rabies virus


Summary: The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.

Top Publications

  1. Gautret P, Ribadeau Dumas F, Parola P, Brouqui P, Bourhy H. Risk for rabies importation from North Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:2187-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Rabies surveillance and control should therefore be reinforced in North Africa, and travelers to North Africa should receive appropriate information about rabies risk and prevention. ..
  2. Osakada F, Mori T, Cetin A, Marshel J, Virgen B, Callaway E. New rabies virus variants for monitoring and manipulating activity and gene expression in defined neural circuits. Neuron. 2011;71:617-31 pubmed publisher
    Glycoprotein-deleted (ΔG) rabies virus is a powerful tool for studies of neural circuit structure...
  3. Yung V, Favi M, Fernandez J. Typing of the rabies virus in Chile, 2002-2008. Epidemiol Infect. 2012;140:2157-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to determine the rabies virus (RABV) variants circulating in the country between 2002 and 2008...
  4. Piñero C, Gury Dohmen F, Beltran F, Martínez L, Novaro L, Russo S, et al. High diversity of rabies viruses associated with insectivorous bats in Argentina: presence of several independent enzootics. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1635 pubmed publisher
    Rabies is a fatal infection of the central nervous system primarily transmitted by rabid animal bites. Rabies virus (RABV) circulates through two different epidemiological cycles: terrestrial and aerial, where dogs, foxes or skunks and ..
  5. Pant G, Horton D, Dahal M, Rai J, Ide S, Leech S, et al. Characterization of rabies virus from a human case in Nepal. Arch Virol. 2011;156:681-4 pubmed publisher
    ..a partial nucleoprotein gene sequence to previous isolates from Nepal belonging to the 'arctic-like' lineage of rabies virus. Sequence analysis of both partial nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes showed differences in consensus ..
  6. Morikawa V, Ribeiro J, Biondo A, Fellini A, Bier D, Molento M. Cat infected by a variant of bat rabies virus in a 29-year disease-free urban area of southern Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2012;45:255-6 pubmed
    ..After 29 years, rabies was detected in a cat in Curitiba, southern Brazil...
  7. Yang Y, Zhao P, Zhang T, Wang H, Liang H, Zhao L, et al. Small interfering RNAs targeting the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene. Virus Res. 2012;169:169-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies virus (RABV) infection continues to be a global threat to human and animal health, yet no curative therapy has been developed...
  8. Carneiro A, Franke C, Stocker A, Dos Santos F, Ungar de Sa J, Moraes Silva E, et al. Rabies virus RNA in naturally infected vampire bats, northeastern Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:2004-6 pubmed publisher
  9. Gilbert A, Petersen B, Recuenco S, Niezgoda M, Gomez J, Laguna Torres V, et al. Evidence of rabies virus exposure among humans in the Peruvian Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;87:206-15 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNAs) were detected in 11% (7 of 63) of human sera tested...

More Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. Dorfmeier C, Tzvetkov E, Gatt A, McGettigan J. Investigating the role for IL-21 in rabies virus vaccine-induced immunity. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2129 pubmed publisher
    ..A major goal in rabies virus (RABV) research is to develop a single-dose PEP that would simplify vaccination protocols, reduce costs ..
  2. Silva S, Katz I, Mori E, Carnieli P, Vieira L, Batista H, et al. Biotechnology advances: a perspective on the diagnosis and research of Rabies Virus. Biologicals. 2013;41:217-23 pubmed publisher
    ..use of new techniques that are rapid, sensitive, specific and economical for the detection and research of the Rabies Virus (RABV)...
  3. Mochizuki N, Kobayashi Y, Sato G, Hirano S, Itou T, Ito F, et al. Determination and molecular analysis of the complete genome sequence of two wild-type rabies viruses isolated from a haematophagous bat and a frugivorous bat in Brazil. J Vet Med Sci. 2011;73:759-66 pubmed
    ..The phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genomes was valuable in discriminating among very closely related isolates. ..
  4. Amann R, Rohde J, Wulle U, Conlee D, Raue R, Martinon O, et al. A new rabies vaccine based on a recombinant ORF virus (parapoxvirus) expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein. J Virol. 2013;87:1618-30 pubmed publisher
    The present study describes the generation of a new Orf virus (ORFV) recombinant, D1701-V-RabG, expressing the rabies virus (RABV) glycoprotein that is correctly presented on the surface of infected cells without the need of replication ..
  5. Miyamichi K, Amat F, Moussavi F, Wang C, Wickersham I, Wall N, et al. Cortical representations of olfactory input by trans-synaptic tracing. Nature. 2011;472:191-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The trans-synaptic labelling method described here should be widely applicable to mapping connections throughout the mouse nervous system. ..
