respiratory syncytial viruses

Summary

Summary: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.

Top Publications

  1. Tayyari F, Marchant D, Moraes T, Duan W, Mastrangelo P, Hegele R. Identification of nucleolin as a cellular receptor for human respiratory syncytial virus. Nat Med. 2011;17:1132-5 pubmed publisher
    ..RNAi-mediated knockdown of lung nucleolin was associated with a significant reduction in RSV infection in mice (P = 0.0004), confirming that nucleolin is a functional RSV receptor in vivo. ..
  2. Fonceca A, Flanagan B, Trinick R, Smyth R, McNamara P. Primary airway epithelial cultures from children are highly permissive to respiratory syncytial virus infection. Thorax. 2012;67:42-8 pubmed publisher
  3. Mella C, Suarez Arrabal M, Lopez S, Stephens J, Fernandez S, Hall M, et al. Innate immune dysfunction is associated with enhanced disease severity in infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. J Infect Dis. 2013;207:564-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Immune monitoring of otherwise healthy infants with RSV lower respiratory tract infection could help identify patients at risk for severe disease at the time of hospitalization. ..
  4. Remot A, Roux X, Dubuquoy C, Fix J, Bouet S, Moudjou M, et al. Nucleoprotein nanostructures combined with adjuvants adapted to the neonatal immune context: a candidate mucosal RSV vaccine. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37722 pubmed publisher
  5. Sun J, Cardani A, Sharma A, Laubach V, Jack R, Muller W, et al. Autocrine regulation of pulmonary inflammation by effector T-cell derived IL-10 during infection with respiratory syncytial virus. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002173 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest a potentially critical role of effector T cell-derived IL-10 in controlling disease severity in clinical RSV infection. ..
  6. Faber T, Groen H, Welfing M, Jansen K, Bont L. Specific increase in local IL-17 production during recovery from primary RSV bronchiolitis. J Med Virol. 2012;84:1084-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of RSV bronchiolitis is to be explored further. ..
  7. Othumpangat S, Walton C, Piedimonte G. MicroRNA-221 modulates RSV replication in human bronchial epithelium by targeting NGF expression. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30030 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, the targeted delivery of exogenous miRNAs to the airways may provide a new strategy for future antiviral therapies based on RNA interference. ..
  8. Blanken M, Rovers M, Molenaar J, Winkler Seinstra P, Meijer A, Kimpen J, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus and recurrent wheeze in healthy preterm infants. N Engl J Med. 2013;368:1791-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The monoclonal antibody palivizumab has shown efficacy in preventing severe RSV infection in high-risk infants...
  9. Geevarghese B, Simoes E. Antibodies for prevention and treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infections in children. Antivir Ther. 2012;17:201-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will concentrate on the past, present and future history of RSV immunoprophylaxis with an emphasis on the role of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. ..

More Information

Publications67

  1. Boyapalle S, Wong T, Garay J, TENG M, San Juan Vergara H, Mohapatra S, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus NS1 protein colocalizes with mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein MAVS following infection. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29386 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that NS1 binds to MAVS and that this binding inhibits the MAVS-RIG-I interaction required for IFN production. ..
  2. Ioannidis I, McNally B, Willette M, Peeples M, Chaussabel D, Durbin J, et al. Plasticity and virus specificity of the airway epithelial cell immune response during respiratory virus infection. J Virol. 2012;86:5422-36 pubmed publisher
  3. Tsuchida T, Matsuse H, Fukahori S, Kawano T, Tomari S, Fukushima C, et al. Effect of respiratory syncytial virus infection on plasmacytoid dendritic cell regulation of allergic airway inflammation. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2012;157:21-30 pubmed publisher
    ..RSV infection of pDCs potentially inhibits their immunotolerogenic effects and thus exacerbates allergic airway inflammation. ..
  4. El Saleeby C, Bush A, Harrison L, Aitken J, DeVincenzo J. Respiratory syncytial virus load, viral dynamics, and disease severity in previously healthy naturally infected children. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:996-1002 pubmed publisher
  5. Smith G, Raghunandan R, Wu Y, Liu Y, Massare M, Nathan M, et al. Respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein expressed in insect cells form protein nanoparticles that induce protective immunity in cotton rats. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50852 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibodies to this epitope are known to protect against RSV when passively administered in high risk infants. Together these data provide a rational for continued development a recombinant RSV F nanoparticle vaccine candidate. ..
