human respiratory syncytial virus

Summary

Summary: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.

Top Publications

  1. Bosis S, Esposito S, Niesters H, Zuccotti G, Marseglia G, Lanari M, et al. Role of respiratory pathogens in infants hospitalized for a first episode of wheezing and their impact on recurrences. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008;14:677-84 pubmed publisher
    ..A high viral load seems to be strictly related to the likelihood of recurrence...
  2. Infantes S, Lorente E, Barnea E, Beer I, Cragnolini J, Garcia R, et al. Multiple, non-conserved, internal viral ligands naturally presented by HLA-B27 in human respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2010;9:1533-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The CTL response is critical for the clearance of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) infection...
  3. Lupfer C, Pastey M. Decreased replication of human respiratory syncytial virus treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132. Virus Res. 2010;149:36-41 pubmed publisher
    ..here that treatment of Vero cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 results in the reduction of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) titers by as much as 2.2log(10)...
  4. Moudy R, Sullender W, Wertz G. Variations in intergenic region sequences of Human respiratory syncytial virus clinical isolates: analysis of effects on transcriptional regulation. Virology. 2004;327:121-33 pubmed
    Sequences at the beginnings and ends of Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) genes are necessary for efficient initiation and termination of transcription...
  5. Cowton V, McGivern D, Fearns R. Unravelling the complexities of respiratory syncytial virus RNA synthesis. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1805-21 pubmed
    b>Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of paediatric respiratory disease and is the focus of antiviral- and vaccine-development programmes...
  6. Le Nouen C, Munir S, Losq S, Winter C, McCarty T, Stephany D, et al. Infection and maturation of monocyte-derived human dendritic cells by human respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, and human parainfluenza virus type 3. Virology. 2009;385:169-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) are common, important respiratory pathogens, but HRSV has a substantially greater impact with regard to acute disease, ..
  7. McGivern D, Collins P, Fearns R. Identification of internal sequences in the 3' leader region of human respiratory syncytial virus that enhance transcription and confer replication processivity. J Virol. 2005;79:2449-60 pubmed
  8. Goddard N, Cooke M, Gupta R, Nguyen Van Tam J. Timing of monoclonal antibody for seasonal RSV prophylaxis in the United Kingdom. Epidemiol Infect. 2007;135:159-62 pubmed
    ..Promptly commencing prophylaxis during the second week of each October (week 42) would precede the onset of the RSV season in the United Kingdom, and provide coverage until its decline in mid-March. ..
  9. Ling Z, Tran K, Teng M. Human respiratory syncytial virus nonstructural protein NS2 antagonizes the activation of beta interferon transcription by interacting with RIG-I. J Virol. 2009;83:3734-42 pubmed publisher
    ..For human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the nonstructural NS1 and NS2 proteins have been shown to block IFN signaling by causing the ..

More Information

Publications92

  1. Magro M, Andreu D, Gomez Puertas P, Melero J, Palomo C. Neutralization of human respiratory syncytial virus infectivity by antibodies and low-molecular-weight compounds targeted against the fusion glycoprotein. J Virol. 2010;84:7970-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) fusion (F) protein is an essential component of the virus envelope that mediates fusion of the viral and cell membranes, and, therefore, it is an attractive target for drug and vaccine development...
  2. Ruiz Argüello M, Martin D, Wharton S, Calder L, Martin S, Cano O, et al. Thermostability of the human respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein before and after activation: implications for the membrane-fusion mechanism. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:3677-87 pubmed
    Anchorless fusion (F) proteins () of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are seen by electron microscopy as unaggregated cones when the proteolytic cleavage at two furin sites required for membrane-fusion activity is incomplete, but ..
  3. DeVincenzo J. Factors predicting childhood respiratory syncytial virus severity: what they indicate about pathogenesis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2005;24:S177-83, discussion S182 pubmed
    ..Pending new data involving these and other processes will more fully illuminate the spectrum of childhood RSV disease. ..
