Summary: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.

Top Publications

  1. Fulton R, Purdy C, Confer A, Saliki J, Loan R, Briggs R, et al. Bovine viral diarrhea viral infections in feeder calves with respiratory disease: interactions with Pasteurella spp., parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus. Can J Vet Res. 2000;64:151-9 pubmed
    ..Also, the study indicates that purchased calves may be highly susceptible, after weaning, to infections by BHV-1, BVDV types 1 and 2, PI-3V, and BRSV early in the marketing channel...
  2. Russell C, Jardetzky T, Lamb R. Membrane fusion machines of paramyxoviruses: capture of intermediates of fusion. EMBO J. 2001;20:4024-34 pubmed
    ..The data are consistent with C-1 binding a pre-hairpin intermediate of F and with helical bundle formation being coupled directly to membrane fusion. ..
  3. Lee M, Greenberg D, Yeh S, Yogev R, Reisinger K, Ward J, et al. Antibody responses to bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) vaccination and human PIV3 infection in young infants. J Infect Dis. 2001;184:909-13 pubmed
  4. Weinberg A, Zamora M, Li S, Torres F, Hodges T. The value of polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of viral respiratory tract infections in lung transplant recipients. J Clin Virol. 2002;25:171-5 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that routine use of PCR will enhance the number and speed with which viral respiratory tract infections are diagnosed in lung transplant recipients. ..
  5. Lee J, Chun J, Kim D, Park Y, Choi J, Kim H. Identification of adenovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, and respiratory syncytial virus by two kinds of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a shell vial culture in pediatric patients with viral pneumonia. Yonsei Med J. 2010;51:761-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Two kinds of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a commercial shell vial viral culture were performed to identify causative agents in pediatric patients...
  6. Southern J, Young D, Heaney F, Baumgärtner W, Randall R. Identification of an epitope on the P and V proteins of simian virus 5 that distinguishes between two isolates with different biological characteristics. J Gen Virol. 1991;72 ( Pt 7):1551-7 pubmed
  7. Wong D, Welliver R, Riddlesberger K, Sun M, Ogra P. Rapid diagnosis of parainfluenza virus infection in children. J Clin Microbiol. 1982;16:164-7 pubmed
    ..The IFA assay provided a more rapid and more accurate method for diagnosis of parainfluenza infection in children than did routine tissue culture methods employed currently. ..
  8. He B, Paterson R, Ward C, Lamb R. Recovery of infectious SV5 from cloned DNA and expression of a foreign gene. Virology. 1997;237:249-60 pubmed
    ..The amount of GFP that was expressed varied depending on the nature of the newly introduced transcription signals. ..
  9. Carlos T, Fearns R, Randall R. Interferon-induced alterations in the pattern of parainfluenza virus 5 transcription and protein synthesis and the induction of virus inclusion bodies. J Virol. 2005;79:14112-21 pubmed

More Information

Publications108 found, 100 shown here

  1. Timani K, Sun D, Sun M, Keim C, Lin Y, Schmitt P, et al. A single amino acid residue change in the P protein of parainfluenza virus 5 elevates viral gene expression. J Virol. 2008;82:9123-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results, we propose that phosphorylation of the P protein at residue 157 plays an important role in regulating viral RNA replication. ..
  2. Chiu S, Chan K, Chen H, Young B, Lim W, Wong W, et al. Virologically confirmed population-based burden of hospitalization caused by respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, and parainfluenza viruses in children in Hong Kong. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29:1088-92 pubmed publisher
    ..038, respectively). We documented that the overall pediatric hospitalization burden of RSV was high and comparable to that of influenza. The burden for all the studied viruses was mainly in previously healthy children <5 years of age. ..
  3. Jayakumar J, Suzuki K, Khan M, Smolenski R, Farrell A, Latif N, et al. Gene therapy for myocardial protection: transfection of donor hearts with heat shock protein 70 gene protects cardiac function against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Circulation. 2000;102:III302-6 pubmed
    ..4+/-6.9% versus 84.3+/-5.8% (NS). In a clinically relevant donor heart preservation protocol, HSP70 gene transfection protects both mechanical and endothelial function. ..
  4. Bousse T, Takimoto T, Matrosovich T, Portner A. Two regions of the P protein are required to be active with the L protein for human parainfluenza virus type 1 RNA polymerase activity. Virology. 2001;283:306-14 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that in addition to a P--L binding domain, hPIV1 L requires a specific region on P protein to be biologically functional as a polymerase. ..
