newcastle disease virus

Summary

Summary: The most well known avian paramyxovirus in the genus AVULAVIRUS and the cause of a highly infectious pneumoencephalitis in fowl. It is also reported to cause CONJUNCTIVITIS in humans. Transmission is by droplet inhalation or ingestion of contaminated water or food.

Top Publications

  1. Wambura P, Kataga S. Putative protective antibody response following oral vaccination of multi-age free ranging helmeted guinea fowls (Numida meleagris) with Newcastle disease virus strain I-2 coated on oiled rice. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2011;43:99-102 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings from the present study showed that the I-2 virus coated on the oiled rice is safe, immunogenic and provoked production of protective antibody response following oral vaccination of helmeted guinea fowls...
  2. Maminiaina O, Gil P, Briand F, Albina E, Keita D, Andriamanivo H, et al. Newcastle disease virus in Madagascar: identification of an original genotype possibly deriving from a died out ancestor of genotype IV. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13987 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the potential implication in vaccination failures of specific amino acid substitutions predominantly found on surface-exposed epitopes of F and HN proteins is discussed...
  3. El Zowalaty M, Chander Y, Redig P, Abd El Latif H, El Sayed M, Goyal S. Selective isolation of Avian influenza virus (AIV) from cloacal samples containing AIV and Newcastle disease virus. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2011;23:330-2 pubmed
    ..addition to AIV, waterfowl are often coinfected with other viruses, such as the paramyxoviruses, of which Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is of particular importance because of the highly virulent nature of certain strains of this virus ..
  4. Bwala D, Clift S, Duncan N, Bisschop S, Oludayo F. Determination of the distribution of lentogenic vaccine and virulent Newcastle disease virus antigen in the oviduct of SPF and commercial hen using immunohistochemistry. Res Vet Sci. 2012;93:520-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ND) in South Africa has proved difficult since 2002 following the introduction of lineage 5d/VIId Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain ("goose paramyxovirus" - GPMV) to which commercially available ND vaccines ..
  5. Diel D, Susta L, Cardenas Garcia S, Killian M, Brown C, Miller P, et al. Complete genome and clinicopathological characterization of a virulent Newcastle disease virus isolate from South America. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:378-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The disease is caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) or avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1), a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the genus ..
  6. Sharma B, Pokhriyal M, Rai G, Saxena M, Ratta B, Chaurasia M, et al. Isolation of Newcastle disease virus from a non-avian host (sheep) and its implications. Arch Virol. 2012;157:1565-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an avian virus that has not been isolated from naturally infected non-avian and non-human hosts except for one report in which it was isolated from cattle in 1952...
  7. Snoeck C, Owoade A, Couacy Hymann E, Alkali B, Okwen M, Adeyanju A, et al. High genetic diversity of Newcastle disease virus in poultry in West and Central Africa: cocirculation of genotype XIV and newly defined genotypes XVII and XVIII. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:2250-60 pubmed publisher
    Despite rampant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) outbreaks in Africa for decades, the information about the genetic characteristics of the virulent strains circulating in West and Central Africa is still scarce...
  8. Luo C, Qu H, Ma J, Wang J, Li C, Yang C, et al. Genome-wide association study of antibody response to Newcastle disease virus in chicken. BMC Genet. 2013;14:42 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the molecular basis of the variation in antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is not clear...
  9. Tarnagda Z, Yougbare I, Kam A, Tahita M, Ouedraogo J. Prevalence of infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease virus among domestic and wild birds in H5N1 outbreaks areas. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2011;5:565-70 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to determine the prevalence of avian influenza virus, infectious bronchitis virus, and Newcastle disease virus among domestic and wild birds in highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks areas...
  10. Munir M, Cortey M, Abbas M, Qureshi Z, Afzal F, Shabbir M, et al. Biological characterization and phylogenetic analysis of a novel genetic group of Newcastle disease virus isolated from outbreaks in commercial poultry and from backyard poultry flocks in Pakistan. Infect Genet Evol. 2012;12:1010-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The characteristics of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as virulent (F protein cleavage site, ICPI and MDT) in apparently healthy backyard poultry (BYP) ..

Detail Information

Publications107 found, 100 shown here

  1. Wambura P, Kataga S. Putative protective antibody response following oral vaccination of multi-age free ranging helmeted guinea fowls (Numida meleagris) with Newcastle disease virus strain I-2 coated on oiled rice. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2011;43:99-102 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings from the present study showed that the I-2 virus coated on the oiled rice is safe, immunogenic and provoked production of protective antibody response following oral vaccination of helmeted guinea fowls...