  6. van Bleek G, Osterhaus A, De Swart R. RSV 2010: Recent advances in research on respiratory syncytial virus and other pneumoviruses. Vaccine. 2011;29:7285-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The current report presents highlights of the meeting, covering topics from basic virology, pathogenesis and immunology to clinical studies, therapeutics and vaccine development. ..
  7. Smith S, Dampier W, Tozeren A, Brown J, Magid Slav M. Identification of common biological pathways and drug targets across multiple respiratory viruses based on human host gene expression analysis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33174 pubmed publisher
    ..The availability of large-scale genomic datasets focused on host-pathogen interactions can be used to discover novel drug targets as well as potential opportunities for drug repositioning...
  8. Stockman L, Curns A, Anderson L, Fischer Langley G. Respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospitalizations among infants and young children in the United States, 1997-2006. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:5-9 pubmed publisher
    ..RSV hospitalization rates remained steady during 1997 to 2006 and were a substantial burden in the United States, especially among infants and young children. A safe and effective RSV vaccine is needed. ..
  9. Wythe S, Dodd J, Openshaw P, Schwarze J. OX40 ligand and programmed cell death 1 ligand 2 expression on inflammatory dendritic cells regulates CD4 T cell cytokine production in the lung during viral disease. J Immunol. 2012;188:1647-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Manipulation of these costimulatory pathways may provide a novel approach to controlling pulmonary inflammatory responses. ..
  10. Garlapati S, Garg R, Brownlie R, Latimer L, Simko E, Hancock R, et al. Enhanced immune responses and protection by vaccination with respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein formulated with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide and innate defense regulator peptide in polyphosphazene microparticles. Vaccine. 2012;30:5206-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, formulation of recombinant ΔF with CpG ODN and IDR peptide in polyphosphazene microparticles should be considered for further evaluation as a safe and effective vaccine against RSV. ..
  11. Murata Y, Catherman S. Antibody response to the central unglycosylated region of the respiratory syncytial virus attachment protein in mice. Vaccine. 2012;30:5382-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results have implications for RSV G-based serological assays as well as prophylactic immunotherapy and RSV vaccine development. ..
  12. Zachariah P, Ruttenber M, Simoes E. Down syndrome and hospitalizations due to respiratory syncytial virus: a population-based study. J Pediatr. 2012;160:827-31.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the risk estimates for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization in children with Down syndrome (DS) and the clinical features and severity of RSV lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in hospitalized children...
  13. Homaira N, Luby S, Petri W, Vainionpaa R, Rahman M, Hossain K, et al. Incidence of respiratory virus-associated pneumonia in urban poor young children of Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2009-2011. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32056 pubmed publisher
    ..Young children in Dhaka are at high risk of childhood pneumonia and the majority of these episodes are associated with viral pathogens. Developing effective low-cost strategies for prevention are a high priority. ..
  14. Caidi H, Harcourt J, Tripp R, Anderson L, Haynes L. Combination therapy using monoclonal antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) G glycoprotein protects from RSV disease in BALB/c mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51485 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that anti-RSV G protein mAbs that react at or near the CCR and can block RSV G protein-mediated activities are effective at preventing RSV disease and may be an effective strategy for RSV therapeutic treatment. ..
  15. Alonso W, Laranjeira B, Pereira S, Florencio C, Moreno E, Miller M, et al. Comparative dynamics, morbidity and mortality burden of pediatric viral respiratory infections in an equatorial city. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:e9-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The consistent epidemiologic patterns observed can be used for an effective adjustment of the timing of therapeutic and prophylactic interventions in this and potentially in other equatorial regions. ..
  16. Wishaupt J, Russcher A, Smeets L, Versteegh F, Hartwig N. Clinical impact of RT-PCR for pediatric acute respiratory infections: a controlled clinical trial. Pediatrics. 2011;128:e1113-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing is a quick sensitive method for detecting respiratory pathogens. We evaluated the diagnostic yield of RT-PCR assays and measured the effect of rapid reporting on patient care...
  17. Wine T, Alper C. Cytokine responses in the common cold and otitis media. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2012;12:574-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This article attempts to update the reader on various studies that have recently been published regarding the role of cytokines in these two disease entities...
  18. Weiss K, Christiaansen A, Fulton R, Meyerholz D, Varga S. Multiple CD4+ T cell subsets produce immunomodulatory IL-10 during respiratory syncytial virus infection. J Immunol. 2011;187:3145-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that IL-10 plays a critical role in modulating the adaptive immune response to RSV by limiting T-cell-mediated pulmonary inflammation and injury. ..