  6. Favi C M, Bassaletti C A, López D J, Rodríguez A L, Yung P V. [Epidemiological description of rabies reservoir in bats in the Metropolitan Region: Chile. 2000-2009]. Rev Chilena Infectol. 2011;28:223-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In 39 cases there was contact with humans or animals. These results reinforce the relevance of educating the population against the contact with bats and allow health authorities to take early surveillance and control measures. ..
  7. Harkess G, Fooks A. Lyssaviruses: special emphasis on rabies virus and other members of the lyssavirus genus. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;665:279-307 pubmed publisher
    ..A negative diagnostic test for rabies virus or a related lyssavirus does not exclude the clinical diagnosis...
  8. Meng S, Sun Y, Wu X, Tang J, Xu G, Lei Y, et al. Evolutionary dynamics of rabies viruses highlights the importance of China rabies transmission in Asia. Virology. 2011;410:403-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding of rabies transmission and associated human activities, such as dog translocation, can help rabies control and elimination in Asia through collaborative efforts or programs. ..
  9. Cabral C, Morais A, Dias A, Araújo M, Moreira W, Mattos G. Circulation of the rabies virus in non-hematophagous bats in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2001-2010. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2012;45:180-3 pubmed
    ..The data obtained in this study showed the presence of the rabies virus in synanthropic populations of non-hematophagous bats in the City of Rio de Janeiro...
  10. Niu X, Wang H, Fu Z. Role of chemokines in rabies pathogenesis and protection. Adv Virus Res. 2011;79:73-89 pubmed publisher
    ..All these studies together suggest that chemokines are both protective and pathogenic in RABV infections. Those with protective roles could be exploited for development of future RABV vaccines or therapeutic agents. ..
  11. Dorfmeier C, Lytle A, Dunkel A, Gatt A, McGettigan J. Protective vaccine-induced CD4(+) T cell-independent B cell responses against rabies infection. J Virol. 2012;86:11533-40 pubmed publisher
    A major goal in rabies virus (RV) research is to develop a single-dose postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) that would simplify vaccination protocols, reduce costs associated with rabies prevention in humans, and save lives...
  12. Matsumoto T, Ahmed K, Wimalaratne O, Yamada K, Nanayakkara S, Perera D, et al. Whole-genome analysis of a human rabies virus from Sri Lanka. Arch Virol. 2011;156:659-69 pubmed publisher
    The complete genome sequence of a human rabies virus, strain H-08-1320, from Sri Lanka was determined and compared with other rabies viruses...
  13. Szanto A, Nadin Davis S, Rosatte R, White B. Genetic tracking of the raccoon variant of rabies virus in eastern North America. Epidemics. 2011;3:76-87 pubmed publisher
    ..of rabies into the raccoon population in three Canadian provinces, a collection of 192 isolates of the raccoon rabies virus (RRV) strain was acquired from across its North American range and was genetically characterized...
  14. Wickersham I, Sullivan H, Seung H. Axonal and subcellular labelling using modified rabies viral vectors. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2332 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that deletion-mutant rabies virus can be specifically targeted to cells local to an injection site, brightly labelling axons even when ..
  15. VERMA R, Khanna P, Prinja S, Rajput M. Intra-dermal administration of rabies vaccines in developing countries: at an affordable cost. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7:792-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The ID route is ideal in terms of economic benefits, safety and efficacy. This reduces the cost of vaccination by about 68%, which is clearly an attractive option for resource-starved countries like India. ..
  16. Yamada K, Park C, Noguchi K, Kojima D, Kubo T, Komiya N, et al. Serial passage of a street rabies virus in mouse neuroblastoma cells resulted in attenuation: potential role of the additional N-glycosylation of a viral glycoprotein in the reduced pathogenicity of street rabies virus. Virus Res. 2012;165:34-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, through 30 passages in mouse neuroblastoma NA cells, we have established an attenuated variant of street rabies virus strain 1088, originating from a rabid woodchuck followed by 2 passages in the brains of suckling mice...
  17. Matsumoto T, Ahmed K, Wimalaratne O, Nanayakkara S, Perera D, Karunanayake D, et al. Novel sylvatic rabies virus variant in endangered golden palm civet, Sri Lanka. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:2346-9 pubmed publisher
    Information is scarce about sylvatic rabies virus in Asia and about rabies in palm civets. We report a novel sylvatic rabies virus variant detected in a golden palm civet in Sri Lanka...