  4. Falsey A. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in adults. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2007;28:171-81 pubmed
    ..Infection control measures are critical to limit spread of RSV. Currently, RSV vaccines are not available, but candidate vaccines are being developed. ..
  5. Smit J, Rudd B, Lukacs N. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells inhibit pulmonary immunopathology and promote clearance of respiratory syncytial virus. J Exp Med. 2006;203:1153-9 pubmed
    ..It is demonstrated that plasmacytoid dendritic cells play a protective role during RSV infection by modulation of local immune responses. ..
  6. Mohapatra S, Park S, Boyapalle S, Pastey M, Graham B, Blanck G. Human respiratory syncytial virus reduces the number of cells in S-phase and increases GADD153 expression in HEp-2 cells. Acta Virol. 2009;53:207-11 pubmed
    b>Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) associated with bronchiolitis and asthma is known to replicate actively in ciliated epithelial cells. However, little is known about the influence of HRSV replication on the cell cycle...
  7. Carromeu C, Simabuco F, Tamura R, Farinha Arcieri L, Ventura A. Intracellular localization of human respiratory syncytial virus L protein. Arch Virol. 2007;152:2259-63 pubmed publisher
    Replication and transcription of the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) genome is carried out by the ribonucleocapsid complex (RNA together with N, P, M2-1 and L proteins), with the L protein being responsible for all enzymatic ..
  8. Johnson J, Gonzales R, Olson S, Wright P, Graham B. The histopathology of fatal untreated human respiratory syncytial virus infection. Mod Pathol. 2007;20:108-19 pubmed
    ..These findings inform our understanding of RSV pathogenesis and may facilitate the development of new approaches for prevention and treatment. ..
  9. Wu S, Schmidt A, Beil E, Day N, Branigan P, Liu C, et al. Characterization of the epitope for anti-human respiratory syncytial virus F protein monoclonal antibody 101F using synthetic peptides and genetic approaches. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:2719-23 pubmed
    Chimeric 101F (ch101F) is a mouse-human chimeric anti-human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) neutralizing antibody that recognizes residues within antigenic site IV, V, VI of the fusion (F) glycoprotein...
  10. Mart n D, Calder L, Garc a Barreno B, Skehel J, Melero J. Sequence elements of the fusion peptide of human respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein required for activity. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:1649-58 pubmed publisher
    We have reported previously the expression and purification of an anchorless form of the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) F protein (F(TM-)) representing the ectodomain of the full-length F...
  11. Lee S, Miller S, Wright D, Rock M, Crowe J. Tissue-specific regulation of CD8+ T-lymphocyte immunodominance in respiratory syncytial virus infection. J Virol. 2007;81:2349-58 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies will facilitate investigation of the regulation of immunodominance of RSV-specific CTL epitopes...
  12. Sidwell R, Barnard D. Respiratory syncytial virus infections: recent prospects for control. Antiviral Res. 2006;71:379-90 pubmed
    ..In this review, updates on the status of the approved anti-RSV antibodies, ribavirin, and recent results of studies with potential new anti-RSV compounds are summarized and discussed. ..
  13. Fodha I, Vabret A, Ghedira L, Seboui H, Chouchane S, Dewar J, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus infections in hospitalized infants: association between viral load, virus subgroup, and disease severity. J Med Virol. 2007;79:1951-8 pubmed
    ..Analysis also showed that disease severity was not associated significantly with RSV subgroup. Thus, RSV disease severity is likely to be determined by an interplay between host and virus factors, including RSV load. ..
  14. Wang H, Peters N, Schwarze J. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells limit viral replication, pulmonary inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness in respiratory syncytial virus infection. J Immunol. 2006;177:6263-70 pubmed
    ..In addition to this innate response, pDC also may play an immune regulatory role in reducing pulmonary inflammation and inhibiting the development of airway hyperresponsiveness. ..
  15. Semple M, Cowell A, Dove W, Greensill J, McNamara P, Halfhide C, et al. Dual infection of infants by human metapneumovirus and human respiratory syncytial virus is strongly associated with severe bronchiolitis. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:382-6 pubmed
    The association between severe bronchiolitis and dual infection by human metapneumovirus (hMPV) and human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) was investigated in <2-year-old infants with bronchiolitis who were admitted to the hospital ..
