Summary: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the species have hemagglutinin and neuraminidase activities but lack a C protein. MUMPS VIRUS is the type species.

Top Publications

  1. Breed A, Yu M, Barr J, Crameri G, Thalmann C, Wang L. Prevalence of henipavirus and rubulavirus antibodies in pteropid bats, Papua New Guinea. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1997-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We found a seroprevalence of 55% for henipavirus (Hendra or Nipah virus) and 56% for rubulavirus (Tioman or Menangle virus)...
  2. Andrejeva J, Young D, Goodbourn S, Randall R. Degradation of STAT1 and STAT2 by the V proteins of simian virus 5 and human parainfluenza virus type 2, respectively: consequences for virus replication in the presence of alpha/beta and gamma interferons. J Virol. 2002;76:2159-67 pubmed
    ..The significance of the results in terms of the strategy that these viruses have evolved to circumvent the IFN response is discussed. ..
  3. Hagmaier K, Stock N, Precious B, Childs K, Wang L, Goodbourn S, et al. Mapuera virus, a rubulavirus that inhibits interferon signalling in a wide variety of mammalian cells without degrading STATs. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:956-66 pubmed
    ..It was classified as a member of the genus Rubulavirus on the basis of structural and genetic features...
  4. Childs K, Randall R, Goodbourn S. Paramyxovirus V proteins interact with the RNA Helicase LGP2 to inhibit RIG-I-dependent interferon induction. J Virol. 2012;86:3411-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This is significant, because it demonstrates a general mechanism for the targeting of the RIG-I pathway by paramyxoviruses...
  5. Andrejeva J, Poole E, Young D, Goodbourn S, Randall R. The p127 subunit (DDB1) of the UV-DNA damage repair binding protein is essential for the targeted degradation of STAT1 by the V protein of the paramyxovirus simian virus 5. J Virol. 2002;76:11379-86 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that DDB1, STAT1, STAT2, and V may form part of a large multiprotein complex which leads to the targeted degradation of STAT1 by the proteasome. ..
  6. Chua K, Wang L, Lam S, Eaton B. Full length genome sequence of Tioman virus, a novel paramyxovirus in the genus Rubulavirus isolated from fruit bats in Malaysia. Arch Virol. 2002;147:1323-48 pubmed publisher
    A novel paramyxovirus in the genus Rubulavirus, named Tioman virus (TiV), was isolated in 1999 from a number of pooled urine samples of Island Flying Foxes (Pteropus hypomelanus) during the search for the reservoir host of Nipah virus...
  7. Parisien J, Lau J, Horvath C. STAT2 acts as a host range determinant for species-specific paramyxovirus interferon antagonism and simian virus 5 replication. J Virol. 2002;76:6435-41 pubmed
  8. Ramirez Mendoza H, Hernandez Jauregui P, Reyes Leyva J, Zenteno E, Moreno Lopez J, Kennedy S. Lesions in the reproductive tract of boars experimentally infected with porcine rubulavirus. J Comp Pathol. 1997;117:237-52 pubmed
    quot;Blue eye" disease of pigs in Mexico is caused by porcine rubulavirus and characterized by infertility in sows and boars, nervous signs in young pigs, and corneal opacity in pigs of all ages...
  9. Killip M, Young D, Ross C, Chen S, Goodbourn S, Randall R. Failure to activate the IFN-? promoter by a paramyxovirus lacking an interferon antagonist. Virology. 2011;415:39-46 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Parisien J, Lau J, Rodriguez J, Ulane C, Horvath C. Selective STAT protein degradation induced by paramyxoviruses requires both STAT1 and STAT2 but is independent of alpha/beta interferon signal transduction. J Virol. 2002;76:4190-8 pubmed
    ..Members of the Rubulavirus genus of the Paramyxovirus family of RNA viruses have acquired the ability to specifically target either STAT1 ..
  2. Yaiw K, Hyatt A, Vandriel R, Crameri S, Eaton B, Wong M, et al. Viral morphogenesis and morphological changes in human neuronal cells following Tioman and Menangle virus infection. Arch Virol. 2008;153:865-75 pubmed publisher
    ..virus (TioPV) and Menangle virus (MenPV) are two antigenically and genetically related paramyxoviruses (genus: Rubulavirus, family: Paramyxoviridae) isolated from Peninsular Malaysia (2001) and Australia (1997), respectively...