  18. Kuzmin I, Shi M, Orciari L, Yager P, Velasco Villa A, Kuzmina N, et al. Molecular inferences suggest multiple host shifts of rabies viruses from bats to mesocarnivores in Arizona during 2001-2009. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002786 pubmed publisher
    In nature, rabies virus (RABV; genus Lyssavirus, family Rhabdoviridae) represents an assemblage of phylogenetic lineages, associated with specific mammalian host species...
  19. Liu Y, Zhang S, Zhang F, Hu R. Adaptation of a Chinese ferret badger strain of rabies virus to high-titered growth in BHK-21 cells for canine vaccine development. Arch Virol. 2012;157:2397-403 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies virus strain JX08-45CC was derived from a Chinese isolate (JX08-45) by serial passage in the BHK-21 cell line, reaching a titer of 10(8) TCID(50)/mL...
  20. Weible A, Schwarcz L, Wickersham I, Deblander L, Wu H, Callaway E, et al. Transgenic targeting of recombinant rabies virus reveals monosynaptic connectivity of specific neurons. J Neurosci. 2010;30:16509-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We used a novel combination of transgenic mouse technology and a recently developed tracing system based on rabies virus (Wickersham et al., 2007a,b) to overcome all three constraints...
  21. Li J, Ertel A, Portocarrero C, Barkhouse D, Dietzschold B, Hooper D, et al. Postexposure treatment with the live-attenuated rabies virus (RV) vaccine TriGAS triggers the clearance of wild-type RV from the Central Nervous System (CNS) through the rapid induction of genes relevant to adaptive immunity in CNS tissues. J Virol. 2012;86:3200-10 pubmed publisher
    Postexposure treatment (PET) of wild-type rabies virus (RV)-infected mice with a live-attenuated triple-glycoprotein RV variant (TriGAS) promotes survival but does not prevent the pathogenic RV from invading and replicating in the brain...
  22. Kasempimolporn S, Saengseesom W, Huadsakul S, Boonchang S, Sitprija V. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic test strip for detection of Rabies virus in dog saliva samples. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2011;23:1197-201 pubmed publisher
    An immunochromatographic test strip for Rabies virus was evaluated with dog saliva samples. The test was initially validated against 237 dogs of known infection status, and then evaluated in the field with 1,290 live dogs...
  23. Boldbaatar B, Inoue S, Tuya N, Dulam P, Batchuluun D, Sugiura N, et al. Molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in Mongolia, 2005-2008. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2010;63:358-63 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of rabies virus (RABV) in Mongolia based on the nucleotide sequences of viral N gene...
  24. Dacheux L, Delmas O, Bourhy H. Human rabies encephalitis prevention and treatment: progress since Pasteur's discovery. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2011;11:251-99 pubmed
    ..Finally, an analysis of the various antiviral compounds tested in rabies in vitro, in animal models or in humans is presented, focusing in particular on potential new strategies. ..
  25. Hooper D, Roy A, Barkhouse D, Li J, Kean R. Rabies virus clearance from the central nervous system. Adv Virus Res. 2011;79:55-71 pubmed publisher
    ..immune effectors with the capacity to clear the virus may be delivered into CNS tissues to contain a wild-type rabies virus infection...
  26. Rieder M, Conzelmann K. Interferon in rabies virus infection. Adv Virus Res. 2011;79:91-114 pubmed publisher
    ..The rabies virus (RABV) is a rather atypical member of the Rhabdoviridae family as it has completely adapted during evolution to ..
  27. Fernandes E, de Andrade H, Lancellotti C, Quaresma J, Demachki S, da Costa Vasconcelos P, et al. In situ apoptosis of adaptive immune cells and the cellular escape of rabies virus in CNS from patients with human rabies transmitted by Desmodus rotundus. Virus Res. 2011;156:121-6 pubmed publisher
    ..investigate the apoptosis of neurons, astrocytes and immune cells from human patients that were infected with rabies virus by vampire bats bite...
  28. Streicker D, Recuenco S, Valderrama W, Gómez Benavides J, Vargas I, Pacheco V, et al. Ecological and anthropogenic drivers of rabies exposure in vampire bats: implications for transmission and control. Proc Biol Sci. 2012;279:3384-92 pubmed
    ..To identify the individual and population-level factors driving rabies virus (RV) transmission in vampire bats, we conducted a longitudinal capture-recapture study in 20 vampire bat ..
  29. Liang H, Liu Q, Zheng X, Gai W, Xue X, Hu G, et al. Aptamers targeting rabies virus-infected cells inhibit viral replication both in vitro and in vivo. Virus Res. 2013;173:398-403 pubmed publisher
    ..The causative agent of the disease is Rabies virus (RABV). Currently, no approved therapy is available once the clinical signs have appeared...