  19. Loebbermann J, Schnoeller C, Thornton H, Durant L, Sweeney N, Schuijs M, et al. IL-10 regulates viral lung immunopathology during acute respiratory syncytial virus infection in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32371 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar findings were made in mice treated with anti-IL-10R antibody and infected with RSV. Therefore, IL-10 inhibits disease and inflammation in mice infected with RSV, especially during recovery from infection. ..
  20. Hammitt L, Kazungu S, Morpeth S, Gibson D, Mvera B, Brent A, et al. A preliminary study of pneumonia etiology among hospitalized children in Kenya. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;54 Suppl 2:S190-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A potential etiology was detected in >75% of children admitted with SP or VSP. Except for RSV, the case-control analysis did not detect an association between viral detection in the nasopharynx and hospitalization for pneumonia. ..
  21. Bian T, Gibbs J, rvell C, Imani F. Respiratory syncytial virus matrix protein induces lung epithelial cell cycle arrest through a p53 dependent pathway. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38052 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that RSV-M protein regulates lung epithelial cell cycle through a p53-dependent pathway, which enhances RSV replication...
  22. Arrevillaga G, Gaona J, Sanchez C, Rosales V, Gomez B. Respiratory syncytial virus persistence in macrophages downregulates intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and reduces adhesion of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Intervirology. 2012;55:442-50 pubmed publisher
  23. Kamphuis T, Meijerhof T, Stegmann T, Lederhofer J, Wilschut J, de Haan A. Immunogenicity and protective capacity of a virosomal respiratory syncytial virus vaccine adjuvanted with monophosphoryl lipid A in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36812 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate that RSV-MPLA virosomes represent a safe and efficacious vaccine candidate which warrants further evaluation...
  24. Segovia J, Sabbah A, Mgbemena V, Tsai S, Chang T, Berton M, et al. TLR2/MyD88/NF-?B pathway, reactive oxygen species, potassium efflux activates NLRP3/ASC inflammasome during respiratory syncytial virus infection. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29695 pubmed publisher
  25. Loebbermann J, Thornton H, Durant L, Sparwasser T, Webster K, Sprent J, et al. Regulatory T cells expressing granzyme B play a critical role in controlling lung inflammation during acute viral infection. Mucosal Immunol. 2012;5:161-72 pubmed publisher
  26. Robbie G, Zhao L, Mondick J, Losonsky G, Roskos L. Population pharmacokinetics of palivizumab, a humanized anti-respiratory syncytial virus monoclonal antibody, in adults and children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:4927-36 pubmed publisher
  27. Fehrholz M, Kendl S, Prifert C, Weissbrich B, Lemon K, Rennick L, et al. The innate antiviral factor APOBEC3G targets replication of measles, mumps and respiratory syncytial viruses. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:565-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In combination, impaired transcription and increased mutation frequencies are sufficient to cause the observed reduction in viral infectivity and eliminate virus replication within a few passages in A3G-expressing cells. ..
  28. Hurwitz J. Respiratory syncytial virus vaccine development. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2011;10:1415-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The development of a successful RSV vaccine may ultimately stem from attention to historical lessons, in concert with an integral partnering of immunology and virology research fields. ..
  29. Resch B, Sommer C, Nuijten M, Seidinger S, Walter E, Schoellbauer V, et al. Cost-effectiveness of palivizumab for respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk children, based on long-term epidemiologic data from Austria. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:e1-8 pubmed publisher
  30. Cherukuri A, Patton K, Gasser R, Zuo F, Woo J, Esser M, et al. Adults 65 years old and older have reduced numbers of functional memory T cells to respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2013;20:239-47 pubmed publisher
    ..0% ± 1.6% versus 5.0% ± 1.6%) were measured in PBMC from elderly than young adults. These results suggest that deficient RSV F-specific T cell responses contribute to susceptibility to severe RSV disease in elderly adults. ..
  31. Dey N, Liu T, Garofalo R, Casola A. TAK1 regulates NF-?B and AP-1 activation in airway epithelial cells following RSV infection. Virology. 2011;418:93-101 pubmed publisher
  32. Shadman K, Wald E. A review of palivizumab and emerging therapies for respiratory syncytial virus. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2011;11:1455-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Although there are potential drugs and vaccines in development to prevent or reduce the effects of RSV infection, palivizumab remains the only licensed product to reduce the severity of disease in high-risk pediatric patients. ..