  2. Maminiaina O, Gil P, Briand F, Albina E, Keita D, Andriamanivo H, et al. Newcastle disease virus in Madagascar: identification of an original genotype possibly deriving from a died out ancestor of genotype IV. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13987 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the potential implication in vaccination failures of specific amino acid substitutions predominantly found on surface-exposed epitopes of F and HN proteins is discussed...
  3. El Zowalaty M, Chander Y, Redig P, Abd El Latif H, El Sayed M, Goyal S. Selective isolation of Avian influenza virus (AIV) from cloacal samples containing AIV and Newcastle disease virus. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2011;23:330-2 pubmed
    ..addition to AIV, waterfowl are often coinfected with other viruses, such as the paramyxoviruses, of which Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is of particular importance because of the highly virulent nature of certain strains of this virus ..
  4. Bwala D, Clift S, Duncan N, Bisschop S, Oludayo F. Determination of the distribution of lentogenic vaccine and virulent Newcastle disease virus antigen in the oviduct of SPF and commercial hen using immunohistochemistry. Res Vet Sci. 2012;93:520-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ND) in South Africa has proved difficult since 2002 following the introduction of lineage 5d/VIId Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain ("goose paramyxovirus" - GPMV) to which commercially available ND vaccines ..
  5. Diel D, Susta L, Cardenas Garcia S, Killian M, Brown C, Miller P, et al. Complete genome and clinicopathological characterization of a virulent Newcastle disease virus isolate from South America. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:378-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The disease is caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) or avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1), a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the genus ..
  6. Sharma B, Pokhriyal M, Rai G, Saxena M, Ratta B, Chaurasia M, et al. Isolation of Newcastle disease virus from a non-avian host (sheep) and its implications. Arch Virol. 2012;157:1565-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an avian virus that has not been isolated from naturally infected non-avian and non-human hosts except for one report in which it was isolated from cattle in 1952...
  7. Snoeck C, Owoade A, Couacy Hymann E, Alkali B, Okwen M, Adeyanju A, et al. High genetic diversity of Newcastle disease virus in poultry in West and Central Africa: cocirculation of genotype XIV and newly defined genotypes XVII and XVIII. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:2250-60 pubmed publisher
    Despite rampant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) outbreaks in Africa for decades, the information about the genetic characteristics of the virulent strains circulating in West and Central Africa is still scarce...
  8. Luo C, Qu H, Ma J, Wang J, Li C, Yang C, et al. Genome-wide association study of antibody response to Newcastle disease virus in chicken. BMC Genet. 2013;14:42 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the molecular basis of the variation in antibody response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is not clear...
  9. Tarnagda Z, Yougbare I, Kam A, Tahita M, Ouedraogo J. Prevalence of infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease virus among domestic and wild birds in H5N1 outbreaks areas. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2011;5:565-70 pubmed
    ..This study aimed to determine the prevalence of avian influenza virus, infectious bronchitis virus, and Newcastle disease virus among domestic and wild birds in highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 outbreaks areas...
  10. Munir M, Cortey M, Abbas M, Qureshi Z, Afzal F, Shabbir M, et al. Biological characterization and phylogenetic analysis of a novel genetic group of Newcastle disease virus isolated from outbreaks in commercial poultry and from backyard poultry flocks in Pakistan. Infect Genet Evol. 2012;12:1010-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The characteristics of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) as virulent (F protein cleavage site, ICPI and MDT) in apparently healthy backyard poultry (BYP) ..
  11. Steglich C, Grund C, Ramp K, Breithaupt A, Höper D, Keil G, et al. Chimeric newcastle disease virus protects chickens against avian influenza in the presence of maternally derived NDV immunity. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e72530 pubmed publisher
    b>Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus type 1, is a promising vector for expression of heterologous proteins from a variety of unrelated viruses including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV)...
  12. Hu J, Nistal Villán E, Voho A, Ganee A, Kumar M, Ding Y, et al. A common polymorphism in the caspase recruitment domain of RIG-I modifies the innate immune response of human dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2010;185:424-32 pubmed publisher
    Infection of human dendritic cells (DCs) by negative-strand RNA viruses, such as Newcastle disease virus, leads to the induction of the IFNbeta gene, IFNB1, through the activation of the RNA helicase RIG-I, which is encoded by DDX58...
