human parainfluenza virus 4


Summary: A species of RUBULAVIRUS causing endemic upper respiratory infections in children. It produces only a mild clinical disease and often goes undetected.

Top Publications

  1. Lau S, To W, Tse P, Chan A, Woo P, Tsoi H, et al. Human parainfluenza virus 4 outbreak and the role of diagnostic tests. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:4515-21 pubmed
    ..difficulties in isolating the virus and the lack of routine surveillance, the clinical significance of human parainfluenza virus 4 (HPIV-4) is less well defined than that of the other human parainfluenza viruses...
  2. Iwata S. [Diagnostic tests: Parainfluenza virus 1, 2, 3, 4]. Nihon Rinsho. 2005;63 Suppl 7:349-51 pubmed
  3. Hibbitts S, Rahman A, John R, Westmoreland D, Fox J. Development and evaluation of NucliSens basic kit NASBA for diagnosis of parainfluenza virus infection with 'end-point' and 'real-time' detection. J Virol Methods. 2003;108:145-55 pubmed
    ..The feasibility of multiplexing targets together was confirmed using a combined HPIV1 and HPIV3 assay with good results for ECL and molecular beacon detection on control material and clinical samples. ..
  4. Bellau Pujol S, Vabret A, Legrand L, Dina J, Gouarin S, Petitjean Lecherbonnier J, et al. Development of three multiplex RT-PCR assays for the detection of 12 respiratory RNA viruses. J Virol Methods. 2005;126:53-63 pubmed
  5. Chiu C, Rouskin S, Koshy A, Urisman A, Fischer K, Yagi S, et al. Microarray detection of human parainfluenzavirus 4 infection associated with respiratory failure in an immunocompetent adult. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:e71-6 pubmed
    ..This case suggests that the potential severity of disease caused by HPIV-4 in adults may be greater than previously appreciated and illustrates the clinical utility of a microarray for broad-based viral pathogen screening. ..
  6. Miall F, Rye A, Fraser M, Hunter A, Snowden J. Human parainfluenza type 4 infection: a case report highlighting pathogenicity and difficulties in rapid diagnosis in the post-transplant setting. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2002;29:541-2 pubmed
  7. Garcia Garcia M, Aguilar Ruiz J, Echeverría Mayo J, Calvo Rey C, Pinto Fuentes I, Ordobás Gabin M, et al. [Parainfluenza virus type 4 infections]. An Esp Pediatr. 2002;57:116-20 pubmed
    ..To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of parainfluenza virus type 4 infections in pediatric patients...
  8. Lau S, Li K, Chau K, So L, Lee R, Lau Y, et al. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of human parainfluenza virus 4 infections in hong kong: subtype 4B as common as subtype 4A. J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:1549-52 pubmed publisher
    In this 1-year study, 35 (1.2%) of 2,912 nasopharyngeal aspirates were positive for human parainfluenza virus 4 (HPIV4) by reverse transcription-PCR. Patients with HPIV4 infection were mainly young children and immunocompromised adults...
  9. Billaud G, Morfin F, Vabret A, Boucher A, Gillet Y, Crassard N, et al. Human parainfluenza virus type 4 infections: a report of 20 cases from 1998 to 2002. J Clin Virol. 2005;34:48-51 pubmed
    ..Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIV) type 4 are responsible for respiratory infections. Unlike HPIV types 1-3, they are associated with mild infections and appear to be infrequent. Thus, they often go undetected...

