Summary: A genus in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE, causing disease in domestic fowl. There are many species, the most well-known being avian paramyxovirus 1 (NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS).

Top Publications

  1. Jinding C, Ming L, Tao R, Chaoan X. A goose-sourced paramyxovirus isolated from southern China. Avian Dis. 2005;49:170-3 pubmed
    ..8% to 99.6% on an amino acid basis. Phylogenetic analysis of the APMV-1 isolates showed that this isolate most closely resembled the reference APMV-1 strain GD/1/98/Go, which was originally isolated from geese in 1998...
  2. Zhang G, Zhao J, Wang H, Yang A, Bu C, Wang M. Isolation, identification, and comparison of four isolates of avian paramyxovirus serotype 2 in China. Avian Dis. 2006;50:386-90 pubmed
    ..By sequence comparison, it was also revealed that at the molecular level the four virus strains belong to APMV-2, and that two of the strains were isolated from the same group of imported Gouldian Finches...
  3. Paldurai A, Subbiah M, Kumar S, Collins P, Samal S. Complete genome sequences of avian paramyxovirus type 8 strains goose/Delaware/1053/76 and pintail/Wakuya/20/78. Virus Res. 2009;142:144-53 pubmed publisher
  4. Kim S, Xiao S, Shive H, Collins P, Samal S. Mutations in the fusion protein cleavage site of avian paramyxovirus serotype 4 confer increased replication and syncytium formation in vitro but not increased replication and pathogenicity in chickens and ducks. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e50598 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that the cleavage site sequence of the F protein is not a limiting determinant of APMV-4 pathogenicity in chickens and ducks...
  5. Kim S, Xiao S, Shive H, Collins P, Samal S. Replication, neurotropism, and pathogenicity of avian paramyxovirus serotypes 1-9 in chickens and ducks. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34927 pubmed publisher
    ..The link between the presence of a furin cleavage site in the F protein, syncytium formation, systemic spread, and virulence that has been well-established with APMV-1 pathotypes was not evident with the other APMV serotypes...
  6. Nayak B, Dias F, Kumar S, Paldurai A, Collins P, Samal S. Avian paramyxovirus serotypes 2-9 (APMV-2-9) vary in the ability to induce protective immunity in chickens against challenge with virulent Newcastle disease virus (APMV-1). Vaccine. 2012;30:2220-7 pubmed publisher
    The avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) belong to the genus Avulavirus of family Paramyxoviridae...
  7. Shi S, Huang Y, Cui S, Cheng L, Fu G, Li X, et al. Genomic sequence of an avian paramyxovirus type 1 strain isolated from Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) in China. Arch Virol. 2011;156:405-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analysis showed that the FP1/02 strain shared high identity with other APMV-1 strains such as ZJ1, SF02 and NA-1 isolated from geese. ..
  8. Beck I, Gerlach H, Burkhardt E, Kaleta E. Investigation of several selected adjuvants regarding their efficacy and side effects for the production of a vaccine for parakeets to prevent a disease caused by a paramyxovirus type 3. Vaccine. 2003;21:1006-22 pubmed
    ..Regarding its efficacy and side effects, the vaccine formulation "PMV-3/Specol" has been evaluated positively and can be recommended for the production of a PMV-3 vaccine for parakeets...
  9. Samuel A, Subbiah M, Shive H, Collins P, Samal S. Experimental infection of hamsters with avian paramyxovirus serotypes 1 to 9. Vet Res. 2011;42:38 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results demonstrate that all nine known APMV serotypes are capable of replicating in hamsters with minimal disease and pathology. ..

More Information


  1. Xiao S, Subbiah M, Kumar S, De Nardi R, Terregino C, Collins P, et al. Complete genome sequences of avian paramyxovirus serotype 6 prototype strain Hong Kong and a recent novel strain from Italy: evidence for the existence of subgroups within the serotype. Virus Res. 2010;150:61-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicated that the APMV-6 strains represents a single serotype with two subgroups that differ substantially based on nt and aa sequences and can be distinguished by HI assay. ..
