Summary: A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.

Top Publications

  1. Fu Z. Genetic comparison of the rhabdoviruses from animals and plants. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2005;292:1-24 pubmed
  2. Gomes Leal W, Martins L, Diniz J, Dos Santos Z, Borges J, Macedo C, et al. Neurotropism and neuropathological effects of selected rhabdoviruses on intranasally-infected newborn mice. Acta Trop. 2006;97:126-39 pubmed
    ..These results showed that viruses belonging to the Rhabdoviridae family possess distinct tropism for CNS structures and induce different pattern of cell death depending on the ..
  3. Corbeil S, LaPatra S, Anderson E, Kurath G. Nanogram quantities of a DNA vaccine protect rainbow trout fry against heterologous strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Vaccine. 2000;18:2817-24 pubmed
    ..A single dose of this DNA vaccine induced protection in fish at a lower dose than is usually reported in mammalian DNA vaccine studies. ..
  4. Fernandez Alonso M, Rocha A, Coll J. DNA vaccination by immersion and ultrasound to trout viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus. Vaccine. 2001;19:3067-75 pubmed
    ..Immersion DNA-vaccination using short pulses of ultrasound could eventually lead to a practical way to vaccinate small fish. ..
  5. Travassos da Rosa A, Mather T, Takeda T, Whitehouse C, Shope R, Popov V, et al. Two new rhabdoviruses (Rhabdoviridae) isolated from birds during surveillance for arboviral encephalitis, northeastern United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:614-8 pubmed
    ..Both viruses infect birds and mice, as well as monkey kidney cells in culture, but their importance for human health is unknown...
  6. Cybinski D, Walker P, Byrne K, Zakrzewski H. Mapping of antigenic sites on the bovine ephemeral fever virus glycoprotein using monoclonal antibodies. J Gen Virol. 1990;71 ( Pt 9):2065-72 pubmed
    ..Passive protection studies in mice showed that the correlation between neutralizing titre and resistance to challenge was 0.85 (P less than 0.001)...
  7. Dru P, Bras F, Dez l e S, Gay P, Petitjean A, Pierre Deneubourg A, et al. Unusual variability of the Drosophila melanogaster ref(2)P protein which controls the multiplication of sigma rhabdovirus. Genetics. 1993;133:943-54 pubmed
    ..The effects of this high variability on the ref(2)P protein are discussed in relation to its specific antiviral properties and to its function in D. melanogaster, where it is required for male fertility...
  8. Walker P, Dietzgen R, Joubert D, Blasdell K. Rhabdovirus accessory genes. Virus Res. 2011;162:110-25 pubmed publisher
    The Rhabdoviridae is one of the most ecologically diverse families of RNA viruses with members infecting a wide range of organisms including placental mammals, marsupials, birds, reptiles, fish, insects and plants...
  9. O Farrell C, Vaghefi N, Cantonnet M, Buteau B, Boudinot P, Benmansour A. Survey of transcript expression in rainbow trout leukocytes reveals a major contribution of interferon-responsive genes in the early response to a rhabdovirus infection. J Virol. 2002;76:8040-9 pubmed
    ..They were also expressed in vivo in experimentally infected fish, indicating their biological relevance in natural infection...

More Information


  1. Roche S, Albertini A, Lepault J, Bressanelli S, Gaudin Y. Structures of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein: membrane fusion revisited. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:1716-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides the similarities with other viral fusion machineries, the fusion properties and structures of G also reveal some striking particularities that invite us to reconsider a few dogmas concerning fusion proteins. ..
  2. Schutze H, Mundt E, Mettenleiter T. Complete genomic sequence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus, a fish rhabdovirus. Virus Genes. 1999;19:59-65 pubmed
    ..Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences exhibit significant homology to corresponding sequences in the related fish rhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. ..
  3. Rowley H, Graham D, Campbell S, Way K, Stone D, Curran W, et al. Isolation and characterisation of rhabdovirus from wild common bream Abramis brama, roach Rutilus rutilus, farmed brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in Northern Ireland. Dis Aquat Organ. 2001;48:7-15 pubmed
    ..In contrast, similarity between these isolates and PFRV was < 82.4%, indicating that these viruses belong to 2 distinct genogroups, while similarity to SVCV was even lower (< 67.4%). ..