  13. Wang K, Sui H, Li L, Li X, Wang L. [Anti-tumor immunity of Newcastle disease virus HN protein is influenced by differential subcellular targeting]. Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi. 2010;13:773-6 pubmed publisher
    Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of newcastle disease virus is an important immunogen for oncolysis...
  14. Kumar S, Nayak B, Collins P, Samal S. Evaluation of the Newcastle disease virus F and HN proteins in protective immunity by using a recombinant avian paramyxovirus type 3 vector in chickens. J Virol. 2011;85:6521-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Newcastle disease virus (NDV) belongs to serotype 1 of the avian paramyxoviruses (APMV-1) and causes severe disease in chickens. Current live attenuated NDV vaccines are not fully satisfactory...
  15. Hu Z, Hu S, Meng C, Wang X, Zhu J, Liu X. Generation of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus vaccine candidate with high yield in embryonated chicken eggs. Avian Dis. 2011;55:391-7 pubmed
    To generate a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine with high yield in embryonated chicken eggs, we selected genotype VII NDV strain JS5/05, which possesses a high virus titer in embryos as the parental virus...
  16. Yuan P, Swanson K, Leser G, Paterson R, Lamb R, Jardetzky T. Structure of the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) ectodomain reveals a four-helix bundle stalk. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:14920-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations of the Newcastle disease virus HN stalk region have been shown to affect both F activation and NA activities, but a structural basis for ..
  17. Dortmans J, Koch G, Rottier P, Peeters B. A comparative infection study of pigeon and avian paramyxovirus type 1 viruses in pigeons: evaluation of clinical signs, virus shedding and seroconversion. Avian Pathol. 2011;40:125-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The results show that the pigeon strain AV324 is not virulent for pigeons, but underlines the potential risk of poultry becoming infected by PPMV-1 shed by non-symptomatic pigeons...
  18. Molouki A, Hsu Y, Jahanshiri F, Abdullah S, Rosli R, Yusoff K. The matrix (M) protein of Newcastle disease virus binds to human bax through its BH3 domain. Virol J. 2011;8:385 pubmed publisher
    The underlying mechanisms by which Newcastle disease virus (NDV) kills cancer cells are still unclear...
  19. Kortekaas J, de Boer S, Kant J, Vloet R, Antonis A, Moormann R. Rift Valley fever virus immunity provided by a paramyxovirus vaccine vector. Vaccine. 2010;28:4394-401 pubmed publisher
    ..We here report the production of Gn and Gc by a recombinant vaccine strain of the avian paramyxovirus Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and demonstrate that intramuscular vaccination with this experimental NDV-based vector vaccine ..
  20. Ding Z, Cong Y, Chang S, Wang G, Wang Z, Zhang Q, et al. Genetic analysis of avian paramyxovirus-1 (Newcastle disease virus) isolates obtained from swine populations in China related to commonly utilized commercial vaccine strains. Virus Genes. 2010;41:369-76 pubmed publisher
    b>Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been thought to only infect avian species...
  21. Ni J, Schirrmacher V, Fournier P. The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase gene of Newcastle Disease Virus: a powerful molecular adjuvant for DNA anti-tumor vaccination. Vaccine. 2010;28:6891-900 pubmed publisher
    ..this end, we prepared bicistronic DNA plasmids encoding the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle Disease Virus in addition to a tumor target antigen...
  22. Snoeck C, Adeyanju A, Owoade A, Couacy Hymann E, Alkali B, Ottosson U, et al. Genetic diversity of newcastle disease virus in wild birds and pigeons in West Africa. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:7867-74 pubmed publisher
    In West and Central Africa, virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains of the recently identified genotypes XIV, XVII, and XVIII are enzootic in poultry, representing a considerable threat to the sector...
  23. Yacoub A, Leijon M, McMenamy M, Ullman K, McKillen J, Allan G, et al. Development of a novel real-time PCR-based strategy for simple and rapid molecular pathotyping of Newcastle disease virus. Arch Virol. 2012;157:833-44 pubmed publisher
    ..to simultaneously detect and to discriminate low-pathogenic lentogenic and virulent meso/velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The pathotyping is achieved by a three-step semi-nested PCR...
  24. Zhao K, Zhang Y, Zhang X, Li W, Shi C, Guo C, et al. Preparation and efficacy of Newcastle disease virus DNA vaccine encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles. Int J Nanomedicine. 2014;9:389-402 pubmed publisher
    Optimal preparation conditions of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) F gene deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccine encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles (pFNDV-CS-NPs) were determined...