  2. Kaleta E, Werner O, Hemberger Y. Isolation and characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 3b from farmed Namibian ostriches (Struthio camelus f. dom.). Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2010;123:103-10 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first description of the occurrence of aPMV-3b in farmed ostriches...
  3. Warke A, Appleby L, Mundt E. Prevalence of antibodies to different avian paramyxoviruses in commercial poultry in the United States. Avian Dis. 2008;52:694-7 pubmed
  4. Subbiah M, Xiao S, Khattar S, Dias F, Collins P, Samal S. Pathogenesis of two strains of avian paramyxovirus serotype 2, Yucaipa and Bangor, in chickens and turkeys. Avian Dis. 2010;54:1050-7 pubmed
    ..There also was evidence of systemic spread even though the cleavage site of the viral fusion glycoprotein does not contain the canonical furin protease cleavage site...
  5. Stanislawek W, Wilks C, Meers J, Horner G, Alexander D, Manvell R, et al. Avian paramyxoviruses and influenza viruses isolated from mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in New Zealand. Arch Virol. 2002;147:1287-302 pubmed
    ..The other isolate was very similar to a virus (MC 110/77) obtained from a shelduck in France. ..
  6. Kumar S, Nayak B, Collins P, Samal S. Evaluation of the Newcastle disease virus F and HN proteins in protective immunity by using a recombinant avian paramyxovirus type 3 vector in chickens. J Virol. 2011;85:6521-34 pubmed publisher
    ..rAMPV3 represents an avirulent vaccine vector that can be used against NDV and other poultry pathogens...
  7. Nayak B, Kumar S, Collins P, Samal S. Molecular characterization and complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus type 4 prototype strain duck/Hong Kong/D3/75. Virol J. 2008;5:124 pubmed publisher
    ..All APMVs, except avian metapneumovirus, are classified in the genus Avulavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae...
  8. Kumar S, Nayak B, Collins P, Samal S. Complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus type 3 reveals an unusually long trailer region. Virus Res. 2008;137:189-97 pubmed publisher
  9. Miller P, Afonso C, Spackman E, Scott M, Pedersen J, Senne D, et al. Evidence for a new avian paramyxovirus serotype 10 detected in rockhopper penguins from the Falkland Islands. J Virol. 2010;84:11496-504 pubmed publisher
  10. Zhang G, Zhao J, Wang M. Serological survey on prevalence of antibodies to avian paramyxovirus serotype 2 in China. Avian Dis. 2007;51:137-9 pubmed
    ..9%, 25.1%, 45.8%, 47.6%, and 80.0%, respectively. The results of this survey indicate that the distribution of APMV-2 is very widespread in China and that more attention should be paid to the influence of APMV-2 on poultry production...
  11. Subbiah M, Xiao S, Collins P, Samal S. Complete sequence of the genome of avian paramyxovirus type 2 (strain Yucaipa) and comparison with other paramyxoviruses. Virus Res. 2008;137:40-8 pubmed publisher
  12. Samuel A, Paldurai A, Kumar S, Collins P, Samal S. Complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus (APMV) serotype 5 completes the analysis of nine APMV serotypes and reveals the longest APMV genome. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9269 pubmed publisher
    ..The genome is 17,262 nucleotides (nt) long, which is the longest among members of genus Avulavirus, and encodes six non-overlapping genes in the order of 3'N-P/V/W-M-F-HN-L-5' with intergenic regions of 4-57 nt...
  13. Kumar S, Militino Dias F, Nayak B, Collins P, Samal S. Experimental avian paramyxovirus serotype-3 infection in chickens and turkeys. Vet Res. 2010;41:72 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, there was little or no disease despite systemic viral spread and abundant viral replication in all the tissues tested...
  14. Rosseel T, Lambrecht B, Vandenbussche F, van den Berg T, Van Borm S. Identification and complete genome sequencing of paramyxoviruses in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) using random access amplification and next generation sequencing technologies. Virol J. 2011;8:463 pubmed publisher
    ..AIV and APMV1 were excluded using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing and specific real-time RT-PCR tests...