  16. Bosis S, Esposito S, Niesters H, Crovari P, Osterhaus A, Principi N. Impact of human metapneumovirus in childhood: comparison with respiratory syncytial virus and influenza viruses. J Med Virol. 2005;75:101-4 pubmed
    ..Results show that hMPV is an emerging cause of acute respiratory infection in childhood, and may have a significant clinical and socioeconomic impact on children and their families. ..
  17. Reiche J, Schweiger B. Genetic variability of group A human respiratory syncytial virus strains circulating in Germany from 1998 to 2007. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:1800-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides for the first time data on the circulation pattern of RSV group A genotypes and their molecular characterization in Germany during nine consecutive epidemic seasons. ..
  18. Widjojoatmodjo M, Boes J, van Bers M, van Remmerden Y, Roholl P, Luytjes W. A highly attenuated recombinant human respiratory syncytial virus lacking the G protein induces long-lasting protection in cotton rats. Virol J. 2010;7:114 pubmed publisher
    ..Since DeltaG is not likely to revert to a less attenuated phenotype, we plan to evaluate this deletion mutant further and to investigate its potential as a vaccine candidate against RSV infection. ..
  19. da Silva L, Spilki F, Riccetto A, de Almeida R, Baracat E, Arns C. Genetic variability in the G protein gene of human respiratory syncytial virus isolated from the Campinas metropolitan region, Brazil. J Med Virol. 2008;80:1653-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is recognized as the most important viral agent of serious respiratory tract diseases in the pediatric population worldwide...
  20. Bonroy C, Vankeerberghen A, Boel A, De Beenhouwer H. Use of a multiplex real-time PCR to study the incidence of human metapneumovirus and human respiratory syncytial virus infections during two winter seasons in a Belgian paediatric hospital. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007;13:504-9 pubmed
    ..study aimed to develop and evaluate a rapid molecular diagnostic test (duplex real-time PCR) for human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and to determine the frequency of these two viruses as ..
  21. Asenjo A, González Armas J, Villanueva N. Phosphorylation of human respiratory syncytial virus P protein at serine 54 regulates viral uncoating. Virology. 2008;380:26-33 pubmed publisher
    The human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) structural P protein, phosphorylated at serine (S) and threonine (T) residues, is a co-factor of viral RNA polymerase...
  22. Zlateva K, Vijgen L, Dekeersmaeker N, Naranjo C, Van Ranst M. Subgroup prevalence and genotype circulation patterns of human respiratory syncytial virus in Belgium during ten successive epidemic seasons. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:3022-30 pubmed
    b>Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the leading viral cause of severe respiratory illness for infants and young children worldwide...
  23. DeVincenzo J, Hall C, Kimberlin D, Sanchez P, Rodriguez W, Jantausch B, et al. Surveillance of clinical isolates of respiratory syncytial virus for palivizumab (Synagis)-resistant mutants. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:975-8 pubmed
    ..Palivizumab bound to all 371 RSV isolates able to be evaluated, including 25 from active-palivizumab recipients. The palivizumab epitope appears to be highly conserved, even in infants receiving prophylaxis with palivizumab. ..
  24. Maher C, Hussell T, Blair E, Ring C, Openshaw P. Recombinant respiratory syncytial virus lacking secreted glycoprotein G is attenuated, non-pathogenic but induces protective immunity. Microbes Infect. 2004;6:1049-55 pubmed
    ..Engineered RSV mutants lacking the ability to secrete G are thus promising vaccine candidates. ..
  25. Ling Z, Tran K, Arnold J, Teng M. Purification and characterization of recombinant human respiratory syncytial virus nonstructural protein NS1. Protein Expr Purif. 2008;57:261-70 pubmed
    ..The availability of purified RSV NS1 will permit biochemical and structural investigations providing insight into the function of NS1 in viral replication and interferon antagonism. ..