  3. Gans H, Yasukawa L, Rinki M, DeHovitz R, Forghani B, Beeler J, et al. Immune responses to measles and mumps vaccination of infants at 6, 9, and 12 months. J Infect Dis. 2001;184:817-26 pubmed
    ..T cell responses can be established by immunization with these live attenuated virus vaccines during the first year, despite the presence of passive antibodies. ..
  4. Erles K, Dubovi E, Brooks H, Brownlie J. Longitudinal study of viruses associated with canine infectious respiratory disease. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:4524-9 pubmed
  5. Rivera Benítez J, Martínez Bautista R, Perez Torres A, García Contreras A, Reyes Leyva J, Hernandez J, et al. Persistence of porcine rubulavirus in experimentally infected boars. Vet Microbiol. 2013;162:491-8 pubmed publisher
    Porcine rubulavirus is the etiological agent of blue eye disease in pigs. In boars, this virus causes orchitis and epididymitis and reduces seminal quality...
  6. Caignard G, Lucas Hourani M, Dhondt K, Labernardière J, Petit T, Jacob Y, et al. The V protein of Tioman virus is incapable of blocking type I interferon signaling in human cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53881 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our observations question the capacity of TioV to appropriately control IFN-?/? signaling in both human and giant fruit bats that are considered as its natural host. ..
  7. Reyes Leyva J, Espinosa B, Santos G, Zenteno R, Hernandez J, Vallejo V, et al. Purification and characterization of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase of Porcine rubulavirus LPMV. Glycoconj J. 1999;16:517-22 pubmed
    The Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase (HN) from the LPMV strain of Porcine rubulavirus was purified from virions by ultracentrifugation in a continuous 20-60% sucrose gradient and by ion exchange chromatography...
  8. Bulavaite A, Lasickiene R, Tamošiūnas P, Simanavičius M, Sasnauskas K, Zvirbliene A. Synthesis of human parainfluenza virus 4 nucleocapsid-like particles in yeast and their use for detection of virus-specific antibodies in human serum. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017;101:2991-3004 pubmed publisher
    ..were tested with previously generated N protein of a closely related HPIV2, another representative of genus Rubulavirus. Competitive ELISA was developed using related yeast-produced viral antigens to deplete the cross-reactive ..
  9. Zokarkar A, Lamb R. The paramyxovirus fusion protein C-terminal region: mutagenesis indicates an indivisible protein unit. J Virol. 2012;86:2600-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Alanine scanning mutagenesis of MPER indicates that it has a regulatory role in fusion since both hyperfusogenic and hypofusogenic mutations were found. ..
  10. Herrera J, Gómez Núñez L, Lara Romero R, Diosdado F, Martínez Lara A, Jasso M, et al. Acute neurologic disease in Porcine rubulavirus experimentally infected piglets. Virus Res. 2017;230:50-58 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to evaluate the clinical disease, humoral response and viral distribution of recent Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates in experimentally infected pigs...
  11. Mendoza Magaña M, Godoy Martinez D, Guerrero Cazares H, Rodriguez Peredo A, Dueñas Jimenez J, Duenas Jimenez S, et al. Blue eye disease porcine rubulavirus (PoRv) infects pig neurons and glial cells using sialo-glycoprotein as receptor. Vet J. 2007;173:428-36 pubmed glycoproteins with sialylated N-linked oligosaccharide chains (SNOC) which are used by the porcine rubulavirus (PoRv) as receptors...
  12. Rodriguez Ropon A, Hernandez Jauregui P, Sánchez Torres L, Favila Castillo L, Estrada Parra S, Moreno Lopez J, et al. Apoptosis in lymph nodes and changes in lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood of pigs infected with porcine rubulavirus. J Comp Pathol. 2003;128:1-8 pubmed
    In a first experiment, five pigs were inoculated intranasally with porcine rubulavirus (PoRV) at 5 days of age and killed 7 days post-infection (pi)...
  13. Danjoh I, Sone H, Noda N, Iimura E, Nagayoshi M, Saijo K, et al. Is parainfluenza virus a threatening virus for human cancer cell lines?. Hum Cell. 2009;22:81-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Fortunately, analyses of a large number of immortalized cell lines indicate that PIV5 infection is not widespread. ..