  15. Shihmanter E, Weisman Y, Manwell R, Alexander D, Lipkind M. Mixed paramyxovirus infection of wild and domestic birds in Israel. Vet Microbiol. 1997;58:73-8 pubmed
    ..The finding of double APMV infection in poultry farms appears to be important for epizootiology and pathogenesis of APMV-caused diseases...
  16. Maldonado A, Arenas A, Tarradas M, Luque I, Astorga R, Perea J, et al. Serological survey for avian paramyxoviruses from wildfowl in aquatic habitats in Andalusia. J Wildl Dis. 1995;31:66-9 pubmed
    ..By contrast, in non-aquatic species high antibody prevalences were detected only to PMV-2 (60%), particularly in sparrows (68%), while antibody prevalences to other PMV's were moderate or low. ..
  17. Xiao S, Paldurai A, Nayak B, Subbiah M, Collins P, Samal S. Complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus type 7 (strain Tennessee) and comparison with other paramyxoviruses. Virus Res. 2009;145:80-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The mean death time in embryonated chicken eggs was found to be more than 144h, indicating APMV-7 to be avirulent for chickens. ..
  18. Samuel A, Kumar S, Madhuri S, Collins P, Samal S. Complete sequence of the genome of avian paramyxovirus type 9 and comparison with other paramyxoviruses. Virus Res. 2009;142:10-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The mean death time in embryonated chicken eggs was found to be more than 120h, indicating APMV-9 to be avirulent for chickens. ..
  19. Jung A, Grund C, Müller I, Rautenschlein S. Avian paramyxovirus serotype 3 infection in Neopsephotus, Cyanoramphus, and Neophema species. J Avian Med Surg. 2009;23:205-8 pubmed
    ..An eventual mortality rate of 70% occurred in the Neophema species, but a group of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and parrotlets (Forpus species) kept in the same facility showed no clinical signs during the outbreak...
  20. Subbiah M, Khattar S, Collins P, Samal S. Mutations in the fusion protein cleavage site of avian paramyxovirus serotype 2 increase cleavability and syncytium formation but do not increase viral virulence in chickens. J Virol. 2011;85:5394-405 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, cleavage of the F protein is not a determinant of APMV-2 pathogenicity in chickens...
  21. Alexander D. Newcastle disease and other avian paramyxoviruses. Rev Sci Tech. 2000;19:443-62 pubmed
    ..Both types of viruses cause respiratory disease and egg production losses which may be severe when exacerbated by other infections or environmental stresses. No reports exist of natural infections of chickens with APMV-3 viruses. ..
  22. Jeon W, Lee E, Kwon J, Choi K. Full-length genome sequence of avain paramyxovirus type 4 isolated from a mallard duck. Virus Genes. 2008;37:342-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Using phylogenetic analysis, APMV-4 was classified as a member of the genus Avulavirus, and was more closely related to APMV-1 than to APMV-2 or APMV-6...
  23. Kumar S, Nayak B, Samuel A, Xiao S, Collins P, Samal S. Complete genome sequence of avian paramyxovirus-3 strain Wisconsin: evidence for the existence of subgroups within the serotype. Virus Res. 2010;149:78-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that the two APMV-3 strains represent a single serotype with two subgroups that differ substantially based on nt and aa sequences, but with only a modest antigenic difference. ..
  24. Chang P, Hsieh M, Shien J, Graham D, Lee M, Shieh H. Complete nucleotide sequence of avian paramyxovirus type 6 isolated from ducks. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:2157-68 pubmed
    ..This result suggests that APMV should constitute a new genus within the subfamily Paramyxovirinae. ..
  25. Hanson B, Swayne D, Senne D, Lobpries D, Hurst J, Stallknecht D. Avian influenza viruses and paramyxoviruses in wintering and resident ducks in Texas. J Wildl Dis. 2005;41:624-8 pubmed
    ..7% of teal in February 2002. The season of isolation of both viruses and the majority of the AIV subtypes detected in this study are not typical based on previous reports of these viruses from North American ducks...