  26. Crim R, Audet S, Feldman S, Mostowski H, Beeler J. Identification of linear heparin-binding peptides derived from human respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein that inhibit infectivity. J Virol. 2007;81:261-71 pubmed
    It has been shown previously that the fusion glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV-F) interacts with cellular heparan sulfate...
  27. Llorente M, Taylor I, López Viñas E, Gomez Puertas P, Calder L, García Barreno B, et al. Structural properties of the human respiratory syncytial virus P protein: evidence for an elongated homotetrameric molecule that is the smallest orthologue within the family of paramyxovirus polymerase cofactors. Proteins. 2008;72:946-58 pubmed publisher
    The oligomeric state and the hydrodynamic properties of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) phosphoprotein (P), a known cofactor of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L), and a trypsin-resistant fragment (X) that includes its ..
  28. Murata Y. Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine development. Clin Lab Med. 2009;29:725-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The scientific rationale, preclinical testing, and clinical development of each of these approaches are reviewed. ..
  29. Kotelkin A, Belyakov I, Yang L, Berzofsky J, Collins P, Bukreyev A. The NS2 protein of human respiratory syncytial virus suppresses the cytotoxic T-cell response as a consequence of suppressing the type I interferon response. J Virol. 2006;80:5958-67 pubmed publisher
    The NS1 and NS2 proteins of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) have been shown to antagonize the type I interferon (IFN) response, an effect subject to host range constraints...
  30. Olivier A, Gallup J, de Macedo M, Varga S, Ackermann M. Human respiratory syncytial virus A2 strain replicates and induces innate immune responses by respiratory epithelia of neonatal lambs. Int J Exp Pathol. 2009;90:431-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a pneumovirus that causes significant respiratory disease in premature and full-term infants...
  31. Shobugawa Y, Saito R, Sano Y, Zaraket H, Suzuki Y, Kumaki A, et al. Emerging genotypes of human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup A among patients in Japan. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:2475-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a common etiological agent of acute lower respiratory tract disease in infants...
  32. Asenjo A, Calvo E, Villanueva N. Phosphorylation of human respiratory syncytial virus P protein at threonine 108 controls its interaction with the M2-1 protein in the viral RNA polymerase complex. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:3637-42 pubmed
    The human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) P protein is phosphorylated, with different turnover rates, at several serine (S) and threonine (T) residues...
  33. Hashimoto K, Durbin J, Zhou W, Collins R, Ho S, Kolls J, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus infection in the absence of STAT 1 results in airway dysfunction, airway mucus, and augmented IL-17 levels. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;116:550-7 pubmed
    ..Expression of the IL-23-specific p19 subunit was also increased in the STAT 1 KO-RSV mice but not in the WT-RSV mice. These results show that STAT 1 has an important regulatory role in RSV-induced alteration of airway function. ..
  34. Gan S, Ng L, Lin X, Gong X, Torres J. Structure and ion channel activity of the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) small hydrophobic protein transmembrane domain. Protein Sci. 2008;17:813-20 pubmed publisher
    The small hydrophobic (SH) protein from the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a glycoprotein of approximately 64 amino acids with one putative alpha-helical transmembrane domain...
  35. Galiano M, Luchsinger V, Videla C, De Souza L, Puch S, Palomo C, et al. Intragroup antigenic diversity of human respiratory syncytial virus (group A) isolated in Argentina and Chile. J Med Virol. 2005;77:311-6 pubmed
    The intragroup antigenic diversity of the G glycoprotein of 226 human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) strains isolated in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Santiago (Chile) between 1995 and 2002 was evaluated by ELISA with a panel of 14 ..
  36. McGill A, Greensill J, Marsh R, Craft A, Toms G. Detection of human respiratory syncytial virus genotype specific antibody responses in infants. J Med Virol. 2004;74:492-8 pubmed
    Infection and reinfection of infants with human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) occur despite the presence of serum anti-viral glycoprotein antibodies similar to those, which afford protection in animal models of infection...