  25. Fan Y, Hu Y, Wang D, Guo Z, Zhao X, Guo L, et al. Epimedium polysaccharide and propolis flavone can synergistically stimulate lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and enhance the immune responses to ND vaccine in chickens. Int J Biol Macromol. 2010;47:87-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that EP and PF possessed synergistically immune enhancement, EP-PF had the best efficacy, especially at medium dose, and would be expected to exploit into a new-type immunopotentiator...
  26. Susta L, Miller P, Afonso C, Brown C. Clinicopathological characterization in poultry of three strains of Newcastle disease virus isolated from recent outbreaks. Vet Pathol. 2011;48:349-60 pubmed publisher
    Newcastle disease is a severe threat to the poultry industry and is caused by Newcastle disease virus, a member of the genus Avulavirus, family Paramyxoviridae...
  27. Zhang W, Yin Z, Liu N, Yang T, Wang J, Bu Z, et al. DNA-chitosan nanoparticles improve DNA vaccine-elicited immunity against Newcastle disease virus through shuttling chicken interleukin-2 gene. J Microencapsul. 2010;27:693-702 pubmed publisher
    ..5. When pCAGG-ChIL2 CNPs were administered to chickens simultaneously with a DNA vaccine against Newcastle disease virus (NDV), haemagglutination inhibition antibody titers and serum interferon-? (IFN-?) levels were ..
  28. Gravel K, McGinnes L, Reitter J, Morrison T. The transmembrane domain sequence affects the structure and function of the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein. J Virol. 2011;85:3486-97 pubmed publisher
    The role of specific sequences in the transmembrane (TM) domain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) fusion (F) protein in the structure and function of this protein was assessed by replacing this domain with the F protein TM domains from ..
  29. Cattoli G, Susta L, Terregino C, Brown C. Newcastle disease: a review of field recognition and current methods of laboratory detection. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2011;23:637-56 pubmed publisher
  30. Hoque M, Burgess G, Karo Karo D, Cheam A, Skerratt L. Monitoring of wild birds for Newcastle disease virus in north Queensland, Australia. Prev Vet Med. 2012;103:49-62 pubmed publisher
    ..3 and 4). Our findings of higher prevalence in PWDs along with confirmation of class-one and class-two type NDV RNAs will significantly contribute to the design of surveillance programs for NDVs in northern Australia. ..
  31. Ramp K, Topfstedt E, Wäckerlin R, Höper D, Ziller M, Mettenleiter T, et al. Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of different recombinant Newcastle disease virus clone 30 variants after in ovo vaccination. Avian Dis. 2012;56:208-17 pubmed
    Even though Newcastle disease virus (NDV) live vaccine strains can be applied to 1-day-old chickens, they are pathogenic to chicken embryos when given in ovo 3 days before hatch...
  32. Zhang R, Wang X, Su J, Zhao J, Zhang G. Isolation and analysis of two naturally-occurring multi-recombination Newcastle disease viruses in China. Virus Res. 2010;151:45-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential role of swine-origin viruses in the evolution of virulent NDV warrants further investigation. ..
  33. Biswas M, Johnson J, Kumar S, Parks G, Elankumarana S, SUBBIAH E. Incorporation of host complement regulatory proteins into Newcastle disease virus enhances complement evasion. J Virol. 2012;86:12708-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian paramyxovirus, is inherently tumor selective and is currently being considered as a clinical oncolytic virus and vaccine vector...
  34. Yuan P, Paterson R, Leser G, Lamb R, Jardetzky T. Structure of the ulster strain newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase reveals auto-inhibitory interactions associated with low virulence. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002855 pubmed publisher
    ..HN can thereby directly influence virulence and in a subset of avirulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains, such as NDV Ulster, HN must be proteolytically activated to remove a C-terminal extension ..
  35. Munir M, Abbas M, Khan M, Zohari S, Berg M. Genomic and biological characterization of a velogenic Newcastle disease virus isolated from a healthy backyard poultry flock in 2010. Virol J. 2012;9:46 pubmed publisher
    b>Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes severe and economically important disease in poultry around the globe. None of NDV strains in Pakistan have been completely characterized and the role of rural poultry in harbouring NDV is unclear...