  4. Wyers F, Petitjean A, Dru P, Gay P, Contamine D. Localization of domains within the Drosophila Ref(2)P protein involved in the intracellular control of sigma rhabdovirus multiplication. J Virol. 1995;69:4463-70 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that two distinct domains of the Ref(2)P protein are involved in the control of sigma virus multiplication. ..
  5. Phelps N, Armien A, Mor S, Goyal S, Warg J, Bhagyam R, et al. Spring viremia of carp virus in Minnehaha Creek, Minnesota. J Aquat Anim Health. 2012;24:232-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The virus was confirmed to be SVCV subtype Ia by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. This is the first report of SVCV within the state of Minnesota and the ninth documented case in North America. ..
  6. Diniz J, Nunes M, Travassos da Rosa A, Cruz A, De Souza W, Medeiros D, et al. Characterization of two new rhabdoviruses isolated from midges (Culicoides SPP) in the Brazilian Amazon: proposed members of a new genus, Bracorhabdovirus. Arch Virol. 2006;151:2519-27 pubmed
    ..virus particles are bullet-shaped and similar in morphology to that observed for other members of the family Rhabdoviridae. Partial nucleotide sequencing of the N protein showed that those two viruses constitute a separate clade in ..
  7. Kuzmin I, Hughes G, Rupprecht C. Phylogenetic relationships of seven previously unclassified viruses within the family Rhabdoviridae using partial nucleoprotein gene sequences. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:2323-31 pubmed
    ..MEBV), Kolongo (KOLV) and Sandjimba (SJAV) were generated and their phylogenetic positions within the family Rhabdoviridae were determined. Both OBOV and KOTV were placed within the genus Ephemerovirus...
  8. Mork C, Hershberger P, Kocan R, Batts W, Winton J. Isolation and characterization of a rhabdovirus from starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus) collected from the northern portion of Puget Sound, Washington, USA. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:495-505 pubmed
    ..of the viral polymerase gene indicated that SFRV was genetically distinct from other members of the family Rhabdoviridae for which sequence data are available...
  9. Boudinot P, Boubekeur S, Benmansour A. Rhabdovirus infection induces public and private T cell responses in teleost fish. J Immunol. 2001;167:6202-9 pubmed
    ..The public response to VHSV consisted of expansion of Vbeta4Jbeta1 T cell, which appeared early during the primary response and was strongly boosted during the secondary response. ..
  10. Assenberg R, Delmas O, Morin B, Graham S, De Lamballerie X, Laubert C, et al. Genomics and structure/function studies of Rhabdoviridae proteins involved in replication and transcription. Antiviral Res. 2010;87:149-61 pubmed publisher
    ..has characterized viruses that belong to the Vesiculovirus, Ephemerovirus and Lyssavirus genera of the Rhabdoviridae family to perform ground-breaking research on the identification of potential new drug targets against these ..
  11. Longdon B, Hadfield J, Webster C, Obbard D, Jiggins F. Host phylogeny determines viral persistence and replication in novel hosts. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002260 pubmed publisher
    ..We have examined the ability of three host-specific RNA-viruses (Drosophila sigma viruses from the family Rhabdoviridae) to persist and replicate in 51 different species of Drosophilidae...
  12. Longdon B, Obbard D, Jiggins F. Sigma viruses from three species of Drosophila form a major new clade in the rhabdovirus phylogeny. Proc Biol Sci. 2010;277:35-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our analysis produced the most robustly supported phylogeny of the Rhabdoviridae to date, allowing us to reconstruct the major transitions that have occurred during the evolution of the ..
  13. Kuzmin I, Novella I, Dietzgen R, Padhi A, Rupprecht C. The rhabdoviruses: biodiversity, phylogenetics, and evolution. Infect Genet Evol. 2009;9:541-53 pubmed publisher
    Rhabdoviruses (family Rhabdoviridae) include a diversity of important pathogens of animals and plants. They share morphology and genome organization...
  14. Palacios G, Forrester N, Savji N, Travassos da Rosa A, Guzman H, Detoy K, et al. Characterization of Farmington virus, a novel virus from birds that is distantly related to members of the family Rhabdoviridae. Virol J. 2013;10:219 pubmed publisher
    ..of FARV has confirmed that it is a novel rhabdovirus and probably represents a new species within the family Rhabdoviridae. In sum, our analysis indicates that FARV represents a new species within the family Rhabdoviridae.