  37. Galiano M, Palomo C, Videla C, Arbiza J, Melero J, Carballal G. Genetic and antigenic variability of human respiratory syncytial virus (groups a and b) isolated over seven consecutive seasons in Argentina (1995 to 2001). J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:2266-73 pubmed
    The genetic and antigenic variability of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) strains isolated in Buenos Aires from 1995 to 2001 was evaluated by partial nucleotide sequencing of the G gene and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ..
  38. Ni L, Zhao L, Qian Y, Zhu J, Jin Z, Chen Y, et al. Design and characterization of human respiratory syncytial virus entry inhibitors. Antivir Ther. 2005;10:833-40 pubmed
    b>Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a pathogen of worldwide health concern...
  39. Wright P, Karron R, Belshe R, Shi J, Randolph V, Collins P, et al. The absence of enhanced disease with wild type respiratory syncytial virus infection occurring after receipt of live, attenuated, respiratory syncytial virus vaccines. Vaccine. 2007;25:7372-8 pubmed
    ..The impact of RSV during this surveillance will inform the design of future efficacy studies with RSV vaccines. ..
  40. Lo M, Brazas R, Holtzman M. Respiratory syncytial virus nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS2 mediate inhibition of Stat2 expression and alpha/beta interferon responsiveness. J Virol. 2005;79:9315-9 pubmed
    ..RSV infection decreased human but not mouse Stat2 levels, so this mechanism of IFN antagonism may contribute to viral host range, as well as immune subversion. ..
  41. Herd K, Nelson M, Mahalingam S, Tindle R. Pulmonary infection of mice with human metapneumovirus induces local cytotoxic T-cell and immunoregulatory cytokine responses similar to those seen with human respiratory syncytial virus. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:1302-10 pubmed publisher
    ..infection is poorly understood, in contrast to the phylogenetically and clinically related pathogen human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV)...
  42. König B, König W, Arnold R, Werchau H, Ihorst G, Forster J. Prospective study of human metapneumovirus infection in children less than 3 years of age. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:4632-5 pubmed
    ..Our data support the hypothesis that coinfections with RSV and hMPV are more severe than infections with either RSV or hMPV alone, at least in children younger than 3 years of age. ..
  43. Nokes D, Okiro E, Ngama M, White L, Ochola R, Scott P, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus epidemiology in a birth cohort from Kilifi district, Kenya: infection during the first year of life. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:1828-32 pubmed
    ..RSV contributed significantly to total LRTI disease in this vaccine-target group...
  44. Carter S, Dent K, Atkins E, Foster T, Verow M, Gorny P, et al. Direct visualization of the small hydrophobic protein of human respiratory syncytial virus reveals the structural basis for membrane permeability. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:2786-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract disease in infants. The HRSV small hydrophobic (SH) protein plays an important role in HRSV pathogenesis, although its mode of action is unclear...
  45. Boivin G, Caouette G, Frenette L, Carbonneau J, Ouakki M, De Serres G. Human respiratory syncytial virus and other viral infections in infants receiving palivizumab. J Clin Virol. 2008;42:52-7 pubmed publisher
    Palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that prevents severe human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) infections...
  46. Day N, Branigan P, Liu C, Gutshall L, Luo J, Melero J, et al. Contribution of cysteine residues in the extracellular domain of the F protein of human respiratory syncytial virus to its function. Virol J. 2006;3:34 pubmed
    The mature F protein of all known isolates of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) contains fifteen absolutely conserved cysteine (C) residues that are highly conserved among the F proteins of other pneumoviruses as well as the ..
  47. Garc a Barreno B, Steel J, Pay M, Mart nez Sobrido L, Delgado T, Yeo R, et al. Epitope mapping of human respiratory syncytial virus 22K transcription antitermination factor: role of N-terminal sequences in protein folding. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:1103-7 pubmed publisher
    The reactivity of a panel of 12 monoclonal antibodies raised against the human respiratory syncytial virus 22 kDa (22K) protein was tested by Western blotting with a set of 22K deletion mutants...