  26. Wajid A, Dimitrov K, Wasim M, Rehmani S, Basharat A, Bibi T, et al. Repeated isolation of virulent Newcastle disease viruses in poultry and captive non-poultry avian species in Pakistan from 2011 to 2016. Prev Vet Med. 2017;142:1-6 pubmed publisher
    Virulent viruses of the panzootic Avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV-1) of sub-genotype VIIi were repeatedly isolated (2011-2016) from commercial chickens and from multiple non-poultry avian species in Pakistan...
  27. Kong L, Ren T, Ao Y, Xi R, Liao M. Multiplex RT-PCR for virulence detection and differentiation between Newcastle disease virus and goose-origin APVM-1. Avian Dis. 2007;51:668-73 pubmed
    ..Twenty-six viral isolates of NDV and four goose-origin APVM-1 were analyzed, and we found that the VII genotype of NDV is the most prevalent type in South China and that it is not closely related to viral strains common to Europe...
  28. Bui V, Mizutani T, Nguyen T, Trinh D, Awad S, Minoungou G, et al. Characterization of a genetic and antigenic variant of avian paramyxovirus 6 isolated from a migratory wild bird, the red-necked stint (Calidris ruficollis). Arch Virol. 2014;159:3101-5 pubmed publisher
    ..8KS0813 was identified as APMV-6/red-necked stint/Japan/8KS0813/08, but it is antigenically and genetically distinguishable from the prototype strain, suggesting that variant APMV-6 is circulating in migratory birds...
  29. Connor J, McKenzie M, Parks G, Lyles D. Antiviral activity and RNA polymerase degradation following Hsp90 inhibition in a range of negative strand viruses. Virology. 2007;362:109-19 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, we propose that Hsp90 is a host factor that is important for the replication of many negative strand viruses. ..
  30. Hernandez S, Peters V, Weygandt P, Jimenez C, Villegas P, O Connor B, et al. Do shade-grown coffee plantations pose a disease risk for wild birds?. Ecohealth. 2013;10:145-58 pubmed publisher
    ..and the diversity and identity of endoparasites. ..
  31. Lipkind M, Alexander D, Shihmanter E, Weisman Y, Collins M. Antigenic heterogeneity of avian paramyxoviruses of serotype 2 ("Yucaipa-like") isolated from domestic and wild birds in Israel. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 1995;18:189-207 pubmed
  32. Zhang G, Song Y, Chen Y, Wang M, Zhao J. [Preparation and identification of the monoclonal antibody specific to hemagglutinin of avian paramyxovirus type 2]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2008;24:148-51 pubmed
    ..The McAb did not cross react with the common avian viruses, showing good specificity. There existed obvious differences in antigenitic relationship among APMV-2 viruses analyzed by HI and indirect ELISA using McAb 1G4A7. ..
  33. Orynbayev M, Fereidouni S, Sansyzbai A, Seidakhmetova B, Strochkov V, Nametov A, et al. Genetic diversity of avian avulavirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus genotypes VIg and VIIb) circulating in wild birds in Kazakhstan. Arch Virol. 2018;163:1949-1954 pubmed publisher
    In order to improve current understanding of the molecular epidemiology of avian avulavirus 1 (AAvV-1, formerly avian paramyxovirus 1) in wild birds in Kazakhstan, 860 cloacal swab samples were evaluated...
  34. Thampaisarn R, Bui V, Trinh D, Nagai M, Mizutani T, Omatsu T, et al. Characterization of avian paramyxovirus serotype 14, a novel serotype, isolated from a duck fecal sample in Japan. Virus Res. 2017;228:46-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The phylogenetic analysis of the whole genome revealed that the virus was a member of the genus Avulavirus, but that it was distinct from APMV-1 to APMV-13...
  35. Karamendin K, Kydyrmanov A, Seidalina A, Asanova S, Daulbayeva K, Kasymbekov Y, et al. Circulation of avian paramyxoviruses in wild birds of Kazakhstan in 2002-2013. Virol J. 2016;13:23 pubmed publisher
    ..These data confirm the wide distribution of APMV-1, APMV-4 and APMV-6 in the Asian subcontinent. The obtained data contribute to the accumulation of knowledge on the genetic diversity and prevalence of APMVs in wild bird populations. ..