  15. Bourhy H, Cowley J, Larrous F, Holmes E, Walker P. Phylogenetic relationships among rhabdoviruses inferred using the L polymerase gene. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:2849-58 pubmed
    RNA viruses of the family Rhabdoviridae include arthropod-borne agents that infect plants, fish and mammals, and also include a variety of non-vector-borne mammalian viruses...
  16. Bangham J, Kim K, Webster C, Jiggins F. Genetic variation affecting host-parasite interactions: different genes affect different aspects of sigma virus replication and transmission in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 2008;178:2191-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that different loci affect viral replication and paternal transmission...
  17. Zhu R, Lei X, Ke F, Yuan X, Zhang Q. Genome of turbot rhabdovirus exhibits unusual non-coding regions and an additional ORF that could be expressed in fish cell. Virus Res. 2011;155:495-505 pubmed publisher
  18. Iwasaki T, Inoue S, Tanaka K, Sato Y, Morikawa S, Hayasaka D, et al. Characterization of Oita virus 296/1972 of Rhabdoviridae isolated from a horseshoe bat bearing characteristics of both lyssavirus and vesiculovirus. Arch Virol. 2004;149:1139-54 pubmed
    ..These morphological characteristics of the virions are consistent of that of viruses in the family Rhabdoviridae. Budding from endoplasmic membrane suggests that this virus has a similarity with lyssaviruses...
  19. Carpenter J, Hutter S, Baines J, Roller J, Saminadin Peter S, Parsch J, et al. The transcriptional response of Drosophila melanogaster to infection with the sigma virus (Rhabdoviridae). PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6838 pubmed publisher
    ..in Drosophila that occur in response to infection with the sigma virus, a negative-stranded RNA virus (Rhabdoviridae) that occurs in wild populations of D. melanogaster...
  20. LaPatra S, Corbeil S, Jones G, Shewmaker W, Lorenzen N, Anderson E, et al. Protection of rainbow trout against infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus four days after specific or semi-specific DNA vaccination. Vaccine. 2001;19:4011-9 pubmed
    ..This indication of distinct early and late protective mechanisms was not dependent on DNA vaccine doses from 0.1 to 2.5 microg. ..
  21. Contamine D, Petitjean A, Ashburner M. Genetic resistance to viral infection: the molecular cloning of a Drosophila gene that restricts infection by the rhabdovirus sigma. Genetics. 1989;123:525-33 pubmed
    ..The dominance relationships of these two alleles, and the fact that ref(2)Pnull alleles are permissive to sigma infection, suggest that the ref(2)Po product is antimorphic to that of the ref(2)Pp allele. ..
  22. Gubala A, Davis S, Weir R, Melville L, Cowled C, Boyle D. Tibrogargan and Coastal Plains rhabdoviruses: genomic characterization, evolution of novel genes and seroprevalence in Australian livestock. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:2160-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Complete genomic sequencing revealed that the viruses share a novel genome structure within the family Rhabdoviridae, each virus containing two additional putative genes between the matrix protein (M) and glycoprotein (G) genes ..
  23. Tsai C, McGraw E, Ammar E, Dietzgen R, Hogenhout S. Drosophila melanogaster mounts a unique immune response to the Rhabdovirus sigma virus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:3251-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Sigma virus (SIGMAV) is a member of the Rhabdoviridae and is a naturally occurring disease agent of Drosophila melanogaster...
  24. Bj rklund H, Higman K, Kurath G. The glycoprotein genes and gene junctions of the fish rhabdoviruses spring viremia of carp virus and hirame rhabdovirus: analysis of relationships with other rhabdoviruses. Virus Res. 1996;42:65-80 pubmed
    ..In phylogenetic analyses SVCV was grouped consistently with VSIV, VSNJV and CHPV in the Vesiculovirus genus of Rhabdoviridae. The fish rhabdoviruses HIRRV, IHNV and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) showed close relationships ..
  25. Magwire M, Bayer F, Webster C, Cao C, Jiggins F. Successive increases in the resistance of Drosophila to viral infection through a transposon insertion followed by a Duplication. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002337 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a host-specific pathogen of D. melanogaster called the sigma virus (Rhabdoviridae), we mapped a major-effect polymorphism to a region containing two paralogous genes called CHKov1 and CHKov2...
  26. Troyer R, LaPatra S, Kurath G. Genetic analyses reveal unusually high diversity of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in rainbow trout aquaculture. J Gen Virol. 2000;81:2823-32 pubmed
    ..Three of the four lineages exhibited temporal trends consistent with rapid evolution. ..