  5. Falsey A, Walsh E. Viral pneumonia in older adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:518-24 pubmed
    ..Because clinical features and periods of activity for many viruses overlap, laboratory confirmation of influenza is recommended for cases involving seriously ill or institutionalized patients...
  6. Alymova I, Taylor G, Portner A. Neuraminidase inhibitors as antiviral agents. Curr Drug Targets Infect Disord. 2005;5:401-9 pubmed
    ..Future experimental and clinical studies should establish the viability of NA inhibitors for the treatment of other respiratory virus infections. ..
  7. Aramburo A, Van Schaik S, Louie J, Boston E, Messenger S, Wright C, et al. Role of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for detection of respiratory viruses in critically ill children with respiratory disease: Is it time for a change in algorithm?. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2011;12:e160-5 pubmed publisher
  8. Yu M, Hansson E, Langedijk J, Eaton B, Wang L. The attachment protein of Hendra virus has high structural similarity but limited primary sequence homology compared with viruses in the genus Paramyxovirus. Virology. 1998;251:227-33 pubmed
    ..The biological significance of this finding is discussed. ..
  9. Jecker P, McWilliam A, Marsh A, Holt P, Mann W, Pabst R, et al. Acute laryngotracheitis in the rat induced by Sendai virus: the influx of six different types of immunocompetent cells into the laryngeal mucosa differs strongly between the subglottic and the glottic compartment. Laryngoscope. 2001;111:1645-51 pubmed
    ..The aims were to study both the influx of immunocompetent cells and the adhesion of the pathogen and to correlate them to the different reactions of the laryngeal areas during pseudocroup...
  10. Plemper R, Lakdawala A, Gernert K, Snyder J, Compans R. Structural features of paramyxovirus F protein required for fusion initiation. Biochemistry. 2003;42:6645-55 pubmed
    ..5, while at pH 7.2 fusion is blocked, suggesting that functionality requires low charge in the cavity. These results indicate that specific structural features of the cavity are essential for paramyxovirus fusion initiation. ..
  11. Gray P, Parks G, Alexander Miller M. High avidity CD8+ T cells are the initial population elicited following viral infection of the respiratory tract. J Immunol. 2003;170:174-81 pubmed
    ..However, as the response progresses, low avidity cells are activated/expanded to a greater extent compared with high avidity cells. ..
  12. Kozeletskaia K, Stotskaia L, Serbin A, Munshi K, Sominina A, Kiselev O. [Structure and antiviral activity of adamantane-containing polymer preparation]. Vopr Virusol. 2003;48:19-26 pubmed
    ..The efficiency of the antiviral effect depends on a drug's molecular weight and a structure of chemical bonds between the adamantane nucleus and the polymeric matrix. ..
  13. McCarthy A, Goodman S. Reassessing conflicting evolutionary histories of the Paramyxoviridae and the origins of respiroviruses with Bayesian multigene phylogenies. Infect Genet Evol. 2010;10:97-107 pubmed publisher
  14. Yang L, Li W, Mao L, Hao F, Wang Z, Zhang W, et al. Analysis on the complete genome of a novel caprine parainfluenza virus 3. Infect Genet Evol. 2016;38:29-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete genomes of JS2013 with other strains of genus Respirovirus demonstrated that the JS2013 obviously differed from HPIV1, Sendai virus, HPIV3 and other reported BPIV3 ..
  15. Karpova A, Ronco L, Howley P. Functional characterization of interferon regulatory factor 3a (IRF-3a), an alternative splice isoform of IRF-3. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:4169-76 pubmed
    ..IRF-3a lacks half of the DNA binding domain found in IRF-3 and is unable to bind to the classical IRF binding elements, IFN-stimulated response elements. These studies suggest that IRF-3a may act as a modulator of IRF-3. ..
  16. Hayashi K, Morishita R, Nakagami H, Yoshimura S, Hara A, Matsumoto K, et al. Gene therapy for preventing neuronal death using hepatocyte growth factor: in vivo gene transfer of HGF to subarachnoid space prevents delayed neuronal death in gerbil hippocampal CA1 neurons. Gene Ther. 2001;8:1167-73 pubmed
    ..HGF gene transfer into the subarachnoid space may provide a new therapeutic strategy for cerebrovascular disease. ..