  36. Briand F, Henry A, Massin P, Jestin V. Complete genome sequence of a novel avian paramyxovirus. J Virol. 2012;86:7710 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here the complete genome of a new avian paramyxovirus (APMV-11) isolated from common snipes. Sequence data from this virus showed that it has the largest genome of APMV and unusual P gene mRNA editing. ..
  37. Blahak S. Isolation and characterization of paramyxoviruses from snakes and their relationship to avian paramyxoviruses. Zentralbl Veterinarmed B. 1995;42:216-24 pubmed
    ..At 28 degrees C the snake viruses could be cultivated in several cell cultures. Separation of virus proteins using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed differences between the snake isolates and avian PMVs of serotypes 1 and 7. ..
  38. Dundon W, Heidari A, De Nardi R, Terregino C, Capua I, Cattoli G. Genetic variation of Italian avian paramyxoviruses serotype 9. Virus Genes. 2010;41:43-6 pubmed publisher
  39. Sobolev I, Sharshov K, Yurchenko K, Korneev D, Glushchenko A, Alikina T, et al. Characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 6 isolated from a Eurasian teal in the intersection of migratory flyways in Russia. Arch Virol. 2016;161:3275-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the virus has low pathogenic potential according to genetic markers and animal model experiments. ..
  40. Mao X, Kusagawa S, Tsurudome M, Komada H, Kawano M, Nishio M, et al. Characterization of Bangor virus proteins by using monoclonal antibodies. Avian Dis. 1996;40:150-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, all of the anti-F protein mAbs showed neutralizing activity. ..
  41. Fornells L, Travassos C, Costa C, Novelli R, Petrucci M, Soffiati F, et al. Detection of avian paramyxoviruses in migratory and resident birds in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Avian Dis. 2013;57:780-4 pubmed
    ..Four samples were characterized as avian paramyxovirus serotype-2 (APMV-2) by a hemagglutination inhibition test. These results reinforce the importance of continuous surveillance of wild species in Brazil...
  42. Terregino C, Aldous E, Heidari A, Fuller C, De Nardi R, Manvell R, et al. Antigenic and genetic analyses of isolate APMV/wigeon/Italy/3920-1/2005 indicate that it represents a new avian paramyxovirus (APMV-12). Arch Virol. 2013;158:2233-43 pubmed publisher
    ..1 % identity to the APMV-9 genome, and less than 42 % identity to representatives of the other avian paramyxovirus groups. We propose isolate wigeon/Italy/3920-1/2005 as the prototype strain of a further APMV group, APMV-12...
  43. Abolnik C, de Castro M, Rees J. Full genomic sequence of an African avian paramyxovirus type 4 strain isolated from a wild duck. Virus Genes. 2012;45:537-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The sequencing approach adopted in this study could successfully indicate quasispecies in the viral stock...
  44. Shihmanter E, Weisman Y, Lublin A, Mechani S, Gruenberg R, Horowith H, et al. Avian paramyxoviruses serotype 3 isolated from captive birds in Israel: clinical signs, pathology, and antigenic characterization. Avian Dis. 1998;42:418-22 pubmed
    ..This is the first isolation of APMV-3 from birds belonging to the orders Anseriformes and Ciconiiformes. ..
  45. Dortmans J, Fuller C, Aldous E, Rottier P, Peeters B. Two genetically closely related pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1) variants with identical velogenic fusion protein cleavage sites but with strongly contrasting virulence. Vet Microbiol. 2010;143:139-44 pubmed publisher
    ..However, our observations emphasize the need to determine both the virulence (ICPI) and the sequence of the cleavage site of the F protein to avoid dismissing of potential virulent PPMV-1 isolates. ..
  46. Mahmood S, Alexander D, Slomka M, Manvell R, Hanna A, Fuller C, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequences for the HN gene of 22 avian paramyxovirus type 2 viruses reveals marked heterogeneity. Avian Pathol. 2010;39:453-8 pubmed publisher
  47. Tsai H, Lee C. Serological survey of racing pigeons for selected pathogens in Taiwan. Acta Vet Hung. 2006;54:179-89 pubmed
    ..ND or EDS-76 seroprevalence of pigeons vaccinated with ND vaccine or EDS-76 vaccine was significantly higher than that of pigeons that did not receive any vaccination...