  14. Nordengrahn A, Svenda M, Moreno Lopez J, Bergvall A, Hernandez P, McNeilly F, et al. Development of a blocking ELISA for screening antibodies to porcine rubulavirus, La Piedad Michoacan Virus. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1999;11:319-23 pubmed
    A blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect antibodies to porcine rubulavirus (La Piedad Michoacan Virus [LPMV]) in serum samples from pigs...
  15. Ohta K, Matsumoto Y, Ito M, Nishio M. Tetherin antagonism by V proteins is a common trait among the genus Rubulavirus. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2017;206:319-326 pubmed publisher
    ..previous study demonstrated that the growth of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2), a member of the genus Rubulavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae, was inhibited by tetherin, and its V protein decreases the amount of cell ..
  16. Tsurudome M, Nakahashi M, Matsushima Y, Ito M, Nishio M, Kawano M, et al. Full conversion of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase specificity of the parainfluenza virus 5 fusion protein by replacement of 21 amino acids in its head region with those of the simian virus 41 fusion protein. J Virol. 2013;87:8342-50 pubmed publisher
  17. Wang L, Hansson E, Yu M, Chua K, Mathe N, Crameri G, et al. Full-length genome sequence and genetic relationship of two paramyxoviruses isolated from bat and pigs in the Americas. Arch Virol. 2007;152:1259-71 pubmed
    ..Porcine rubulavirus (PoRV) was identified as the aetiological agent of disease outbreaks in pigs in Mexico during early 1980s, but ..
  18. Peel A, Baker K, Hayman D, Suu Ire R, Breed A, Gembu G, et al. Bat trait, genetic and pathogen data from large-scale investigations of African fruit bats, Eidolon helvum. Sci Data. 2016;3:160049 pubmed publisher
  19. Sánchez Betancourt J, Santos López G, Alonso R, Doporto J, Ramirez Mendoza H, Mendoza S, et al. Molecular characterization of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene of porcine rubulavirus isolates associated with neurological disorders in fattening and adult pigs. Res Vet Sci. 2008;85:359-67 pubmed identify the basis of increased neurovirulence, the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene of several porcine rubulavirus isolates were sequenced and compared with that of La Piedad Michoacan virus and other isolates that did not ..
  20. Young V, Parks G. Simian virus 5 is a poor inducer of chemokine secretion from human lung epithelial cells: identification of viral mutants that activate interleukin-8 secretion by distinct mechanisms. J Virol. 2003;77:7124-30 pubmed
    ..chemokine secretion from human lung A549 cells infected with simian virus 5 (SV5) with other members of the Rubulavirus genus of paramyxoviruses...
  21. Svenda M, Berg M, Moreno Lopez J, Linne T. Analysis of the large (L) protein gene of the porcine rubulavirus LPMV: identification of possible functional domains. Virus Res. 1997;48:57-70 pubmed
    The complete nucleotide sequence of the porcine rubulavirus LPMV (La Piedad Michoacan virus) large (L) protein gene was determined and analysed...
  22. Sasaki M, Setiyono A, Handharyani E, Rahmadani I, Taha S, Adiani S, et al. Molecular detection of a novel paramyxovirus in fruit bats from Indonesia. Virol J. 2012;9:240 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis showed that these virus sequences were related to henipavirus or rubulavirus. This study indicates the presence of novel paramyxoviruses among fruit bat populations in Indonesia.
  23. Killip M, Young D, Gatherer D, Ross C, Short J, Davison A, et al. Deep sequencing analysis of defective genomes of parainfluenza virus 5 and their role in interferon induction. J Virol. 2013;87:4798-807 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, copyback DIs are able to very rapidly activate the IFN induction cascade prior to the expression of detectable levels of V protein by coinfecting nondefective virus...
  24. Hernandez J, Reyes Leyva J, Zenteno R, Ramirez H, Hernandez Jauregui P, Zenteno E. Immunity to porcine rubulavirus infection in adult swine. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1998;64:367-81 pubmed
    The immune response against the porcine rubulavirus was analyzed in experimentally infected adult pigs. High titers of virus neutralizing and hemagglutinating inhibitory antibodies were identified in infected animals...
  25. Barr J, Smith C, Marsh G, Field H, Wang L. Evidence of bat origin for Menangle virus, a zoonotic paramyxovirus first isolated from diseased pigs. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:2590-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The nucleotide sequence of the bat isolate is 94?% identical to the pig isolate. This finding provides strong evidence supporting the hypothesis that the MenPV outbreak in pigs originated from viruses in bats roosting near the piggery...