  17. Hammond S, Chenever E, Durbin J. Respiratory virus infection in infants and children. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2007;10:172-80 pubmed
    ..In this article we review the body of literature discussing these anatomic findings, the approaches taken by those investigators, and the types of reagents that are commercially available. ..
  18. Campbell A, Chien J, Kuypers J, Englund J, Wald A, Guthrie K, et al. Respiratory virus pneumonia after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT): associations between viral load in bronchoalveolar lavage samples, viral RNA detection in serum samples, and clinical outcomes of HCT. J Infect Dis. 2010;201:1404-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Viral RNA is also detectable in the serum of patients with RSV, influenza, and MPV pneumonia and may correlate with the severity of disease. ..
  19. Gorrin Rivas M, Arii S, Mori A, Kaneda Y, Imamura M. Mouse macrophage metalloelastase gene delivery by HVJ-cationic liposomes in experimental antiangiogenic gene therapy for murine CT-26 colon cancer. Int J Cancer. 2001;93:731-5 pubmed
  20. Gotoh B, Komatsu T, Takeuchi K, Yokoo J. Paramyxovirus accessory proteins as interferon antagonists. Microbiol Immunol. 2001;45:787-800 pubmed
    ..The Respirovirus (Sendai virus and human parainfluenza virus (hPIV)3) and Rubulavirus (simian virus (SV)5, SV41, mumps virus and ..
  21. Yang D, Tian X, Shi W, Zheng Z. [Establishment of a high-throughput respiratory virus detection technology without RNA purification and reverse transcription]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2013;35:24-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We establish a sensitive, specific, convenient, and high-throughput multiplex detection method suitable for detecting multiple respiratory viral RNAs for epidemiological viral monitoring. ..
  22. Hogan R, Usherwood E, Zhong W, Roberts A, Dutton R, Harmsen A, et al. Activated antigen-specific CD8+ T cells persist in the lungs following recovery from respiratory virus infections. J Immunol. 2001;166:1813-22 pubmed
    ..The kinetics of persistence of Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells in the lung suggests that they play a key role in protective cellular immunity to respiratory virus infections...
  23. Nakamura N, Hart D, Frank C, Marchuk L, Shrive N, Ota N, et al. Efficient transfer of intact oligonucleotides into the nucleus of ligament scar fibroblasts by HVJ-cationic liposomes is correlated with effective antisense gene inhibition. J Biochem. 2001;129:755-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a strong relationship between the nuclear integrity of transfected antisense ODN and its suppression of target mRNA expression. ..
  24. Wang E, Sun X, Qian Y, Zhao L, Tien P, Gao G. Both heptad repeats of human respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein are potent inhibitors of viral fusion. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;302:469-75 pubmed
    ..68 and 2.93 microM, respectively) and they form stable six-helix bundle in vitro with both in the fusion protein form. ..
  25. Briggs C, Mayer A, Parks G. Mumps virus inhibits migration of primary human macrophages toward a chemokine gradient through a TNF-alpha dependent mechanism. Virology. 2012;433:245-52 pubmed publisher
    ..MuV infection enhanced secretion of TNF-?, but not macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF). Antibody inhibition and add-back experiments demonstrated that TNF-? was both necessary and sufficient for MuV-mediate chemotaxis inhibition. ..
  26. McWilliam A, Marsh A, Holt P. Inflammatory infiltration of the upper airway epithelium during Sendai virus infection: involvement of epithelial dendritic cells. J Virol. 1997;71:226-36 pubmed
  27. Lin R, Mamane Y, Hiscott J. Structural and functional analysis of interferon regulatory factor 3: localization of the transactivation and autoinhibitory domains. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:2465-74 pubmed
  28. Schmidt A, Schaap Nutt A, Bartlett E, Schomacker H, Boonyaratanakornkit J, Karron R, et al. Progress in the development of human parainfluenza virus vaccines. Expert Rev Respir Med. 2011;5:515-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccines against HPIV1 and HPIV2 are less advanced and have just entered pediatric trials. ..
  29. Zhou W, Lin F, Teng L, Li H, Hou J, Tong R, et al. Prevalence of herpes and respiratory viruses in induced sputum among hospitalized children with non typical bacterial community-acquired pneumonia. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e79477 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of human herpes viruses (HHVs) and other respiratory viruses in CAP not caused by typical bacterial infection and to determine their prevalence and clinical significance...