  36. Porotto M, Salah Z, Devito I, Talekar A, Palmer S, Xu R, et al. The second receptor binding site of the globular head of the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase activates the stalk of multiple paramyxovirus receptor binding proteins to trigger fusion. J Virol. 2012;86:5730-41 pubmed publisher
    ..For Newcastle disease virus (NDV), one bifunctional site (site I) on HN's globular head can mediate both receptor binding and ..
  37. Snoeck C, Marinelli M, Charpentier E, Sausy A, Conzemius T, Losch S, et al. Characterization of newcastle disease viruses in wild and domestic birds in Luxembourg from 2006 to 2008. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013;79:639-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is one of the most important viral diseases of birds. Wild birds constitute a natural reservoir of low-virulence viruses, while poultry are the main reservoir of virulent strains...
  38. Sarfati Mizrahi D, Lozano Dubernard B, Soto Priante E, Castro Peralta F, Flores Castro R, Loza Rubio E, et al. Protective dose of a recombinant Newcastle disease LaSota-avian influenza virus H5 vaccine against H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus and velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus in broilers with high maternal antibody levels. Avian Dis. 2010;54:239-41 pubmed
    The protective dose of a live recombinant LaSota Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-avian influenza H5 vaccine (rNDV-LS/AI-H5) was determined in broiler chickens with high levels of maternal antibodies against NDV and avian influenza virus (..
  39. Wilden H, Schirrmacher V, Fournier P. Important role of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3 in the interferon response of mouse macrophages upon infection by Newcastle disease virus. Int J Oncol. 2011;39:493-504 pubmed publisher
    b>Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an interesting agent for activating innate immune activity in macrophages including secretion of TNF-? and IFN-?, upregulation of TRAIL and activation of NF-?B and iNOS...
  40. Kumar R, Tiwari A, Chaturvedi U, Kumar G, Sahoo A, Rajmani R, et al. Velogenic newcastle disease virus as an oncolytic virotherapeutics: in vitro characterization. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2012;167:2005-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Oncolytic virotherapy seems to be a promising nonconventional way to treat cancers. Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a poultry virus, is nonpathogenic to human and domestic animals and has a long history of being ..
  41. Zoth S, Gómez E, Carballeda J, Carrillo E, Berinstein A. Expression of a secreted version of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase glycoprotein of Newcastle disease virus: its evaluation as a diagnostic reagent. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2011;23:519-23 pubmed publisher
    The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) constitutes, together with the fusion glycoprotein, the main surface antigen of this avian pathogen, which causes a highly contagious disease, relevant ..
  42. Diel D, da Silva L, Liu H, Wang Z, Miller P, Afonso C. Genetic diversity of avian paramyxovirus type 1: proposal for a unified nomenclature and classification system of Newcastle disease virus genotypes. Infect Genet Evol. 2012;12:1770-9 pubmed publisher
    The avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1), or Newcastle disease virus (NDV), comprise a diverse group of viruses with a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genome...
  43. Dortmans J, Koch G, Rottier P, Peeters B. Virulence of Newcastle disease virus: what is known so far?. Vet Res. 2011;42:122 pubmed publisher
    In the last decade many studies have been performed on the virulence of Newcastle disease virus (NDV)...
  44. Mirza A, Iorio R. A mutation in the stalk of the newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein prevents triggering of the F protein despite allowing efficient HN-F complex formation. J Virol. 2013;87:8813-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-induced membrane fusion requires formation of a complex between the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) proteins...
  45. Kim S, Wanasen N, Paldurai A, Xiao S, Collins P, Samal S. Newcastle disease virus fusion protein is the major contributor to protective immunity of genotype-matched vaccine. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74022 pubmed publisher
    Virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can cause devastating disease in chickens worldwide. Although the current vaccines are substantially effective, they do not completely prevent infection, virus shedding and disease...
  46. Swanson K, Wen X, Leser G, Paterson R, Lamb R, Jardetzky T. Structure of the Newcastle disease virus F protein in the post-fusion conformation. Virology. 2010;402:372-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies of the Newcastle disease virus, human parainfluenza virus 3 and parainfluenza virus 5 F proteins revealed differences in the pre- and ..
  47. Ch ng W, Stanbridge E, Ong K, Wong K, Yusoff K, Shafee N. Partial protection against enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in a mouse model immunized with recombinant Newcastle disease virus capsids displaying the EV71 VP1 fragment. J Med Virol. 2011;83:1783-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, a candidate vaccine construct, containing recombinant Newcastle disease virus capsids that display an EV71 VP1 fragment (NPt-VP1(1-100) ) protein, was evaluated in a mouse model of ..