More Information


  1. Fathima S, Simmonds K, Invik J, Scott A, Drews S. Use of laboratory and administrative data to understand the potential impact of human parainfluenza virus 4 on cases of bronchiolitis, croup, and pneumonia in Alberta, Canada. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16:402 pubmed publisher
    ..hPIV4 appears to be more associated more with bronchiolitis and pneumonia and less with croup in our population. ..
  2. Bulavaite A, Lasickiene R, Tamošiūnas P, Simanavičius M, Sasnauskas K, Zvirbliene A. Synthesis of human parainfluenza virus 4 nucleocapsid-like particles in yeast and their use for detection of virus-specific antibodies in human serum. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017;101:2991-3004 pubmed publisher
    ..4, 39.0 and 37.7%. In conclusion, yeast-produced HPIV4 N protein shares structural and antigenic properties of the native virus nucleocapsids. Yeast-produced HPIV4 and HPIV2 NLPs are prospective tools in serology. ..
  3. Templeton K, Bredius R, Claas E, Kroes A, Walther F. Parainfluenza virus 4 detection in infants. Eur J Pediatr. 2005;164:528-9 pubmed
  4. Roger T, Bresser P, Snoek M, van der Sluijs K, van den Berg A, Nijhuis M, et al. Exaggerated IL-8 and IL-6 responses to TNF-alpha by parainfluenza virus type 4-infected NCI-H292 cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2004;287:L1048-55 pubmed
    ..The previously unrecognized phase of reduced IL-8 and IL-6 mRNA degradation and the concurrent amplified epithelial IL-8 and IL-6 responses may play an important role in virus-induced potentiation of airway inflammation...
  5. Rubinas T, Carey R, Kampert M, Alkan S, Lednicky J. Fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia concomitant with Chlamydia pneumoniae and parainfluenza virus 4 infection. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2004;128:640-4 pubmed
    ..While not all hemorrhagic pneumonias are caused by very contagious agents, the etiology must be correctly determined in order to administer appropriate patient care...
  6. Vachon M, Dionne N, Leblanc E, Moisan D, Bergeron M, Boivin G. Human parainfluenza type 4 infections, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:1755-8 pubmed
  7. Garbino J, Inoubli S, Mossdorf E, Weber R, Tamm M, Soccal P, et al. Respiratory viruses in HIV-infected patients with suspected respiratory opportunistic infection. AIDS. 2008;22:701-5 pubmed publisher
  8. Sato M, Wright P. Current status of vaccines for parainfluenza virus infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:S123-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These promising candidates deserve to enter into efficacy trials both for their ability to prevent PIV3 disease and as a model of protection against respiratory illness by mucosal vaccination. ..
  9. Coiras M, Aguilar J, Garcia M, Casas I, Perez Brena P. Simultaneous detection of fourteen respiratory viruses in clinical specimens by two multiplex reverse transcription nested-PCR assays. J Med Virol. 2004;72:484-95 pubmed
  10. El Feghaly R, McGann L, Bonville C, Branigan P, Suryadevera M, Rosenberg H, et al. Local production of inflammatory mediators during childhood parainfluenza virus infection. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:e26-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Of note, elevated concentrations of CXCL8 in nasal wash samples are associated with more severe forms of PIV disease. ..
  11. Hohenthal U, Nikoskelainen J, Vainionpaa R, Peltonen R, Routamaa M, Itala M, et al. Human parainfluenza type 4 virus (hPIV4) infection provoking many questions regarding the role of this virus as the causative agent of respiratory tract infections in the post-transplant setting. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2002;29:629-30 pubmed
  12. Nishio M, Tsurudome M, Ito M, Ito Y. Human parainfluenza virus type 4 is incapable of evading the interferon-induced antiviral effect. J Virol. 2005;79:14756-68 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we established HeLa cells persistently infected with hPIV4 to make sure of the inability to escape IFN and confirmed that hPIV4 is the only paramyxovirus analyzed to date that can't evade the IFN-induced antiviral responses. ..
  13. Hasman H, Pachucki C, Unal A, Nguyen D, Devlin T, Peeples M, et al. Aetiology of influenza-like illness in adults includes parainfluenzavirus type 4. J Med Microbiol. 2009;58:408-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Mixed infections and HPIV-4 are likely to be missed using rapid diagnostic tests. This study confirms that ILI in adults and the elderly can be caused by HRSV and HPIVs, including HPIV-4, which co-circulate with FLU-A. ..