  30. Izumi Y, Kim S, Namba M, Yasumoto H, Miyazaki H, Hoshiga M, et al. Gene transfer of dominant-negative mutants of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase prevents neointimal formation in balloon-injured rat artery. Circ Res. 2001;88:1120-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, ERK and JNK activation triggers SMC proliferation, leading to neointimal formation. These kinases may be the new therapeutic targets for prevention of vascular diseases. ..
  31. Chua K, Wang L, Lam S, Crameri G, Yu M, Wise T, et al. Tioman virus, a novel paramyxovirus isolated from fruit bats in Malaysia. Virology. 2001;283:215-29 pubmed
    ..The lack of a C protein-coding region in the P/V gene, the creation of P mRNA by insertion of 2-G residues, and the results of phylogenetic analyses all indicated that TiV is a novel member of the genus Rubulavirus. ..
  32. Liu M, Worley S, Arrigain S, Aurora P, Ballmann M, Boyer D, et al. Respiratory viral infections within one year after pediatric lung transplant. Transpl Infect Dis. 2009;11:304-12 pubmed publisher
    ..6, 95% confidence interval 1.6-4.4). RVI commonly occurs after pediatric lung transplantation with risk factors including younger age and non-CF diagnosis. RVI is associated with decreased 1-year survival. ..
  33. Janke B, Paul P, Landgraf J, Halbur P, Huinker C. Paramyxovirus infection in pigs with interstitial pneumonia and encephalitis in the United States. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2001;13:428-33 pubmed
    ..Germ-free pigs inoculated with this isolate developed mild clinical illness and similar but less severe histopathologic lesions in lungs and brain. ..
  34. Look D, Walter M, Williamson M, Pang L, You Y, Sreshta J, et al. Effects of paramyxoviral infection on airway epithelial cell Foxj1 expression, ciliogenesis, and mucociliary function. Am J Pathol. 2001;159:2055-69 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these model systems of paramyxoviral respiratory infection mimic human pathology and identify epithelial cell Foxj1 expression as an early marker of epithelial cell differentiation, recovery, and function...
  35. Llano M, Kelly T, Vanegas M, Peretz M, Peterson T, Simari R, et al. Blockade of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 expression by caveolin-1. J Virol. 2002;76:9152-64 pubmed
    ..These data show that coexpression of caveolins can markedly inhibit expression of HIV proviral DNA and establish that the inhibition is mediated by the hydrophobic, membrane-associated domain. ..
  36. Haller A, Miller T, Mitiku M, Coelingh K. Expression of the surface glycoproteins of human parainfluenza virus type 3 by bovine parainfluenza virus type 3, a novel attenuated virus vaccine vector. J Virol. 2000;74:11626-35 pubmed
    ..In summary, bPIV3 was shown to function as a virus vector that may be especially suitable for vaccination of infants and children against PIV3 and other viruses. ..
  37. Liang B, Ngwuta J, Surman S, Kabatova B, Liu X, Lingemann M, et al. Improved Prefusion Stability, Optimized Codon Usage, and Augmented Virion Packaging Enhance the Immunogenicity of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Protein in a Vectored-Vaccine Candidate. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..The improved immunogenicity included induction of increased titers of high-quality complement-independent antibodies with greater pre-F site Ø binding and greater protection against RSV challenge. ..
  38. Hirano T, Kaneko S, Kaneda Y, Saito I, Furuyama J, Tamaoki T, et al. HVJ-liposome-mediated transfection of HSVtk gene driven by AFP promoter inhibits hepatic tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma in SCID mice. Gene Ther. 2001;8:80-3 pubmed
    ..Three injections of the AFPTK1 plasmid vector completely inhibited tumor growth. This procedure seems to have great potential for the treatment of multiple hepatic tumors. ..
  39. Parks G, Alexander Miller M. High avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes to a foreign antigen are efficiently activated following immunization with a recombinant paramyxovirus, simian virus 5. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:1167-72 pubmed
    ..The advantages and future potential use of rSV5 vaccine vectors are discussed. ..