  26. Tsurudome M, Ito M, Ohtsuka J, Hara K, Komada H, Nishio M, et al. The Fusion Protein Specificity of the Parainfluenza Virus Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Protein Is Not Solely Defined by the Primary Structure of Its Stalk Domain. J Virol. 2015;89:12374-87 pubmed publisher
    ..This notion seems to account for the unidirectional substitutability among rubulavirus HN proteins in triggering noncognate F proteins.
  27. Russell C, Jardetzky T, Lamb R. Conserved glycine residues in the fusion peptide of the paramyxovirus fusion protein regulate activation of the native state. J Virol. 2004;78:13727-42 pubmed
    ..Glycine residues in the FPs of other class I vFGPs may also regulate fusion activation. ..
  28. Pegg C, Hoogland C, Gorman J. Site-specific glycosylation of the Newcastle disease virus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase. Glycoconj J. 2017;34:181-197 pubmed publisher
    Members of the Avulavirus, Respirovirus and Rubulavirus genera of the Paramyxoviridae family of viruses utilise haemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoproteins as their attachment proteins...
  29. Zhang L, Collins P, Lamb R, Pickles R. Comparison of differing cytopathic effects in human airway epithelium of parainfluenza virus 5 (W3A), parainfluenza virus type 3, and respiratory syncytial virus. Virology. 2011;421:67-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies revealed striking differences in cytopathology of PIV5 versus PIV3 or RSV and indicate the extent of cytopathology determined in cell-lines does not predict events in differentiated airway cells. ..
  30. Kindermann J, Kübber Heiss A, Kerschbaumer P, Nowotny N. Phylogenetic analysis of the L and HN gene of ophidian paramyxoviruses. Brief report. Arch Virol. 2001;146:1021-35 pubmed
    ..amino acid sequences were compared to mammalian paramyxoviruses belonging to the genera Respirovirus and Rubulavirus. The deduced amino acid sequences revealed 58.9 to 62% homology for the partial L protein and 41% to 47...
  31. Hernandez Jauregui P, Yacoub A, Kennedy S, Curran B, Tellez C, Svenda M, et al. Uptake of porcine rubulavirus (LPMV) by PK-15 cells. Arch Med Res. 2001;32:400-9 pubmed
    ..The disease is characterized by meningoencephalitis and respiratory distress in young pigs, epididymitis and orchitis in boars, and reproductive failure and abortion in sows...
  32. Waning D, Schmitt A, Leser G, Lamb R. Roles for the cytoplasmic tails of the fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins in budding of the paramyxovirus simian virus 5. J Virol. 2002;76:9284-97 pubmed
    ..P. Schmitt, G. P. Leser, D. L. Waning, and R. A. Lamb, J. Virol. 76:3953-3964, 2002) suggest a redundant role for the cytoplasmic tails of the HN and F proteins in virus assembly and budding. ..
  33. Lee Y, Lee C. Complete genome sequence of a novel porcine parainfluenza virus 5 isolate in Korea. Arch Virol. 2013;158:1765-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis further demonstrated that the novel pPIV5 isolate is a member of the genus Rubulavirus of the subfamily Paramyxovirinae...
  34. Leupin O, Bontron S, Strubin M. Hepatitis B virus X protein and simian virus 5 V protein exhibit similar UV-DDB1 binding properties to mediate distinct activities. J Virol. 2003;77:6274-83 pubmed
  35. Bowden T, Boyle D. Completion of the full-length genome sequence of Menangle virus: characterisation of the polymerase gene and genomic 5' trailer region. Arch Virol. 2005;150:2125-37 pubmed
    ..partial characterisation of the MenV genome, we previously showed that MenV is a novel member of the genus Rubulavirus. Here we report the characterisation of the large (L) polymerase gene and the adjacent 5' trailer region of ..
  36. Rivera Benitez J, De la Luz Armendáriz J, Saavedra Montañez M, Jasso Escutia M, Sánchez Betancourt I, Pérez Torres A, et al. Co-infection of classic swine H1N1 influenza virus in pigs persistently infected with porcine rubulavirus. Vet Microbiol. 2016;184:31-9 pubmed publisher
    Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) and swine influenza virus infection causes respiratory disease in pigs. PorPV persistent infection could facilitate the establishment of secondary infections...