  33. Khamis F, al Kobaisi M, Al Areimi W, al Kindi H, Al Zakwani I. Epidemiology of respiratory virus infections among infants and young children admitted to hospital in Oman. J Med Virol. 2012;84:1323-9 pubmed publisher
    ..80%; P?=?0.039), and bronchiolitis (57% vs. 38%; P?=?0.024). The study indicated that respiratory viruses are highly prevalent in children ?5 years presenting with acute respiratory infections in Oman, of which RSV is the most prominent...
  34. Tan Y, Peng D, Chen C, Qin X. Nonstructural protein-1 of respiratory syncytial virus regulates HOX gene expression through interacting with histone. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:675-9 pubmed publisher
  35. Manzoni P, Paes B, Resch B, Mejias A, Ramilo O, Carbonell Estrany X, et al. High risk for RSV bronchiolitis in late preterms and selected infants affected by rare disorders: a dilemma of specific prevention. Early Hum Dev. 2012;88 Suppl 2:S34-41 pubmed publisher
  36. Openshaw P, Chiu C. Protective and dysregulated T cell immunity in RSV infection. Curr Opin Virol. 2013;3:468-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Further insights into the role of T cells (including Th17) are needed to enable the rational design of safe, effective vaccines and novel treatments. ..
  37. Qin L, Hu C, Feng J, Xia Q. Activation of lymphocytes induced by bronchial epithelial cells with prolonged RSV infection. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27113 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that HBECs with prolonged RSV infection can induce lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis, and enhance the release of cytokines by lymphocytes. Moreover, subset drift might be caused by RSV-infected HBECs. ..
  38. Garcia C, Soriano Fallas A, Lozano J, Leos N, Gomez A, Ramilo O, et al. Decreased innate immune cytokine responses correlate with disease severity in children with respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus bronchiolitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2012;31:86-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Concentrations of interferon-? in RSV and innate immunity cytokines in both infections inversely correlated with disease severity...
  39. Noton S, Fearns R. The first two nucleotides of the respiratory syncytial virus antigenome RNA replication product can be selected independently of the promoter terminus. RNA. 2011;17:1895-906 pubmed publisher
    ..Substitution of positions +1 and +2 of the template reduced RNA replication and resulted in increased initiation at positions +3 and +5. Together these data suggest a model for how the RSV polymerase initiates antigenome synthesis. ..
  40. Marr N, Turvey S. Role of human TLR4 in respiratory syncytial virus-induced NF-?B activation, viral entry and replication. Innate Immun. 2012;18:856-65 pubmed publisher
  41. Mukherjee S, Lindell D, Berlin A, Morris S, Shanley T, Hershenson M, et al. IL-17-induced pulmonary pathogenesis during respiratory viral infection and exacerbation of allergic disease. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:248-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that IL-17 plays a pathogenic role during RSV infections. ..
  42. Hervas D, Reina J, Yanez A, Del Valle J, Figuerola J, Hervas J. Epidemiology of hospitalization for acute bronchiolitis in children: differences between RSV and non-RSV bronchiolitis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2012;31:1975-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study supports that RSV bronchiolitis seems to be a more severe disease than that caused by other viruses. ..
  43. Luongo C, Winter C, Collins P, Buchholz U. Increased genetic and phenotypic stability of a promising live-attenuated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate by reverse genetics. J Virol. 2012;86:10792-804 pubmed publisher
  44. Bera M, Lu B, Martin T, Cui S, Rhein L, Gerard C, et al. Th17 cytokines are critical for respiratory syncytial virus-associated airway hyperreponsiveness through regulation by complement C3a and tachykinins. J Immunol. 2011;187:4245-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Deficiency of either receptor affords protection from AHR, identifying two potential therapeutic targets. ..
  45. San Juan Vergara H, Sampayo Escobar V, Reyes N, Cha B, Pacheco Lugo L, Wong T, et al. Cholesterol-rich microdomains as docking platforms for respiratory syncytial virus in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. J Virol. 2012;86:1832-43 pubmed publisher
    ..It appears that RSV entry depends on its ability to dock to cholesterol-rich microdomains (lipid rafts) in the plasma membrane where hemifusion events begin, assisted by a Pak1-dependent process. ..