  40. Palermo L, Uppal M, Skrabanek L, Zumbo P, Germer S, Toussaint N, et al. Features of Circulating Parainfluenza Virus Required for Growth in Human Airway. MBio. 2016;7:e00235 pubmed publisher
    ..These marked contrasts in the viral properties necessary for infection in cultured immortalized cells and in natural host tissues and animals will influence future basic and clinical studies. ..
  41. Kawano M, Bando H, Yuasa T, Kondo K, Tsurudome M, Komada H, et al. Sequence determination of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene of human parainfluenza type 2 virus and the construction of a phylogenetic tree for HN proteins of all the paramyxoviruses that are infectious to humans. Virology. 1990;174:308-13 pubmed
    ..In addition, amino acid sequences involved in hemagglutinating and neuraminidase activities of paramyxovirus were discussed. ..
  42. Tomita S, Tomita N, Yamada T, Zhang L, Kaneda Y, Morishita R, et al. Transcription factor decoy to study the molecular mechanism of negative regulation of renin gene expression in the liver in vivo. Circ Res. 1999;84:1059-66 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results document the importance of NREB in the inhibition of renin gene expression in rat liver in vivo and suggest the possibility of in vivo renin gene modulation by the TFD approach. ..
  43. Tschen J, Tyring S, Font R. Paramyxovirus-like inclusions in an intradermal nevus from a healthy woman. Am J Dermatopathol. 1994;16:422-5 pubmed
    ..Immunoperoxidase and polymerase chain reaction studies for the measles virus were performed, with negative results. The patient remains in good health 2 years after excision of the skin lesions. ..
  44. Borkow G, Ovadia M. Selective lysis of virus-infected cells by cobra snake cytotoxins: A sendai virus, human erythrocytes, and cytotoxin model. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;264:63-8 pubmed
  45. Zuffa T, Krobot P. [Detection of antibodies against infectious viral laryngotracheitis and parainfluenza 2 in dogs bred in Czechoslovakia]. Vet Med (Praha). 1987;32:689-94 pubmed
    ..9%) against CPIV-2 in titres from 1:2 to 1:256. The results indicate that the dog population is considerably infected with viruses affecting the respiratory organs...
  46. Bailly J, McAuliffe J, Durbin A, Elkins W, Collins P, Murphy B. A recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV3) in which the nucleocapsid N protein has been replaced by that of bovine PIV3 is attenuated in primates. J Virol. 2000;74:3188-95 pubmed
  47. Bowden T, Westenberg M, Wang L, Eaton B, Boyle D. Molecular characterization of Menangle virus, a novel paramyxovirus which infects pigs, fruit bats, and humans. Virology. 2001;283:358-73 pubmed publisher
    ..within the amino acid residues considered important determinants of neuraminidase activity suggest MenV HN is unlikely to possess the same degree of neuraminidase activity characteristic of other rubulavirus and respirovirus HN proteins.
  48. Suzuki S, Li A, Ishisaki A, Hou X, Hasegawa M, Fukumura M, et al. Feeding suppression by fibroblast growth factor-1 is accompanied by selective induction of heat shock protein 27 in hypothalamic astrocytes. Eur J Neurosci. 2001;13:2299-308 pubmed
  49. Olchowy T, Slauson D, Bochsler P. Induction of procoagulant activity in virus infected bovine alveolar macrophages and the effect of lipopolysaccharide. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1997;58:27-37 pubmed
    ..In the field situation, an initial viral infection may induce fibrin deposition in the pulmonary alveoli prior to the establishment of a secondary gram negative bacterial infection. ..
  50. Suzuki K, Sawa Y, Kaneda Y, Ichihara H, Shirakura R, Matsuda H. [In vivo gene transfection with heat shock protein 70 enhances myocardial tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat]. J Cardiol. 1998;31:187-8 pubmed
  51. Sakaguchi T, Uchiyama T, Fujii Y, Kiyotani K, Kato A, Nagai Y, et al. Double-layered membrane vesicles released from mammalian cells infected with Sendai virus expressing the matrix protein of vesicular stomatitis virus. Virology. 1999;263:230-43 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the VSV M protein has a budding activity per se and that SeV proteins are passively involved in the release of VSV M. ..
  52. Otsuji T, Ogata N, Takahashi K, Matsushima M, Uyama M, Kaneda Y. In vivo gene transfer into choroidal neovascularization by the HVJ liposome method. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2000;238:191-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the HVJ liposome method achieved effective gene transfer into choroidal neovascular tissue. Thus, this method can be used as a nonviral gene therapy system for the treatment of choroidal neovascularization in vivo. ..