  37. Cuevas Romero S, Blomström A, Alvarado A, Hernández Jáuregui P, Rivera Benitez F, Ramírez Mendoza H, et al. Development of a real-time RT-PCR method for detection of porcine rubulavirus (PoRV-LPMV). J Virol Methods. 2013;189:1-6 pubmed publisher
    In order to provide a rapid and sensitive method for detection of the Porcine rubulavirus La Piedad-Michoacan-Mexico Virus (PoRV-LPMV), we have developed a specific real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay...
  38. Aguilar J, Pérez Breña M, Garcia M, Cruz N, Erdman D, Echevarria J. Detection and identification of human parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, 3, and 4 in clinical samples of pediatric patients by multiplex reverse transcription-PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:1191-5 pubmed
    ..Also, HPIV-4 was more frequently detected than HPIV-2 in this study, suggesting that it may have been underestimated as a lower respiratory tract pathogen because of the insensitivity of cell culture...
  39. Hernandez J, Garfias Y, Nieto A, Mercado C, Montano L, Zenteno E. Comparative evaluation of the CD4+CD8+ and CD4+CD8- lymphocytes in the immune response to porcine rubulavirus. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2001;79:249-59 pubmed analyzes the biological function of CD4+CD8- and CD4+CD8+ lymphocytes in the immune response to porcine rubulavirus (PRv)...
  40. Wiman A, Hjertner B, Linne T, Herron B, Allan G, McNeilly F, et al. Porcine rubulavirus LPMV RNA persists in the central nervous system of pigs after recovery from acute infection. J Neurovirol. 1998;4:545-52 pubmed
    In order to study persistence of the porcine rubulavirus LPMV, we examined tissue samples collected from pigs 53 days after experimental infection...
  41. Cuevas Romero S, Rivera Benítez J, Blomström A, Ramliden M, Hernández Baumgarten E, Hernández Jáuregui P, et al. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico. Virus Genes. 2016;52:81-90 pubmed publisher
    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised...
  42. Killip M, Young D, Precious B, Goodbourn S, Randall R. Activation of the beta interferon promoter by paramyxoviruses in the absence of virus protein synthesis. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:299-307 pubmed publisher
    ..As virus protein synthesis is an absolute requirement for paramyxovirus genome replication, our results indicate that these DI viruses do not require replication to activate the IFN-induction cascade. ..
  43. Li Z, Gabbard J, Mooney A, Chen Z, Tompkins S, He B. Efficacy of parainfluenza virus 5 mutants expressing hemagglutinin from H5N1 influenza A virus in mice. J Virol. 2013;87:9604-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that PIV5?SH is a better vaccine vector than wild-type PIV5...
  44. Arvia R, Corcioli F, Ciccone N, Della Malva N, Azzi A. Detection of 12 respiratory viruses by duplex real time PCR assays in respiratory samples. Mol Cell Probes. 2015;29:408-413 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this assay could be particularly useful to identify the main respiratory viruses directly from clinical samples, after nucleic acid extraction, and, also, to screen a large number of patients for epidemiological studies. ..
  45. Santos López G, Flores E, Baños R, Herrera Camacho I, Reyes Leyva J. Purification of the Porcine rubulavirus attachment protein by liquid isoelectric focusing. Protein Expr Purif. 2004;35:120-5 pubmed
    Porcine rubulavirus (PoRV) is an emerging virus responsible for meningoencephalitis, respiratory distress, and reproductive alterations in pigs...
  46. Tsurudome M, Ito M, Nishio M, Kawano M, Okamoto K, Kusagawa S, et al. Identification of regions on the fusion protein of human parainfluenza virus type 2 which are required for haemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins to promote cell fusion. J Gen Virol. 1998;79 ( Pt 2):279-89 pubmed
    ..These regions on the PIV-2 F protein may be involved in a putative functional interaction with HN proteins, which is considered to be a prerequisite for cell fusion. ..
  47. Reyes Leyva J, Espinosa B, Hernandez J, Zenteno R, Vallejo V, Hernandez Jauregui P, et al. NeuAc alpha 2,3gal-glycoconjugate expression determines cell susceptibility to the porcine rubulavirus LPMV. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 1997;118:327-32 pubmed
    Relevance of membrane sialoglycoconjugates as receptors for infection by the porcine rubulavirus has been determined in vitro by sugar and lectin competition assays and by inhibition of glycosylation...