  48. Arbiza J, Delfraro A, Frabasile S. Molecular epidemiology of human respiratory syncytial virus in Uruguay: 1985-2001--a review. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2005;100:221-30 pubmed
  49. Collins P, Murphy B. New generation live vaccines against human respiratory syncytial virus designed by reverse genetics. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2005;2:166-73 pubmed
    Development of a live pediatric vaccine against human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is complicated by the need to immunize young infants and the difficulty in balancing attenuation and immunogenicity...
  50. Branigan P, Liu C, Day N, Gutshall L, Sarisky R, Del Vecchio A. Use of a novel cell-based fusion reporter assay to explore the host range of human respiratory syncytial virus F protein. Virol J. 2005;2:54 pubmed
    b>Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is an important respiratory pathogen primarily affecting infants, young children, transplant recipients and the elderly...
  51. Asenjo A, Rodr guez L, Villanueva N. Determination of phosphorylated residues from human respiratory syncytial virus P protein that are dynamically dephosphorylated by cellular phosphatases: a possible role for serine 54. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:1109-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonetheless, dephosphorylation at S54 could facilitate P-M protein interactions that probably occur during the egress of viral particles...
  52. Semple M, Booth J, Ebrahimi B. Most human metapneumovirus and human respiratory syncytial virus in infant nasal secretions is cell free. J Clin Virol. 2007;40:241-4 pubmed
    ..removal of the cellular component of NPA affects quantification of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) or human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) genome...
  53. Groskreutz D, Monick M, Babor E, Nyunoya T, Varga S, Look D, et al. Cigarette smoke alters respiratory syncytial virus-induced apoptosis and replication. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2009;41:189-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Cigarette smoke causes necrosis rather than apoptosis in viral infection, resulting in increased inflammation and enhanced viral replication. ..
  54. Lau J, Korban S. Transgenic apple expressing an antigenic protein of the human respiratory syncytial virus. J Plant Physiol. 2010;167:920-7 pubmed publisher
    A gene coding for the human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-F protein, driven by the constitutively expressed CaMV 35S promoter, was introduced into leaf tissues of apple, Malusxdomestica Borkh. cv...
  55. Oomens A, Bevis K, Wertz G. The cytoplasmic tail of the human respiratory syncytial virus F protein plays critical roles in cellular localization of the F protein and infectious progeny production. J Virol. 2006;80:10465-77 pubmed
    The importance of the F protein cytoplasmic tail (CT) for replication of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) was examined by monitoring the behavior of viruses expressing F proteins with a modified COOH terminus...
  56. Korppi M, Kotaniemi Syrjänen A, Waris M, Vainionpaa R, Reijonen T. Rhinovirus-associated wheezing in infancy: comparison with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:995-9 pubmed
    ..RV-associated wheezing and RSV bronchiolitis, although having rather similar clinical characteristics, differ significantly with regard to age, presence of atopic dermatitis and eosinophilia during infection. ..
  57. Bradley J, Bacharier L, Bonfiglio J, Schechtman K, Strunk R, Storch G, et al. Severity of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis is affected by cigarette smoke exposure and atopy. Pediatrics. 2005;115:e7-14 pubmed
    ..The severity of RSV bronchiolitis early in life seems modified by postnatal maternal cigarette smoke exposure and atopy and age of the infant, not by levels of allergens in the home environment. ..
  58. Gias E, Nielsen S, Morgan L, Toms G. Purification of human respiratory syncytial virus by ultracentrifugation in iodixanol density gradient. J Virol Methods. 2008;147:328-32 pubmed
    ..Iodixanol was also found to be non-toxic to HeLa cells used in infectivity assay, eliminating the need of its downstream removal by dialysis. ..
  59. Spann K, Tran K, Collins P. Effects of nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS2 of human respiratory syncytial virus on interferon regulatory factor 3, NF-kappaB, and proinflammatory cytokines. J Virol. 2005;79:5353-62 pubmed
    b>Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the leading cause of serious pediatric acute respiratory tract infections, and a better understanding is needed of the host response to HRSV and its attenuated vaccine derivatives...
