea, north east Atlantic Ocean and Irish Sea. Dis Aquat Organ. 2001;47:81-6 pubmed
  19. Thompson T, Batts W, Faisal M, Bowser P, Casey J, Phillips K, et al. Emergence of Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in the North American Great Lakes region is associated with low viral genetic diversity. Dis Aquat Organ. 2011;96:29-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the genetic diversity of VHSV in the Great Lakes region was found to be extremely low, consistent with an introduction of a new virus into a geographic region with previously naive host populations. ..
  20. Quillet E, Dorson M, Aubard G, Torhy C. In vitro viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus replication in excised fins of rainbow trout: correlation with resistance to waterborne challenge and genetic variation. Dis Aquat Organ. 2001;45:171-82 pubmed
  21. Cutrin J, Olveira J, Bandín I, Dopazo C. Validation of real time RT-PCR applied to cell culture for diagnosis of any known genotype of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus. J Virol Methods. 2009;162:155-62 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, the TaqMan probe-based multiplex real time PCR detected all European strains, with similar levels of sensitivity and R&R, but failed to detect the American types. ..
  22. Boudinot P, Boubekeur S, Benmansour A. Rhabdovirus infection induces public and private T cell responses in teleost fish. J Immunol. 2001;167:6202-9 pubmed
    ..The public response to VHSV consisted of expansion of Vbeta4Jbeta1 T cell, which appeared early during the primary response and was strongly boosted during the secondary response. ..
  23. Skall H, Slierendrecht W, King J, Olesen N. Experimental infection of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus isolates from European marine and farmed fishes. Dis Aquat Organ. 2004;58:99-110 pubmed
    ..The 2 farmed turbot isolates did not cause mortality by immersion, supporting the view that they originated from the marine environment...
  24. Pierce L, Willey J, Crawford E, Palsule V, Leaman D, Faisal M, et al. A new StaRT-PCR approach to detect and quantify fish Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv): enhanced quality control with internal standards. J Virol Methods. 2013;189:129-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that the StaRT-PCR test accurately and reliably detects and quantifies VHSv. ..
  25. Faisal M, Shavalier M, Kim R, Millard E, Gunn M, Winters A, et al. Spread of the emerging viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus strain, genotype IVb, in Michigan, USA. Viruses. 2012;4:734-60 pubmed publisher
  26. Ammayappan A, Vakharia V. Nonvirion protein of novirhabdovirus suppresses apoptosis at the early stage of virus infection. J Virol. 2011;85:8393-402 pubmed publisher
    ..septicemia virus (VHSV) and infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) are members of the genus Novirhabdovirus within the Rhabdoviridae family, which can cause severe hemorrhagic disease in fresh- and saltwater fish ..
  27. Faisal M, Winters A. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) from Diporeia spp. (Pontoporeiidae, Amphipoda) in the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:2 pubmed publisher
    ..isolates with the VHSV genotype IVb. This study reports the first incidence of a fish-pathogenic rhabdovirus being isolated from Diporeia, or any other crustacean and underscores the role macroinvertebrates may play in VHSV ecology...
  28. Biacchesi S, Béarzotti M, Bouguyon E, Bremont M. Heterologous exchanges of the glycoprotein and the matrix protein in a Novirhabdovirus. J Virol. 2002;76:2881-9 pubmed
    ..Both viruses belong to the Novirhabdovirus genus, but they are only distantly related and do not cross antigenically...
  29. Snow M, Bain N, Black J, Taupin V, Cunningham C, King J, et al. Genetic population structure of marine viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Dis Aquat Organ. 2004;61:11-21 pubmed
    ..The capacity for molecular phylogenetic analysis to resolve complex epidemiological problems is also demonstrated and its likely future importance to disease management issues highlighted. ..
  30. Brudeseth B, Raynard R, King J, Evensen O. Sequential pathology after experimental infection with marine viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus isolates of low and high virulence in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L). Vet Pathol. 2005;42:9-18 pubmed
    ..The onset of mortality is markedly later in turbot compared with what is seen in rainbow trout...
  31. Kin J, Snow M, Skall H, Raynard R. Experimental susceptibility of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and turbot Scophthalmus maxim us to European freshwater and marine isolates of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2001;47:25-31 pubmed
    ..These results emphasise the vulnerability of turbot culture to the VHS virus isolates that are enzootic to the European marine environment. ..