  53. Tsuboniwa N, Morishita R, Hirano T, Fujimoto J, Furukawa S, Kikumori M, et al. Safety evaluation of hemagglutinating virus of Japan--artificial viral envelope liposomes in nonhuman primates. Hum Gene Ther. 2001;12:469-87 pubmed
    ..Moreover, no histological changes were observed. This safety evaluation study demonstrates the safety, feasibility, and therapeutic potential of the novel transfection vehicle, HVJ--AVE liposomes, in humans. ..
  54. Bell J, Garson K, Lichty B, Stojdl D. Oncolytic viruses: programmable tumour hunters. Curr Gene Ther. 2002;2:243-54 pubmed
    ..The current and potential clinical applications/limitations will be discussed for oncolytic viruses from the herpesvirus, adenoviruses, picornavirus, rhabdovirus, and paramyxovirus families. ..
  55. Koike H, Tomita N, Azuma H, Taniyama Y, Yamasaki K, Kunugiza Y, et al. An efficient gene transfer method mediated by ultrasound and microbubbles into the kidney. J Gene Med. 2005;7:108-16 pubmed
    ..Overall, an ultrasound-mediated gene transfer method with Optison enhanced the efficiency of gene transfer and expression in the rat kidney. This novel non-viral method may be useful for gene therapy for renal disease. ..
  56. Hutchinson A, Ghimire A, Thompson M, Black J, Brand C, Lowe A, et al. A community-based, time-matched, case-control study of respiratory viruses and exacerbations of COPD. Respir Med. 2007;101:2472-81 pubmed
    ..These data support the causative role of viruses in triggering COPD exacerbations in the community. ..
  57. Uehara T, Honda K, Hatano E, Terao R, Iimuro Y, Yamamoto N, et al. Gene transfer to the rat biliary tract with the HVJ-cationic liposome method. J Hepatol. 1999;30:836-42 pubmed
  58. Suzuki M, Bannai M, Matsumuro M, Furuhata Y, Ikemura R, Kuranaga E, et al. Suppression of copulatory behavior by intracerebroventricular infusion of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide of granulin in neonatal male rats. Physiol Behav. 2000;68:707-13 pubmed
  59. Arai T, Abe K, Matsuoka H, Yoshida M, Mori M, Goya S, et al. Introduction of the interleukin-10 gene into mice inhibited bleomycin-induced lung injury in vivo. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2000;278:L914-22 pubmed
    ..However, IL-10 did not affect the proliferation of WI-38 cells induced by platelet-derived growth factor. These data suggested that exogenous IL-10 may be useful in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis...
  60. Dutch R, Hagglund R, Nagel M, Paterson R, Lamb R. Paramyxovirus fusion (F) protein: a conformational change on cleavage activation. Virology. 2001;281:138-50 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that the six-helix bundle core complex is not present in the precursor molecule F(0) and that significant conformational changes occur subsequent to cleavage of the F protein. ..
  61. Skiadopoulos M, Surman S, Riggs J, Collins P, Murphy B. A chimeric human-bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 expressing measles virus hemagglutinin is attenuated for replication but is still immunogenic in rhesus monkeys. J Virol. 2001;75:10498-504 pubmed
    ..It should now be possible to induce a protective immune response against measles virus in 6-month-old infants, an age group that in developing areas of the world is not responsive to the current measles virus vaccine. ..
  62. Cabello C, Manjarrez M, Olvera R, Villalba J, Valle L, Paramo I. Frequency of viruses associated with acute respiratory infections in children younger than five years of age at a locality of Mexico City. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2006;101:21-4 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrated the presence of ARI and of different viruses in a period of 13 months, as well as the most frequent viruses in children younger than 5 years of age from a community of Mexico City. ..
  63. Forgie S, Marrie T. Healthcare-associated atypical pneumonia. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;30:67-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our knowledge about healthcare-associated atypical pneumonia will continue to evolve as newer pathogens are identified and as newer diagnostic modalities such as multiplex polymerase chain reaction are introduced. ..
  64. Frickey P. Markers differentiating type 3 parainfluenza virus grown at 25 and 37 C. Appl Microbiol. 1969;17:589-95 pubmed
    ..Hamsters responded to the intranasal inoculation of each virus line by the development of hemagglutinating-inhibiting antibodies in the sera. ..