  27. Hogenhout S, Redinbaugh M, Ammar E. Plant and animal rhabdovirus host range: a bug's view. Trends Microbiol. 2003;11:264-71 pubmed
  28. Coulon P, Contamine D. Role of the Drosophila genome in Sigma virus multiplication. II. Host spectrum variants among the haP mutants. Virology. 1982;123:381-92 pubmed
  29. Quan P, Junglen S, Tashmukhamedova A, Conlan S, Hutchison S, Kurth A, et al. Moussa virus: a new member of the Rhabdoviridae family isolated from Culex decens mosquitoes in Côte d'Ivoire. Virus Res. 2010;147:17-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis indicates a potential new species with distant relationship to Tupaia and Tibrogargan virus...
  30. Redinbaugh M, Hogenhout S. Plant rhabdoviruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2005;292:143-63 pubmed
    ..Plant and insect factors that limit virus infection and transmission are discussed. ..
  31. Lorenzen N, Lorenzen E, Einer Jensen K, LaPatra S. DNA vaccines as a tool for analysing the protective immune response against rhabdoviruses in rainbow trout. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2002;12:439-53 pubmed
    ..The nature of these immune response mechanisms is discussed and it is suggested that the efficacy of the vaccines is related to their ability to activate the innate immune system as it is activated by live virus. ..
  32. Whitfield A, Rotenberg D, Aritua V, Hogenhout S. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Maize mosaic rhabdovirus-infected gut tissues of Peregrinus maidis reveals the presence of key components of insect innate immunity. Insect Mol Biol. 2011;20:225-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This EST analysis sheds new light on immune response pathways in hemipteran guts that will be useful for further dissecting innate defence response pathways to rhabdovirus infection...
  33. Stone D, Ahne W, Denham K, Dixon P, Liu C, Sheppard A, et al. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the glycoprotein gene of putative spring viraemia of carp virus and pike fry rhabdovirus isolates reveals four genogroups. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;53:203-10 pubmed
    ..All of the putative SVC viruses were assigned to a 4th group (Genogroup I), sharing <61% nucleotide identity with viruses in Genogroups II to IV. ..
  34. Hoffmann B, Schütze H, Mettenleiter T. Determination of the complete genomic sequence and analysis of the gene products of the virus of Spring Viremia of Carp, a fish rhabdovirus. Virus Res. 2002;84:89-100 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, monospecific antisera against the distinct viral proteins were generated. Comparison of genome and protein confirm the assignment of SVCV to the genus Vesiculovirus. ..
  35. Somamoto T, Nakanishi T, Okamoto N. Role of specific cell-mediated cytotoxicity in protecting fish from viral infections. Virology. 2002;297:120-7 pubmed
    ..Recipients that received leukocytes from immune syngeneic donors escaped CHNV infection. These findings suggest that virus-specific cytotoxic cells have a role in controlling viral infections in a fish. ..
  36. Dacheux L, Berthet N, Dissard G, Holmes E, Delmas O, Larrous F, et al. Application of broad-spectrum resequencing microarray for genotyping rhabdoviruses. J Virol. 2010;84:9557-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We focused on one of the largest and most diverse viral families described to date, the family Rhabdoviridae. We demonstrate that this approach has the potential to identify both known and related viruses for which ..
  37. Gerard F, Ribeiro E, Albertini A, Gutsche I, Zaccai G, Ruigrok R, et al. Unphosphorylated rhabdoviridae phosphoproteins form elongated dimers in solution. Biochemistry. 2007;46:10328-38 pubmed
    ..However, incubation at 30 degrees C for several hours induced self-assembly of both wild type and mutant proteins, leading to the formation of irregular filamentous structures. ..
  38. Traxler G, Anderson E, LaPatra S, Richard J, Shewmaker B, Kurath G. Naked DNA vaccination of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar against IHNV. Dis Aquat Organ. 1999;38:183-90 pubmed
    ..In this study, DNA vaccination effectively protected Atlantic salmon smolts against challenges with IHNV. ..
  39. Allison A, Palacios G, Travassos da Rosa A, Popov V, Lu L, Xiao S, et al. Characterization of Durham virus, a novel rhabdovirus that encodes both a C and SH protein. Virus Res. 2011;155:112-22 pubmed publisher
    The family Rhabdoviridae is a diverse group of non-segmented, negative-sense RNA viruses that are distributed worldwide and infect a wide range of hosts including vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants...