  60. Marsh R, Connor A, Gias E, Toms G. Increased susceptibility of human respiratory syncytial virus to neutralization by anti-fusion protein antibodies on adaptation to replication in cell culture. J Med Virol. 2007;79:829-37 pubmed
    ..The genetic basis of phenotypic change in susceptibility remains to be determined. ..
  61. Smyth R, Openshaw P. Bronchiolitis. Lancet. 2006;368:312-22 pubmed
    ..Careful mapping of the inflammatory pathways in the pathogenesis of bronchiolitis should lead to development of new therapies to alleviate symptoms. ..
  62. Viegas M, Mistchenko A. Molecular epidemiology of human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup A over a six-year period (1999-2004) in Argentina. J Med Virol. 2005;77:302-10 pubmed
    b>Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the main viral cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in children...
  63. Gilca R, De Serres G, Tremblay M, Vachon M, Leblanc E, Bergeron M, et al. Distribution and clinical impact of human respiratory syncytial virus genotypes in hospitalized children over 2 winter seasons. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:54-8 pubmed
    Sequencing studies of the glycoprotein G gene were performed in human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) strains detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction directly from nasopharyngeal aspirates of hospitalized children &..
  64. Campanini G, Percivalle E, Baldanti F, Rovida F, Bertaina A, Marchi A, et al. Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) RNA quantification in nasopharyngeal secretions identifies the hRSV etiologic role in acute respiratory tract infections of hospitalized infants. J Clin Virol. 2007;39:119-24 pubmed
    b>Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) detection in nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) from infants with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) does not prove the hRSV etiology of the current ARTI episode...
  65. Llorente M, García Barreno B, Calero M, Camafeita E, Lopez J, Longhi S, et al. Structural analysis of the human respiratory syncytial virus phosphoprotein: characterization of an alpha-helical domain involved in oligomerization. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:159-69 pubmed
    b>Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) phosphoprotein (P), an essential cofactor of the viral polymerase, is much shorter (241 aa) than and has no sequence similarity to P of other paramyxoviruses...
  66. Trento A, Casas I, Calderon A, Garcia Garcia M, Calvo C, Pérez Breña P, et al. Ten years of global evolution of the human respiratory syncytial virus BA genotype with a 60-nucleotide duplication in the G protein gene. J Virol. 2010;84:7500-12 pubmed publisher
    The emergence of natural isolates of human respiratory syncytial virus group B (HRSV-B) with a 60-nucleotide (nt) duplication in the G protein gene in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1999 (A. Trento et al., J. Gen. Virol...
  67. Elliott M, Pryharski K, Yu Q, Boutilier L, Campeol N, Melville K, et al. Characterization of recombinant respiratory syncytial viruses with the region responsible for type 2 T-cell responses and pulmonary eosinophilia deleted from the attachment (G) protein. J Virol. 2004;78:8446-54 pubmed
    ..These findings are important for the development of attenuated RSV vaccines. ..
  68. Schlender J, Zimmer G, Herrler G, Conzelmann K. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) fusion protein subunit F2, not attachment protein G, determines the specificity of RSV infection. J Virol. 2003;77:4609-16 pubmed
    b>Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) and bovine RSV (BRSV) infect human beings and cattle in a species-specific manner. We have here analyzed the contribution of RSV envelope proteins to species-specific entry into cells...
  69. Openshaw P, Dean G, Culley F. Links between respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis and childhood asthma: clinical and research approaches. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:S58-64; discussion S64-5 pubmed
    ..Further study is necessary to determine the relative roles of RSV infection and genetic predisposition in explaining the association between RSV infection and asthma/RAD...
  70. van der Sande M, Goetghebuer T, Sanneh M, Whittle H, Weber M. Seasonal variation in respiratory syncytial virus epidemics in the Gambia, West Africa. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:73-4 pubmed
    ..Improved understanding of the transmission dynamics of respiratory syncytial virus is essential to design and test effective interventions. ..