  65. Ronco L, Karpova A, Vidal M, Howley P. Human papillomavirus 16 E6 oncoprotein binds to interferon regulatory factor-3 and inhibits its transcriptional activity. Genes Dev. 1998;12:2061-72 pubmed
    ..We propose that the interaction of E6 with IRF-3 and the inhibition of IRF-3's transcriptional activity may provide the virus a means to circumvent the normal antiviral response of an HPV16-infected cell. ..
  66. Adair B, Bradford H, McNulty M, Foster J. Cytotoxic interactions between bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus and bovine alveolar macrophages. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1999;67:285-94 pubmed
  67. Macek V, Dakhama A, Hogg J, Green F, Rubin B, Hegele R. PCR detection of viral nucleic acid in fatal asthma: is the lower respiratory tract a reservoir for common viruses?. Can Respir J. 1999;6:37-43 pubmed
    ..In fatal asthma, lower airway secretions do not show a specific pattern of viral nucleic acid. Intriguingly, these results suggest that the lower respiratory tract may act as a potential reservoir for common respiratory viruses. ..
  68. Paterson R, Leser G, Shaughnessy M, Lamb R. The paramyxovirus SV5 V protein binds two atoms of zinc and is a structural component of virions. Virology. 1995;208:121-31 pubmed
    ..The V protein has been purified from V recombinant baculovirus-infected insect cells and by using inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy it was found that each molecule of V binds two zinc atoms. ..
  69. Andrejeva J, Norsted H, Habjan M, Thiel V, Goodbourn S, Randall R. ISG56/IFIT1 is primarily responsible for interferon-induced changes to patterns of parainfluenza virus type 5 transcription and protein synthesis. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:59-68 pubmed publisher
    ..It was also shown that ISG56/IFIT1 is primarily responsible for the IFN-induced inhibition of PIV5. ..
  70. MacDonald N, Wolfish N, McLaine P, Phipps P, Rossier E. Role of respiratory viruses in exacerbations of primary nephrotic syndrome. J Pediatr. 1986;108:378-82 pubmed
    ..Inasmuch as multiple viral agents were associated with exacerbations, nonspecific host response to infection, not viral antigen or antibody response, may be the link to NS. ..
  71. Perler L, Pfister H, Schweizer M, Peterhans E, Jungi T. A bioassay for interferon type I based on inhibition of Sendai virus growth. J Immunol Methods. 1999;222:189-96 pubmed
    ..Treatment with beta-propiolactone led to virus inactivation without affecting the bioactivity of IFNs as detected in the Sendai-virus-based assay. ..
  72. van Drunen Littel van den Hurk S, Braun R, Karvonen B, King T, Yoo D, Babiuk L. Immune responses and protection induced by DNA vaccines encoding bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 glycoproteins. Virology. 1999;260:35-46 pubmed
    ..A plasmid encoding a truncated, secreted form of HN induced a Th2-type immune response, regardless of the route of delivery. In cotton rats, HN- and F-encoding plasmids conferred protection from BPIV3 challenge. ..
  73. Walter M, Kajiwara N, Karanja P, Castro M, Holtzman M. Interleukin 12 p40 production by barrier epithelial cells during airway inflammation. J Exp Med. 2001;193:339-51 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest a novel role for epithelial-derived IL-12 p40 in modifying the level of airway inflammation during mucosal defense and disease...
  74. Jacobson E, Origgi F, Pessier A, Lamirande E, Walker I, Whitaker B, et al. Paramyxovirus infection in caiman lizards (Draecena guianensis). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2001;13:143-51 pubmed
    ..This report is only the second of a paramyxovirus identified in a lizard and is the first to snow the relationship between histologic and ultrastructural findings and virus isolation. ..
  75. Martínez Gamba R, Pradal Roa P, Castrejón F, Herradora M, Galvan E, Mercado C. Persistence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella choleraesuis, Aujeszky's Disease virus and Blue Eye Disease virus in ensilages based on the solid fraction of pig faeces. J Appl Microbiol. 2001;91:750-8 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that ensilages based on the solid fraction of pig faeces appear to reduce the risk of the transmission of the agents inoculated in this study and help to reduce the environmental impact by using the solid in animal feed. ..
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