  48. Pisanelli G, Laurent Rolle M, Manicassamy B, Belicha Villanueva A, Morrison J, Lozano Dubernard B, et al. La Piedad Michoacán Mexico Virus V protein antagonizes type I interferon response by binding STAT2 protein and preventing STATs nuclear translocation. Virus Res. 2016;213:11-22 pubmed publisher
    La Piedad Michoacán Mexico Virus (LPMV) is a member of the Rubulavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae family...
  49. Sun D, Xu P, He B. Sumoylation of the P protein at K254 plays an important role in growth of parainfluenza virus 5. J Virol. 2011;85:10261-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that sumoylation of the P protein at K254 regulates PIV5 gene expression through a host protein. ..
  50. Dayan G, Rubin S. Mumps outbreaks in vaccinated populations: are available mumps vaccines effective enough to prevent outbreaks?. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;47:1458-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate the need for more-effective mumps vaccines and/or for review of current vaccination policies to prevent future outbreaks. ..
  51. Yegambaram K, Bulloch E, Kingston R. Protein domain definition should allow for conditional disorder. Protein Sci. 2013;22:1502-18 pubmed publisher
    ..This explicitly allows for the conditional nature of protein folding, and more clearly demarcates structural domains from intrinsically disordered regions that may function without folding. ..
  52. Salas Rojas M, Sánchez Hernández C, Romero Almaraz Md M, Schnell G, Schmid R, Aguilar Setien A. Prevalence of rabies and LPM paramyxovirus antibody in non-hematophagous bats captured in the Central Pacific coast of Mexico. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004;98:577-84 pubmed
    ..This suggests that bats in the surveyed localities do not play a role in the epidemiology of LPMV...
  53. Cerriteño Sánchez J, Santos López G, Rosas Murrieta N, Reyes Leyva J, Cuevas Romero S, Herrera Camacho I. Production of an enzymatically active and immunogenic form of ectodomain of Porcine rubulavirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase in the yeast Pichia pastoris. J Biotechnol. 2016;223:52-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The etiological agent is a paramyxovirus classified as Porcine rubulavirus (PoRV-LPMV), which exhibits in its envelope the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein, the most ..
  54. Lindquist S, Darnule A, Istas A, Demmler G. Parainfluenza virus type 4 infections in pediatric patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1997;16:34-8 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and epidemiology of parainfluenza virus type 4 infections in pediatric patients...
  55. Zheng X, Song Z, Li Y, Zhang J, Wang X. Possible interference between seasonal epidemics of influenza and other respiratory viruses in Hong Kong, 2014-2017. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:772 pubmed publisher
  56. Tong S, Li M, Vincent A, Compans R, Fritsch E, Beier R, et al. Regulation of fusion activity by the cytoplasmic domain of a paramyxovirus F protein. Virology. 2002;301:322-333 pubmed
    SER virus is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Rubulavirus, which has been isolated from pigs. It is very closely related to SV5 virus serologically, in protein profile, and in nucleotide sequence...
  57. Lin Y, Bright A, Rothermel T, He B. Induction of apoptosis by paramyxovirus simian virus 5 lacking a small hydrophobic gene. J Virol. 2003;77:3371-83 pubmed
    ..Thus, rSV5deltaSH induced cell death by activating TNF-alpha expression, possibly through activation of the NF-kappaB subunit p65 and then targeting p65 for degradation, leading to apoptosis. ..
  58. Sitarska Gołebiowska J. [Mumps in Poland in 2001]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2003;57:39-44 pubmed
    ..6). Children in this age group constituted 54.1% of total number of cases. The MMR vaccine is not included into the national programme of immunisation, the vaccination is recommended on voluntary basis for 2-year and 7-year old children. ..
  59. Głuchowska M, Paradowska Stankiewicz I. [Mumps in Poland in 2010]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2012;66:191-5 pubmed
    ..The high vaccination coverage implies that the incidence rate of mumps will be still decreasing. ..
  60. Stefanoff P, Rogalska J. [Mumps in Poland in 2006]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2008;62:225-8 pubmed
    ..Of 15,115 cases, 656 (4.3%) were hospitalized and no deaths attributed to mumps were reported. ..