  71. Spann K, Tran K, Chi B, Rabin R, Collins P. Suppression of the induction of alpha, beta, and lambda interferons by the NS1 and NS2 proteins of human respiratory syncytial virus in human epithelial cells and macrophages [corrected]. J Virol. 2004;78:4363-9 pubmed
    Wild-type human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a poor inducer of alpha/beta interferons (IFN-alpha/beta)...
  72. Miller A, Bowlin T, Lukacs N. Respiratory syncytial virus-induced chemokine production: linking viral replication to chemokine production in vitro and in vivo. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:1419-30 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that viral replication is necessary for optimal chemokine production. ..
  73. Moudy R, Harmon S, Sullender W, Wertz G. Variations in transcription termination signals of human respiratory syncytial virus clinical isolates affect gene expression. Virology. 2003;313:250-60 pubmed
    b>Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) has a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome with 10 genes encoding 11 proteins...
  74. Tripp R, Dakhama A, Jones L, Barskey A, Gelfand E, Anderson L. The G glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus depresses respiratory rates through the CX3C motif and substance P. J Virol. 2003;77:6580-4 pubmed
    ..These data suggest new approaches for treating some aspects of RSV disease. ..
  75. Stensballe L, Devasundaram J, Simoes E. Respiratory syncytial virus epidemics: the ups and downs of a seasonal virus. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:S21-32 pubmed
    ..Generally RSV mortality is low, with a median value of zero. However, RSV mortality in developing countries is significantly higher than RSV mortality in developed countries. ..
  76. Welliver R. Respiratory syncytial virus and other respiratory viruses. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:S6-10; discussion S10-2 pubmed
    ..Preliminary evidence suggests that severe RSV and influenza viral infections are mediated via chemokine up-regulation. ..
  77. Miller A, Strieter R, Gruber A, Ho S, Lukacs N. CXCR2 regulates respiratory syncytial virus-induced airway hyperreactivity and mucus overproduction. J Immunol. 2003;170:3348-56 pubmed
    ..Thus, CXCR2 may be a relevant target in the pathogenesis of RSV bronchiolitis, since it contributes to mucus production and airway hyperreactivity in our model of RSV infection. ..
  78. Brown G, Rixon H, Sugrue R. Respiratory syncytial virus assembly occurs in GM1-rich regions of the host-cell membrane and alters the cellular distribution of tyrosine phosphorylated caveolin-1. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:1841-50 pubmed
  79. Techaarpornkul S, Collins P, Peeples M. Respiratory syncytial virus with the fusion protein as its only viral glycoprotein is less dependent on cellular glycosaminoglycans for attachment than complete virus. Virology. 2002;294:296-304 pubmed
    ..This alternative pathway presumably is mediated by the sole remaining viral surface protein, F, although the formal possibility exists that some other virion-associated protein is involved. ..
  80. Smith B, Lawrence M, Colman P. Modelling the structure of the fusion protein from human respiratory syncytial virus. Protein Eng. 2002;15:365-71 pubmed
    ..The location of residues involved in point mutations in several drug-resistant variants is also examined. ..
  81. Bont L, Kimpen J. Immunological mechanisms of severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. Intensive Care Med. 2002;28:616-21 pubmed
  82. Malhotra R, Ward M, Bright H, Priest R, Foster M, Hurle M, et al. Isolation and characterisation of potential respiratory syncytial virus receptor(s) on epithelial cells. Microbes Infect. 2003;5:123-33 pubmed
    ..Recombinant annexin II binds to RSV G-protein, heparin and plasminogen and the binding is inhibited by a selectin antagonist, TBC1269. These findings indicate that inhibitors of annexin II could have potential in treating RSV infection. ..
  83. Wang E, Sun X, Qian Y, Zhao L, Tien P, Gao G. Both heptad repeats of human respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein are potent inhibitors of viral fusion. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;302:469-75 pubmed
    ..However, in other members, only HR2 gives strong inhibition whereas HR1 does not. Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is a member of paramyxovirus and its crystal structure of HR1 and HR2 six-helix bundle was ..