  32. Phelps N, Patnayak D, Jiang Y, Goyal S. The use of a one-step real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) for the surveillance of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in Minnesota. J Aquat Anim Health. 2012;24:238-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the results demonstrate the value of this rRT-PCR as a surveillance tool to rapidly identify an outbreak so that it can be controlled in a timely manner. ..
  33. Brudeseth B, Evensen O. Occurrence of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in wild marine fish species in the coastal regions of Norway. Dis Aquat Organ. 2002;52:21-8 pubmed
    ..Geographically, the only positive samples were obtained from fish collected in areas where VHSV has previously been found in different species of fish. ..
  34. Garver K, Hawley L, McClure C, Schroeder T, Aldous S, Doig F, et al. Development and validation of a reverse transcription quantitative PCR for universal detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2011;95:97-112 pubmed publisher
  35. Goodwin A, Merry G. Replication and persistence of VHSV IVb in freshwater turtles. Dis Aquat Organ. 2011;94:173-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work shows that turtles that consume infected fish are a possible vector for VHSV IVb, and that the fish rhabdoviruses may have a broader host range than previously suspected. ..
  36. Bowden T. A study of the susceptibility of Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus (L.), to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus isolated from turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.). J Fish Dis. 2003;26:207-12 pubmed
    ..Control groups included turbot exposed either by intraperitoneal injection or immersion which suffered mortality rates of 93 and 50%, respectively. The results suggest that halibut are markedly less susceptible to VHSV than turbot. ..
  37. Al Hussinee L, Lord S, Stevenson R, Casey R, Groocock G, Britt K, et al. Immunohistochemistry and pathology of multiple Great Lakes fish from mortality events associated with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus type IVb. Dis Aquat Organ. 2011;93:117-27 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, renal tubules and gonadal tissues (ovary and testis), were strongly immunopositive for VHSV IVb, but no lesions were noted...
  38. Jørgensen H, Sørensen P, Cooper G, Lorenzen E, Lorenzen N, Hansen M, et al. General and family-specific gene expression responses to viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Mol Immunol. 2011;48:1046-58 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the results indicate that a superior regulation of the transcription of several key innate immune-related genes contribute to the increased survival in resistant fish. ..
  39. Hedrick R, Batts W, Yun S, Traxler G, Kaufman J, Winton J. Host and geographic range extensions of the North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;55:211-20 pubmed
    ..These new virus isolations extend both the known hosts (sardine, mackerel and 2 species of smelt) and geographic range (Oregon and California, USA) of VHSV. ..
  40. Thoulouze M, Bouguyon E, Carpentier C, Bremont M. Essential role of the NV protein of Novirhabdovirus for pathogenicity in rainbow trout. J Virol. 2004;78:4098-107 pubmed
    b>Novirhabdovirus, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) are fish rhabdoviruses that, in comparison to the other rhabdoviruses, contain an additional gene coding for a small nonvirion ..
  41. Ammayappan A, Vakharia V. Molecular characterization of the Great Lakes viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) isolate from USA. Virol J. 2009;6:171 pubmed publisher
    ..Clair in 2003. VHSV is a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus, within the family Rhabdoviridae...
  42. Lopez Vazquez C, Dopazo C, Olveira J, Barja J, Bandín I. Development of a rapid, sensitive and non-lethal diagnostic assay for the detection of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus. J Virol Methods. 2006;133:167-74 pubmed
    ..This procedure could turn into an important tool for screening of wild stocks as well as valuable individuals in commercial fish farms, since it makes to kill the fish unnecessary. ..
  43. Harmache A, LeBerre M, Droineau S, Giovannini M, Bremont M. Bioluminescence imaging of live infected salmonids reveals that the fin bases are the major portal of entry for Novirhabdovirus. J Virol. 2006;80:3655-9 pubmed
    Although Novirhabdovirus viruses, like the Infectious hematopietic necrosis virus (IHNV), have been extensively studied, limited knowledge exists on the route of IHNV entry during natural infection...