  30. Yamaoka S, Ito N, Ohka S, Kaneda S, Nakamura H, Agari T, et al. Involvement of the rabies virus phosphoprotein gene in neuroinvasiveness. J Virol. 2013;87:12327-38 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies virus (RABV), which is transmitted via a bite wound caused by a rabid animal, infects peripheral nerves and then spreads to the central nervous system (CNS) before causing severe neurological symptoms and death in the infected ..
  31. Wen Y, Wang H, Wu H, Yang F, Tripp R, Hogan R, et al. Rabies virus expressing dendritic cell-activating molecules enhances the innate and adaptive immune response to vaccination. J Virol. 2011;85:1634-44 pubmed publisher
    ..and/or activation of dendritic cells (DCs) is important in enhancing the protective immune responses against rabies virus (RABV) (L. Zhao, H. Toriumi, H. Wang, Y. Kuang, X. Guo, K. Morimoto, and Z. F. Fu, J. Virol. 84:9642-9648)...
  32. McGettigan J. Experimental rabies vaccines for humans. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2010;9:1177-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This article describes the current status of inactivated rabies virus vaccines and recent developments arising from the use of reverse genetics technologies designed to develop ..
  33. Ghanem A, Kern A, Conzelmann K. Significantly improved rescue of rabies virus from cDNA plasmids. Eur J Cell Biol. 2012;91:10-6 pubmed publisher
    The rescue of recombinant rabies virus (RV) from cloned cDNA is an inefficient process because it relies on the de novo formation within cells of functional ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes from plasmid-expressed viral-like antigenome ..
  34. Jiao W, Yin X, Li Z, Lan X, Li X, Tian X, et al. Molecular characterization of China rabies virus vaccine strain. Virol J. 2011;8:521 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies virus (RV), the agent of rabies, can cause a severe encephalomyelitis in several species of mammals, including humans...
  35. Loza Rubio E, Rojas Anaya E, Lopez J, Olivera Flores M, Gomez Lim M, Tapia Pérez G. Induction of a protective immune response to rabies virus in sheep after oral immunization with transgenic maize, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein. Vaccine. 2012;30:5551-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this is the first study in which an orally administered edible vaccine showed efficacy in a polygastric model...
  36. Ginger M, Haberl M, Conzelmann K, Schwarz M, Frick A. Revealing the secrets of neuronal circuits with recombinant rabies virus technology. Front Neural Circuits. 2013;7:2 pubmed publisher
    ..A range of sophisticated tools is needed to acquire this knowledge, and recombinant rabies virus (RABV) is becoming an increasingly important part of this essential toolbox...
  37. Ugolini G. Rabies virus as a transneuronal tracer of neuronal connections. Adv Virus Res. 2011;79:165-202 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rabies virus is the only viral tracer that is entirely specific, as it propagates exclusively between connected neurons by ..
  38. Albas A, Campos A, Araujo D, Rodrigues C, Sodré M, Durigon E, et al. Molecular characterization of rabies virus isolated from non-haematophagous bats in Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2011;44:678-83 pubmed
    ..AgV-3, AgV-4, and AgV-6; and from 29 samples, 5 different clusters were identified, all belonging to the rabies virus species...
  39. Davis A, Gordy P, Bowen R. Unique characteristics of bat rabies viruses in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus). Arch Virol. 2013;158:809-20 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies virus infection has been documented in several North American bat species, including Eptesicus fuscus. The virus-host relationship between bats and rabies virus (RV) is not well understood...
  40. Guarino H, Castilho J, Souto J, Oliveira R, Carrieri M, Kotait I. Antigenic and genetic characterization of rabies virus isolates from Uruguay. Virus Res. 2013;173:415-20 pubmed publisher
    ..specimen. These results indicate that AgV3 was associated with the outbreak of bovine paralytic rabies in Uruguay. This is the first report of rabies virus having been detected in non-hematophagous bats in this country.
  41. Prager K, Mazet J, Dubovi E, Frank L, Munson L, Wagner A, et al. Rabies virus and canine distemper virus in wild and domestic carnivores in Northern Kenya: are domestic dogs the reservoir?. Ecohealth. 2012;9:483-98 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies virus (RV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) can cause significant mortality in wild carnivore populations, and RV threatens human lives...
  42. Zhang J, Wu X, Zan J, Wu Y, Ye C, Ruan X, et al. Cellular chaperonin CCT? contributes to rabies virus replication during infection. J Virol. 2013;87:7608-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the expression, cellular localization, and function of neuronal CCT? during neurotropic rabies virus (RABV) infection using mouse N2a cells as a model...