  61. Carlos T, Young D, Stertz S, Kochs G, Randall R. Interferon-induced inhibition of parainfluenza virus type 5; the roles of MxA, PKR and oligo A synthetase/RNase L. Virology. 2007;363:166-73 pubmed
  62. Andries K, Moeremans M, Gevers T, Willebrords R, Sommen C, Lacrampe J, et al. Substituted benzimidazoles with nanomolar activity against respiratory syncytial virus. Antiviral Res. 2003;60:209-19 pubmed
    ..e. HPIV2 and Mumps Virus (genus Rubulavirus), HPIV3 (genus Respirovirus), Measles virus (genus Morbillivirus) and hMPV...
  63. Berg M, Bergvall A, Svenda M, Sundqvist A, Moreno Lopez J, Linne T. Analysis of the fusion protein gene of the porcine rubulavirus LPMV: comparative analysis of paramyxovirus F proteins. Virus Genes. 1997;14:55-61 pubmed
    Complementary DNA clones representing the fusion (F) protein gene of the porcine rubulavirus LPMV were isolated and sequenced...
  64. Hjertner B, Linne T, Moreno Lopez J. Establishment and characterisation of a porcine rubulavirus (LPMV) persistent infection in porcine kidney cells. Acta Vet Scand. 1997;38:213-24 pubmed
    Porcine rubulavirus (LPMV) can establish persistent infections in porcine kidney cells. Cell cultures characterised at passages 25 and 65 demonstrated haemadsorption, formation of syncytia, and a slower growth rate...
  65. Parks G, Ward K, Rassa J. Increased readthrough transcription across the simian virus 5 M-F gene junction leads to growth defects and a global inhibition of viral mRNA synthesis. J Virol. 2001;75:2213-23 pubmed
    ..We propose that the elevated naturally occurring M-F readthrough which is characteristic of many paramyxoviruses serves as a mechanism to fine-tune the level of polymerase that is optimal for virus growth. ..
  66. Kozuka Y, Yamashita Y, Kawano M, Tsurudome M, Ito M, Nishio M, et al. Identification of amino acids essential for the human parainfluenza type 2 virus V protein to lower the intracellular levels of the STAT2. Virology. 2003;317:208-19 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, HeLa/SV41V, HeLa/S216D, and HeLa1217R cells are resistant to both IFNs. Intriguingly, HeLa/A105E and HeLa/H108P cells were found to be sensitive to IFN-gamma. ..
  67. Nagai Y, Kato A. Accessory genes of the paramyxoviridae, a large family of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses, as a focus of active investigation by reverse genetics. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2004;283:197-248 pubmed
    ..Studies on the phenotypes of the resulting gene knockout viruses have revealed that the individual accessory genes greatly contribute specifically and additively to the overall viral fitness both in vitro and in vivo. ..
  68. Sun D, Luthra P, Xu P, Yoon H, He B. Identification of a phosphorylation site within the P protein important for mRNA transcription and growth of parainfluenza virus 5. J Virol. 2011;85:8376-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first time that a phosphorylation site within the P protein in paramyxovirus has been found to play a positive role in viral mRNA synthesis and virus growth. ..
  69. Sánchez Betancourt J, Trujillo M, Mendoza S, Reyes Leyva J, Alonso R. Genetic and antigenic changes in porcine rubulavirus. Can J Vet Res. 2012;76:33-7 pubmed
    Blue eye disease, caused by a porcine rubulavirus (PoRV), is an emergent viral swine disease that has been endemic in Mexico since 1980. Atypical outbreaks were detected in 1990 and 2003...
  70. Rosinska M. [Mumps in Poland in 2003]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2005;59:209-13 pubmed
    ..1 per 100,000). In Poland the MMR vaccine was recommended on voluntary basis in place of measles vaccine for children in their 2nd and 7th year of age. Immunization of 2-years old children is mandatory beginning in 2004. ..
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    Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) from porcine rubulavirus La Piedad Michoacan (RvpLPM) is one of the most antigenic proteins known, and is responsible for virus-host cell interaction...
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    ..Taken together, these data suggest that multiple viral components, including assembled nucleocapsids, have important roles in the paramyxovirus budding process. ..
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    In this paper we show that the porcine rubulavirus LPMV phosphoprotein (P) and V protein (V) both interact with the nucleoprotein (NP). There are also indications for an interaction between P and V with L protein...
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