  46. Ryzhakov G, Lai C, Blazek K, To K, Hussell T, Udalova I. IL-17 boosts proinflammatory outcome of antiviral response in human cells. J Immunol. 2011;187:5357-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, this synergy was blocked by an IκB kinase inhibitor, BAY 11-7082. These findings shed light on the molecular mechanisms behind IL-17-dependent immunopathology observed in viral infections. ..
  47. Krishnamoorthy N, Khare A, Oriss T, Raundhal M, Morse C, Yarlagadda M, et al. Early infection with respiratory syncytial virus impairs regulatory T cell function and increases susceptibility to allergic asthma. Nat Med. 2012;18:1525-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings highlight a mechanism by which viral infection targets a host-protective mechanism in early life and increases susceptibility to allergic disease. ..
  48. Pennings J, Schuurhof A, Hodemaekers H, Buisman A, de Rond L, Widjojoatmodjo M, et al. Systemic signature of the lung response to respiratory syncytial virus infection. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21461 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that it may be possible to distinguish protective and unfavorable patient lung responses via blood diagnostics. ..
  49. Bystrom J, Al Adhoubi N, Al Bogami M, Jawad A, Mageed R. Th17 lymphocytes in respiratory syncytial virus infection. Viruses. 2013;5:777-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The factors that determine the shift in the balance between beneficial and adverse Th17 mediated effects during RSV infection remains to be determined...
  50. Loebbermann J, Durant L, Thornton H, Johansson C, Openshaw P. Defective immunoregulation in RSV vaccine-augmented viral lung disease restored by selective chemoattraction of regulatory T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:2987-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal an unexpected mechanism of vaccine-induced disease augmentation and indicate that selective chemoattraction of Tregs into diseased sites may offer a novel approach to the modulation of tissue-specific inflammation...
  51. Agoti C, Mwihuri A, Sande C, Onyango C, Medley G, Cane P, et al. Genetic relatedness of infecting and reinfecting respiratory syncytial virus strains identified in a birth cohort from rural Kenya. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:1532-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The extent to which this is a consequence of immune memory of infection history or prevalent diversity remains unclear. ..
  52. van Helden M, van Kooten P, Bekker C, Grone A, Topham D, Easton A, et al. Pre-existing virus-specific CD8(+) T-cells provide protection against pneumovirus-induced disease in mice. Vaccine. 2012;30:6382-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CD8(+) T-cells, despite being a major cause of PVM-associated pathology during primary infection, may offer promising targets of a protective pneumovirus vaccine...
  53. Lanari M, Silvestri M, Rossi G. Clinical and pharmacological aspects of immunoprophylaxis for respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants. Curr Drug Metab. 2013;14:216-25 pubmed
    ..In this article, we have reviewed the clinical and pharmacological aspects of immunoprophylaxis with monoclonal antibodies for preventing RSV infection in high-risk infants...
  54. Zeng R, Zhang H, Hai Y, Cui Y, Wei L, Li N, et al. Interleukin-27 inhibits vaccine-enhanced pulmonary disease following respiratory syncytial virus infection by regulating cellular memory responses. J Virol. 2012;86:4505-17 pubmed publisher
  55. Villenave R, Thavagnanam S, Sarlang S, Parker J, Douglas I, Skibinski G, et al. In vitro modeling of respiratory syncytial virus infection of pediatric bronchial epithelium, the primary target of infection in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:5040-5 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, this model may provide insights into RSV pathogenesis in humans that ultimately lead to successful RSV vaccines or therapeutics...
  56. Li F, Zhu H, Sun R, Wei H, Tian Z. Natural killer cells are involved in acute lung immune injury caused by respiratory syncytial virus infection. J Virol. 2012;86:2251-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that NK cells are involved in exacerbating the lung immune injury at the early stage of RSV infection via IFN-? secretion. ..
  57. Schickli J, Kaur J, Tang R. Nonclinical phenotypic and genotypic analyses of a Phase 1 pediatric respiratory syncytial virus vaccine candidate MEDI-559 (rA2cp248/404/1030ΔSH) at permissive and non-permissive temperatures. Virus Res. 2012;169:38-47 pubmed publisher
    ..All the tsi viruses have small plaque phenotypes and are highly attenuated in the lungs of cotton rats. ..
  58. Nguyen T, Power U, Robert A, Haeuw J, Helffer K, Perez A, et al. The respiratory syncytial virus G protein conserved domain induces a persistent and protective antibody response in rodents. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34331 pubmed publisher
    ..Affinity maturation of these Abs increased from day 28 to day 148. These data indicate that G2Na has potential as a component of an RSV vaccine formulation...