  43. Borucki M, Chen Harris H, Lao V, Vanier G, Wadford D, Messenger S, et al. Ultra-deep sequencing of intra-host rabies virus populations during cross-species transmission. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2555 pubmed publisher
    ..Department of Public Health reported a dramatic increase (350) in the number of gray foxes infected with a rabies virus variant for which striped skunks serve as a reservoir host in Humboldt County...
  44. Yonehara K, Balint K, Noda M, Nagel G, Bamberg E, Roska B. Spatially asymmetric reorganization of inhibition establishes a motion-sensitive circuit. Nature. 2011;469:407-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work demonstrates a rapid developmental switch from a symmetric to asymmetric input distribution for inhibition in the neural circuit of a principal cell. ..
  45. Kaku Y, Noguchi A, Hotta K, Yamada A, Inoue S. Inhibition of rabies virus propagation in mouse neuroblastoma cells by an intrabody against the viral phosphoprotein. Antiviral Res. 2011;91:64-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies virus (RABV) is highly neurotropic and causes acute infection of the central nervous system...
  46. Israsena N, Mahavihakanont A, Hemachudha T. Rabies virus infection and microRNAs. Adv Virus Res. 2011;79:329-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This may possibly explain, in part, why rabies virus remains dormant at the inoculation site in rabies patients for long periods...
  47. Singh A, Yadav D, Rai K, Srivastava M, Verma P, Singh P, et al. Enhanced expression of rabies virus surface G-protein in Escherichia coli using SUMO fusion. Protein J. 2012;31:68-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding demonstrated that the SUMO-fusion was useful for enhancing expression and solubility of the membrane protein and again proves to be a good alternative technology for applications in biomedical and pharmaceutical research. ..
  48. Streicker D, Lemey P, Velasco Villa A, Rupprecht C. Rates of viral evolution are linked to host geography in bat rabies. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002720 pubmed publisher
    ..of rabies viruses collected from bats throughout the Americas to describe dramatic variation in the speed of rabies virus evolution when circulating in ecologically distinct reservoir species...
  49. Watabe Uchida M, Zhu L, Ogawa S, Vamanrao A, Uchida N. Whole-brain mapping of direct inputs to midbrain dopamine neurons. Neuron. 2012;74:858-73 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore this difference, we comprehensively identified each area's monosynaptic inputs using the rabies virus. We show that dopamine neurons in both areas integrate inputs from a more diverse collection of areas than ..
  50. Zhang G, Fu Z. Complete genome sequence of a street rabies virus from Mexico. J Virol. 2012;86:10892-3 pubmed publisher
    A canine rabies virus (RABV) has been used as a street rabies virus in laboratory investigations. Its entire genome was sequenced and found to be closely related to that of canine RABV circulating in Mexico...
  51. Lawrence T, Hudacek A, de Zoete M, Flavell R, Schnell M. Rabies virus is recognized by the NLRP3 inflammasome and activates interleukin-1β release in murine dendritic cells. J Virol. 2013;87:5848-57 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the mechanism by which the inflammasome recognizes RNA viruses and its role in rabies virus (RABV) pathogenicity and immunogenicity remain poorly defined...
  52. Bowen R, O Shea T, Shankar V, Neubaum M, Neubaum D, Rupprecht C. Prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus in serum of seven species of insectivorous bats from Colorado and New Mexico, United States. J Wildl Dis. 2013;49:367-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that wild bats are commonly exposed to rabies virus and develop a humoral immune response suggesting some degree of viral replication, but many infections fail to ..
  53. Huang H, Xiao S, Qin J, Jiang Y, Yang S, Li T, et al. Construction and immunogenicity of a recombinant pseudotype baculovirus expressing the glycoprotein of rabies virus in mice. Arch Virol. 2011;156:753-8 pubmed publisher
    ..the envelope was used as a vector for the construction of recombinant baculovirus expressing the G protein of rabies virus (RABV) under the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter...
  54. Albertini A, Ruigrok R, Blondel D. Rabies virus transcription and replication. Adv Virus Res. 2011;79:1-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies virus (RABV) is a negative-stranded RNA virus...
  55. Aoshima K, Sunden Y, Ishida S, Ochiai K, Umemura T. Possible origin of CSF antibodies induced by intrathecal immunization and prophylactic effects against intracerebral rabies virus infection. J Vet Med Sci. 2011;73:1303-8 pubmed
    ..In the present study, rabbits were immunized IT with inactivated rabies virus to investigate the origins of CSF Ab...
  56. Liu W, Liu Y, Liu J, Zhai J, Xie Y. Evidence for inter- and intra-clade recombinations in rabies virus. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:1906-12 pubmed publisher
    Homologous recombination is considered rare in negative-strand RNA viruses and has not been reported for rabies virus. In this study, full-length genomes of 44 rabies virus strains were analyzed for potential homologous recombination ..