  40. Ammar E, Hogenhout S. A neurotropic route for Maize mosaic virus (Rhabdoviridae) in its planthopper vector Peregrinus maidis. Virus Res. 2008;131:77-85 pubmed
    To investigate the dissemination route of Maize mosaic virus (MMV, Rhabdoviridae) in its planthopper vector Peregrinus maidis (Delphacidae, Hemiptera), temporal and spatial distribution of MMV was studied by immunofluorescence confocal ..
  41. Rocha A, Ruiz S, Tafalla C, Coll J. Conformation- and fusion-defective mutations in the hypothetical phospholipid-binding and fusion peptides of viral hemorrhagic septicemia salmonid rhabdovirus protein G. J Virol. 2004;78:9115-22 pubmed
    ..In addition, because the studied region induced strong immunological responses in trout, some of the mutants described here might be used to design attenuated VHSV vaccines...
  42. Gubala A, Proll D, Barnard R, Cowled C, Crameri S, Hyatt A, et al. Genomic characterisation of Wongabel virus reveals novel genes within the Rhabdoviridae. Virology. 2008;376:13-23 pubmed publisher
    Viruses belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae infect a variety of different hosts, including insects, vertebrates and plants. Currently, there are approximately 200 ICTV-recognised rhabdoviruses isolated around the world...
  43. Koutna M, Vesely T, Psikal I, Hůlová J. Identification of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) by combined RT-PCR and nested PCR. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;55:229-35 pubmed
    ..1% nucleotide similarity) was found between the Hungarian and the other isolates. Knowledge of genetic differences among SVCV isolates will be useful in the development of diagnostic methods and elaboration of vaccination programmes. ..
  44. Hoffmann B, Beer M, Schutze H, Mettenleiter T. Fish rhabdoviruses: molecular epidemiology and evolution. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2005;292:81-117 pubmed
    Rhabdoviruses may cause serious diseases in wild and farmed fish. Within the Rhabdoviridae six genera have been established: Ephemerovirus, Cytorhabdovirus, Nucleorhabdovirus, Lyssavirus, Vesiculovirus, and Novirhabdovirus...
  45. Dezelee S, Bras F, Contamine D, Lopez Ferber M, Segretain D, Teninges D. Molecular analysis of ref(2)P, a Drosophila gene implicated in sigma rhabdovirus multiplication and necessary for male fertility. EMBO J. 1989;8:3437-46 pubmed
    ..The amino acid sequence of the ref(2)P product shows no homology with any known protein from the data banks. ..
  46. Walker P, Kongsuwan K. Deduced structural model for animal rhabdovirus glycoproteins. J Gen Virol. 1999;80 ( Pt 5):1211-20 pubmed
    ..The structures predicted by the model account for the preservation of conformational antigenic sites, accommodate genus-specific variations, and are generally consistent with previous observations of G protein structure. ..
  47. Lorenzen N, Lorenzen E, Einer Jensen K, Heppell J, Davis H. Genetic vaccination of rainbow trout against viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus: small amounts of plasmid DNA protect against a heterologous serotype. Virus Res. 1999;63:19-25 pubmed
    ..No protection was observed following vaccination with a plasmid construct carrying the VHS virus nucleocapsid-protein gene. ..
  48. Sommerset I, Lorenzen E, Lorenzen N, Bleie H, Nerland A. A DNA vaccine directed against a rainbow trout rhabdovirus induces early protection against a nodavirus challenge in turbot. Vaccine. 2003;21:4661-7 pubmed
  49. Springfeld C, Darai G, Cattaneo R. Characterization of the Tupaia rhabdovirus genome reveals a long open reading frame overlapping with P and a novel gene encoding a small hydrophobic protein. J Virol. 2005;79:6781-90 pubmed publisher
  50. Ammar E, Tsai C, Whitfield A, Redinbaugh M, Hogenhout S. Cellular and molecular aspects of rhabdovirus interactions with insect and plant hosts. Annu Rev Entomol. 2009;54:447-68 pubmed publisher
    The rhabdoviruses form a large family (Rhabdoviridae) whose host ranges include humans, other vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants...