  44. Yasuike M, Kondo H, Hirono I, Aoki T. Identification and characterization of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus interferon-stimulated gene 15 (Jf-ISG15). Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;34:83-91 pubmed publisher
  45. Dale O, Ørpetveit I, Lyngstad T, Kahns S, Skall H, Olesen N, et al. Outbreak of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) in seawater-farmed rainbow trout in Norway caused by VHS virus Genotype III. Dis Aquat Organ. 2009;85:93-103 pubmed publisher
    ..For Atlantic salmon, no mortality was observed in immersion trials, whereas 52% mortality was observed after intraperitoneal injection. The Norwegian isolate thus represents the first VHSV of Genotype III pathogenic to rainbow trout...
  46. Thiery R, de Boisseson C, Jeffroy J, Castric J, de Kinkelin P, Benmansour A. Phylogenetic analysis of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates from France (1971-1999). Dis Aquat Organ. 2002;52:29-37 pubmed
    ..Overall there was a good correlation between the geographical origin of the studied isolates and their genetic characteristics. ..
  47. Chico V, Ortega Villaizan M, Falco A, Tafalla C, Perez L, Coll J, et al. The immunogenicity of viral haemorragic septicaemia rhabdovirus (VHSV) DNA vaccines can depend on plasmid regulatory sequences. Vaccine. 2009;27:1938-48 pubmed publisher
  48. Gagne N, MacKinnon A, Boston L, Souter B, Cook Versloot M, Griffiths S, et al. Isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus from mummichog, stickleback, striped bass and brown trout in eastern Canada. J Fish Dis. 2007;30:213-23 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolates are closely related and form a distinguishable subgroup of North American type VHSV. To our knowledge, this is the first report of VHSV in mummichog and striped bass...
  49. Pierce L, Stepien C. Evolution and biogeography of an emerging quasispecies: diversity patterns of the fish Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia virus (VHSv). Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2012;63:327-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a baseline for future tracking of VHSv spread and interpreting its evolutionary diversification pathways. ..
  50. Falco A, Mas V, Tafalla C, Perez L, Coll J, Estepa A. Dual antiviral activity of human alpha-defensin-1 against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia rhabdovirus (VHSV): inactivation of virus particles and induction of a type I interferon-related response. Antiviral Res. 2007;76:111-23 pubmed
    ..In addition, these results further confirm that molecules that mediate the innate resistance of animals to virus may prove useful as templates for new antivirals in both human and animal health...
  51. Matejusova I, McKay P, McBeath A, Collet B, Snow M. Development of a sensitive and controlled real-time RT-PCR assay for viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in marine salmonid aquaculture. Dis Aquat Organ. 2008;80:137-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, a continued surveillance of these species in marine environment is recommended...
  52. Bernard D, Six A, Rigottier Gois L, Messiaen S, Chilmonczyk S, Quillet E, et al. Phenotypic and functional similarity of gut intraepithelial and systemic T cells in a teleost fish. J Immunol. 2006;176:3942-9 pubmed
  53. Tafalla C, Chico V, Perez L, Coll J, Estepa A. In vitro and in vivo differential expression of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Mx isoforms in response to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) G gene, poly I:C and VHSV. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;23:210-21 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this is also the first report showing Mx induction after cell transfection with a plasmid coding for the VHSV-G protein...
  54. Lopez Vazquez C, Raynard R, Bain N, Snow M, Bandín I, Dopazo C. Genotyping of marine viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus isolated from the Flemish Cap by nucleotide sequence analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;73:23-31 pubmed
    ..Characterisation using RFLPs resulted in the development of a simple and reliable method of typing VHSV at the genotype level using a 2-step restriction analysis (2-SRA) assay. ..
  55. Nishizawa T, Iida H, Takano R, Isshiki T, Nakajima K, Muroga K. Genetic relatedness among Japanese, American and European isolates of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) based on partial G and P genes. Dis Aquat Organ. 2002;48:143-8 pubmed
  56. Groocock G, Getchell R, Wooster G, Britt K, Batts W, Winton J, et al. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in round gobies in New York State (USA) waters of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;76:187-92 pubmed
    ..The detection of VHSV in a relatively recent invasive fish species in the Great Lakes and the potential impact of VHSV on the ecology and economy of the area will require further investigation and careful management considerations...