  57. Cai L, Tao X, Liu Y, Zhang H, Gao L, Hu S, et al. Molecular characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of N gene of human derived rabies virus. Biomed Environ Sci. 2011;24:431-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the relationship between the molecular characteristics and phylogenetic evolution of rabies N gene...
  58. Lahaye X, Vidy A, Fouquet B, Blondel D. Hsp70 protein positively regulates rabies virus infection. J Virol. 2012;86:4743-51 pubmed publisher
    ..This protein is implicated in the replication of numerous viruses. We have shown that rabies virus infection induced the cellular expression of Hsp70, which accumulated in Negri body-like structures, where ..
  59. Lang S, Tao X, Guo Z, Tang Q, Li H, Yin C, et al. Molecular characterization of viral G gene in emerging and re-emerging areas of rabies in China, 2007 to 2011. Virol Sin. 2012;27:194-203 pubmed publisher
    ..from 2007 to 2011 from provinces with emerging and re-emerging cases and tested for the presence of the rabies virus. Positive specimens were combined with sequences from GenBank to perform comparisons of homology and functional ..
  60. Ma X, Niezgoda M, Blanton J, Recuenco S, Rupprecht C. Evaluation of a new serological technique for detecting rabies virus antibodies following vaccination. Vaccine. 2012;30:5358-62 pubmed publisher
    Two major techniques are currently used to estimate rabies virus antibody values: neutralization assays, such as the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs)...
  61. Zhao P, Zhao L, Zhang K, Feng H, Wang H, Wang T, et al. Infection with street strain rabies virus induces modulation of the microRNA profile of the mouse brain. Virol J. 2012;9:159 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies virus (RABV) causes a fatal infection of the central nervous systems (CNS) of warm-blooded animals. Once the clinical symptoms develop, rabies is almost invariably fatal. The mechanism of RABV pathogenesis remains poorly understood...
  62. Yu P, Lv X, Shen X, Tang Q, Liang G. Establishment and preliminary application of a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) for rabies virus. Virol Sin. 2013;28:223-7 pubmed publisher
    The World Health Organization (WHO) standard assay for determining levels of the rabies virus neutralization antibody (RVNA) is the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT), which is used to evaluate the immunity effect after ..
  63. Pant G, Lavenir R, Wong F, Certoma A, Larrous F, Bhatta D, et al. Recent emergence and spread of an Arctic-related phylogenetic lineage of rabies virus in Nepal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2560 pubmed publisher
    ..where limited information is available about the spatiotemporal dynamics of the main etiological agent, the rabies virus (RABV)...
  64. Tenzin -, Wacharapluesadee S, Denduangboripant J, Dhand N, Dorji R, Tshering D, et al. Rabies virus strains circulating in Bhutan: implications for control. Epidemiol Infect. 2011;139:1457-62 pubmed publisher
    We report a molecular epidemiological study of rabies virus (RABV) strains circulating in animal populations in Bhutan, and investigate potential origins of these viruses...
  65. Wall N, Wickersham I, Cetin A, De La Parra M, Callaway E. Monosynaptic circuit tracing in vivo through Cre-dependent targeting and complementation of modified rabies virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:21848-53 pubmed publisher
    ..cell types in Cre-expressing transgenic mice through the use of Cre-dependent helper virus and a modified rabies virus. We generated helper viruses that target gene expression to Cre-expressing cells, allowing us to control ..
  66. Reddy G, Singh R, Singh R, Singh K, Gupta P, Mahadevan A, et al. Molecular characterization of Indian rabies virus isolates by partial sequencing of nucleoprotein (N) and phosphoprotein (P) genes. Virus Genes. 2011;43:13-7 pubmed publisher
    ..There are very few reports available on molecular epidemiology of rabies virus of Indian origin...
  67. Yang D, Shin E, Oh Y, Kang H, Lee K, Cho S, et al. Molecular epidemiology of rabies virus circulating in South Korea, 1998-2010. J Vet Med Sci. 2011;73:1077-82 pubmed
    ..nucleotide sequences of the G-L (glycoprotein-large protein) intergenic non-coding region of 33 strains of the rabies virus (RABV) isolated in South Korea in 1998-2010 and compared the sequences with those of previously reported non-..