  51. Albertini A, Schoehn G, Weissenhorn W, Ruigrok R. Structural aspects of rabies virus replication. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:282-94 pubmed
  52. Bangham J, Knott S, Kim K, Young R, Jiggins F. Genetic variation affecting host-parasite interactions: major-effect quantitative trait loci affect the transmission of sigma virus in Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Ecol. 2008;17:3800-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data, together with previous experiments on the sigma virus and parasitoid wasps, indicate that the resistance of D. melanogaster to co-evolved pathogens is controlled by a limited number of major-effect polymorphisms. ..
  53. Leyrat C, Gerard F, de Almeida Ribeiro E, Ivanov I, Ruigrok R, Jamin M. Structural disorder in proteins of the rhabdoviridae replication complex. Protein Pept Lett. 2010;17:979-87 pubmed
    b>Rhabdoviridae are single stranded negative sense RNA viruses...
  54. Wilfert L, Jiggins F. Host-parasite coevolution: genetic variation in a virus population and the interaction with a host gene. J Evol Biol. 2010;23:1447-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the high levels of genetic variation observed in this system do not appear to be maintained because of coevolution resulting from interactions between this host gene and parasite genes. ..
  55. Warg J, Dikkeboom A, Goodwin A, Snekvik K, Whitney J. Comparison of multiple genes of spring viremia of carp viruses isolated in the United States. Virus Genes. 2007;35:87-95 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis of the 2705 nucleotide consensus sequence revealed that all five US isolates belong to SVCV genogroup Ia, Asian origin isolates, and a PCR primer binding site unique to SVCV genogroup Ia was identified. ..
  56. Carpenter J, Obbard D, Maside X, Jiggins F. The recent spread of a vertically transmitted virus through populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Mol Ecol. 2007;16:3947-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This is surprising for a vertically transmitted pathogen that has a similar migration rate to its host. We suggest that the low structure in the viral populations can be explained by the smaller effective population size of the virus...
  57. Miller O, Fuller F, Gebreyes W, Lewbart G, Shchelkunov I, Shivappa R, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of spring virema of carp virus reveals distinct subgroups with common origins for recent isolates in North America and the UK. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;76:193-204 pubmed
    ..In one case, there was 100% nucleotide identity in the G-gene with a virus isolated in China. ..
  58. Longdon B, Wilfert L, Osei Poku J, Cagney H, Obbard D, Jiggins F. Host-switching by a vertically transmitted rhabdovirus in Drosophila. Biol Lett. 2011;7:747-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that sigma virus infections may be short-lived in a given host lineage, so that their long-term persistence relies on rare horizontal transmission events between hosts. ..
  59. Alonso M, Kim C, Johnson M, Pressley M, Leong J. The NV gene of snakehead rhabdovirus (SHRV) is not required for pathogenesis, and a heterologous glycoprotein can be incorporated into the SHRV envelope. J Virol. 2004;78:5875-82 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrated that the SHRV glycoprotein can be replaced by the glycoprotein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) or by a hybrid protein composed of SHRV and IHNV sequences. ..
  60. Yue Z, Teng Y, Liang C, Xie X, Xu B, Zhu L, et al. Development of a sensitive and quantitative assay for spring viremia of carp virus based on real-time RT-PCR. J Virol Methods. 2008;152:43-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of the development of a one-step TaqMan RT-PCR for SVCV detection. ..
  61. Rieder M, Conzelmann K. Rhabdovirus evasion of the interferon system. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2009;29:499-509 pubmed publisher
    The family Rhabdoviridae contains important pathogens of humans, livestock, and crops, including the insect-transmitted vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and the neurotropic rabies virus (RV), which is directly transmitted between mammals...
  62. Trobridge G, Chiou P, Leong J. Cloning of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Mx2 and Mx3 cDNAs and characterization of trout Mx protein expression in salmon cells. J Virol. 1997;71:5304-11 pubmed
    ..No significant inhibition in the accumulation of the IHNV nucleoprotein was observed in cells expressing either trout Mx1, Mx2, or Mx3 in transiently transfected cells...
  63. Vasilakis N, WIDEN S, Mayer S, Seymour R, Wood T, Popov V, et al. Niakha virus: a novel member of the family Rhabdoviridae isolated from phlebotomine sandflies in Senegal. Virology. 2013;444:80-9 pubmed publisher
    Members of the family Rhabdoviridae have been assigned to eight genera but many remain unassigned. Rhabdoviruses have a remarkably diverse host range that includes terrestrial and marine animals, invertebrates and plants...