  68. McElhinney L, Marston D, Freuling C, Cragg W, Stankov S, Lalosevic D, et al. Molecular diversity and evolutionary history of rabies virus strains circulating in the Balkans. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:2171-80 pubmed publisher
  69. Sonwane A, Dahiya S, Saini M, Chaturvedi V, Singh R, Gupta P. Inhibition of rabies virus multiplication by siRNA delivered through adenoviral vector in vitro in BHK-21 cells and in vivo in mice. Res Vet Sci. 2012;93:498-503 pubmed publisher
    ..siRNA) against rabies, recombinant, replication-defective adenoviral vectors (rAdV) encoding siRNAs targeting rabies virus (RV) polymerase (L) and nucleoprotein (N) genes were developed...
  70. Chopy D, Detje C, Lafage M, Kalinke U, Lafon M. The type I interferon response bridles rabies virus infection and reduces pathogenicity. J Neurovirol. 2011;17:353-67 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies virus (RABV) is a neurotropic virus transmitted by the bite of an infected animal that triggers a fatal encephalomyelitis...
  71. Ahmed K, Wimalaratne O, Dahal N, Khawplod P, Nanayakkara S, Rinzin K, et al. Evaluation of a monoclonal antibody-based rapid immunochromatographic test for direct detection of rabies virus in the brain of humans and animals. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;86:736-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The RICT is reliable, user friendly, rapid, robust, and can be used in laboratories with a modest infrastructure. ..
  72. Zhao P, Yang Y, Feng H, Zhao L, Qin J, Zhang T, et al. Global gene expression changes in BV2 microglial cell line during rabies virus infection. Infect Genet Evol. 2013;20:257-69 pubmed publisher
    Microglia plays a crucial role during virus pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). Infection by rabies virus (RABV) causes a fatal infection in the CNS of all warm-blooded animals...
  73. Li C, Zhang F, Lin H, Wang Z, Liu X, Feng Z, et al. Generation and characterization of the human neutralizing antibody fragment Fab091 against rabies virus. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2011;32:329-37 pubmed publisher
    To transform the human anti-rabies virus glycoprotein (anti-RABVG) single-chain variable fragment (scFv) into a Fab fragment and to analyze its immunological activity...
  74. Carnieli P, de Novaes Oliveira R, Macedo C, Castilho J. Phylogeography of rabies virus isolated from dogs in Brazil between 1985 and 2006. Arch Virol. 2011;156:1007-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The importance of this study lies in the fact that it can help with the planning of rabies control measures, as dogs continue to be the main reservoir of rabies virus throughout the world.
  75. Hwang D, Son S, Jang J, Youn H, Lee S, Lee D, et al. A brain-targeted rabies virus glycoprotein-disulfide linked PEI nanocarrier for delivery of neurogenic microRNA. Biomaterials. 2011;32:4968-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG)-labeled non-toxic SSPEI nanomaterials capable of neuron-specific miR-124a delivery to neuron ..
  76. Szanto A, Nadin Davis S, Rosatte R, White B. Re-assessment of direct fluorescent antibody negative brain tissues with a real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of raccoon rabies virus RNA. J Virol Methods. 2011;174:110-6 pubmed publisher
    The first report of the raccoon variant of rabies virus was in Ontario, Canada in 1999. As part of the control of this outbreak a Point Infection Control (PIC) strategy of trapping and euthanizing vector species was implemented...
  77. Davis A, Gordy P, Rudd R, Jarvis J, Bowen R. Naturally acquired rabies virus infections in wild-caught bats. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:55-60 pubmed publisher
    ..wild-caught and apparently healthy Tadarida brasiliensis and Eptesicus fuscus, respectively, were positive for rabies virus (RV) antigen. Conversely, 92% of the grounded T. brasiliensis were positive for RV...
  78. Muleya W, Namangala B, Mweene A, Zulu L, Fandamu P, Banda D, et al. Molecular epidemiology and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for diagnosis of infection with rabies virus in Zambia. Virus Res. 2012;163:160-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the lineage of rabies virus (RABV) in Zambia was determined by phylogenetic analysis of the nucleoprotein (N) and glycoprotein (G) gene ..
  79. Zhao P, Zhao L, Zhang T, Qi Y, Wang T, Liu K, et al. Innate immune response gene expression profiles in central nervous system of mice infected with rabies virus. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;34:503-12 pubmed publisher
    The present study was focused on the modulation of innate immune response genes in CNS of mouse in response to rabies virus (RABV) infection...
  80. Guo Z, Tao X, Yin C, Han N, Yu J, Li H, et al. National borders effectively halt the spread of rabies: the current rabies epidemic in China is dislocated from cases in neighboring countries. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2039 pubmed publisher
    ..We also identified epidemiological linkages between high incidence provinces consistent with observations based on surveillance data from human rabies cases. ..
  81. Yang L, Cen J, Xue Q, Li J, Bi Y, Sun L, et al. Identification of rabies virus mimotopes screened from a phage display peptide library with purified dog anti-rabies virus serum IgG. Virus Res. 2013;174:47-51 pubmed publisher
    The rabies virus glycoprotein (G) is a key protein for both virus infectivity and eliciting protective immunity as an antigen. What is more, the nucleoprotein (N) is also a significant rabies virus antigen...
  82. Putra A, Hampson K, Girardi J, Hiby E, Knobel D, Mardiana I, et al. Response to a rabies epidemic, Bali, Indonesia, 2008-2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:648-51 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the incidence of dog bites remains high, and repeat campaigns are necessary to eliminate rabies in Bali. ..
  83. Masatani T, Ito N, Shimizu K, Ito Y, Nakagawa K, Abe M, et al. Amino acids at positions 273 and 394 in rabies virus nucleoprotein are important for both evasion of host RIG-I-mediated antiviral response and pathogenicity. Virus Res. 2011;155:168-74 pubmed publisher
    We previously reported that nucleoprotein (N) is related to the different pathogenicities of the virulent rabies virus strain Nishigahara (Ni) and avirulent strain Ni-CE and also that Ni N, but not Ni-CE N, functions to evade retinoic ..
  84. Weyer J, Szmyd Potapczuk A, Blumberg L, Leman P, Markotter W, Swanepoel R, et al. Epidemiology of human rabies in South Africa, 1983-2007. Virus Res. 2011;155:283-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular analysis of virus isolates did not identify any additional cases of rabies attributed to infection with the Duvenhage, Lagos bat or Mokola or any other rabies-related viruses. ..
  85. Rieder M, Brzózka K, Pfaller C, Cox J, Stitz L, Conzelmann K. Genetic dissection of interferon-antagonistic functions of rabies virus phosphoprotein: inhibition of interferon regulatory factor 3 activation is important for pathogenicity. J Virol. 2011;85:842-52 pubmed publisher
    The rabies virus (RV) phosphoprotein (P) is a type I interferon (IFN) antagonist preventing both transcriptional induction of IFN and IFN-mediated JAK/STAT signaling...
  86. Chopy D, Pothlichet J, Lafage M, Mégret F, Fiette L, Si Tahar M, et al. Ambivalent role of the innate immune response in rabies virus pathogenesis. J Virol. 2011;85:6657-68 pubmed publisher
    The neurotropic rabies virus (RABV) has developed several evasive strategies, including immunoevasion, to successfully infect the nervous system (NS) and trigger a fatal encephalomyelitis...
  87. Liu X, Lin H, Tang Q, Li C, Yang S, Wang Z, et al. Characterization of a human antibody fragment Fab and its calcium phosphate nanoparticles that inhibit rabies virus infection with vaccine. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19848 pubmed publisher
    ..An anti-rabies virus immunized phage-display Fab library was constructed from peripheral blood lymphocytes from vaccinated ..
  88. Wang H, Zhang G, Wen Y, Yang S, Xia X, Fu Z. Intracerebral administration of recombinant rabies virus expressing GM-CSF prevents the development of rabies after infection with street virus. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e25414 pubmed publisher
    Recently it was found that prior immunization with recombinant rabies virus (RABV) expressing granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) (LBNSE-GM-CSF) resulted in high innate/adaptive immune responses and protection ..
  89. Sugiura N, Uda A, Inoue S, Kojima D, Hamamoto N, Kaku Y, et al. Gene expression analysis of host innate immune responses in the central nervous system following lethal CVS-11 infection in mice. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2011;64:463-72 pubmed
    The central nervous system (CNS) tissue of mice infected with the CVS-11 strain of rabies virus (RABV) was subjected to gene expression analysis using microarray and canonical pathway analyses...
  90. Virojanapirom P, Khawplod P, Sawangvaree A, Wacharapluesadee S, Hemachudha T, Yamada K, et al. Molecular analysis of the mutational effects of Thai street rabies virus with increased virulence in mice after passages in the BHK cell line. Arch Virol. 2012;157:2201-5 pubmed publisher
    QS-BHK-P7, street rabies virus, after passages in the BHK cell line, had an in vitro phenotype that distinguished it from its parental virus...
  91. Evans J, Horton D, Easton A, Fooks A, Banyard A. Rabies virus vaccines: is there a need for a pan-lyssavirus vaccine?. Vaccine. 2012;30:7447-54 pubmed publisher
  92. Piccinotti S, Kirchhausen T, Whelan S. Uptake of rabies virus into epithelial cells by clathrin-mediated endocytosis depends upon actin. J Virol. 2013;87:11637-47 pubmed publisher
    b>Rabies virus (RABV) causes a fatal zoonotic encephalitis...