  48. Fine H. Toward a glioblastoma vaccine: promise and potential pitfalls. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22:4240-3 pubmed
  49. Wood A, Dagless M, Pirie J, Garcia Rueda M, Manvell R, Cox W, et al. Isolations of avian paramyxovirus type 2 from domestic fowl in Scotland in 2002 and 2006. Vet Rec. 2008;162:788-9 pubmed
  50. Subbiah M, Nayak S, Collins P, Samal S. Complete genome sequences of avian paramyxovirus serotype 2 (APMV-2) strains Bangor, England and Kenya: evidence for the existence of subgroups within serotype 2. Virus Res. 2010;152:85-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These differences in antigenic relatedness suggest that these four APMV-2 strains represent a single serotype with two antigenic subgroups, and this is strongly supported by the dimorphism in nt and aa sequence identity. ..
  51. Zou J, Gong Z. Inhibition of replication of goose paramyxovirus SF02 by hammerhead ribozyme targeting to the SF02 F mRNA in chicken embryo fibroblasts. Sheng Wu Hua Xue Yu Sheng Wu Wu Li Xue Bao (Shanghai). 2003;35:801-5 pubmed
    ..Survival percentage of CEFs being transfected with pcDNA-RzF598 and infected SF02 was up to 78.8%, while the survival percentages of untransfected CEFs and CEFs transfected with pcDNA3 after infection with SF02 were only about 5%. ..
  52. Alkhalaf A, Saif Y. Lack of antigenic relationships between avian pneumovirus and four avian paramyxoviruses. Avian Dis. 2003;47:175-9 pubmed
    ..All the viruses were isolated in the United States or Canada. No antigenic relationships between APV and the PMVs were detected by the described tests. ..
  53. Khattar S, Nayak B, Kim S, Xiao S, Samal S, Paldurai A, et al. Evaluation of the replication, pathogenicity, and immunogenicity of avian paramyxovirus (APMV) serotypes 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 in rhesus macaques. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75456 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that they are not likely to significantly infect primates in nature, and represent promising attenuated candidates for vector development. ..
  54. Nayak B, Nayak S, Paldurai A, Kumar S, De Nardi R, Terregino C, et al. Evaluation of the genetic diversity of avian paramyxovirus type 4. Virus Res. 2013;171:103-10 pubmed publisher
    Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) belong to the genus Avulavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae and include at least nine serotypes, APMV-1 to -9, as well as two additional provisional serotypes...
  55. Goekjian V, Smith J, Howell D, Senne D, Swayne D, Stallknecht D. Avian influenza viruses and avian paramyxoviruses in wintering and breeding waterfowl populations in North Carolina, USA. J Wildl Dis. 2011;47:240-5 pubmed
    ..During summers 2005 and 2006, a high prevalence of APMV-1 infection was observed in resident breeding Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) and Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)...
  56. Choi K, Kim J, Kye S, Park C, Sung H. Genetic diversity of avian paramyxovirus type 4 isolates from wild ducks in Korea from 2006 to 2011. Virus Genes. 2013;46:302-8 pubmed publisher
  57. Li X, Zhang S, Wang H, Zhao J, Zhang G. Genomic characterization of two avian paramyxovirus type 2 isolates from chickens in China. Virus Genes. 2011;43:55-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the APMVs, APMV-2 strains F8 and NK exhibited a closer evolutionary relationship with APMV-7 and APMV-8 representative strains...
  58. Zou J, Shan S, Yao L, Gong Z. Sequence analysis of F gene of SF02 isolate of goose paramyxovirus and its identification by multiplex RT-PCR. Sheng Wu Hua Xue Yu Sheng Wu Wu Li Xue Bao (Shanghai). 2002;34:439-44 pubmed
    ..Based on the F gene sequence a multiplex RT-PCR method has been developed. It could be used for the discrimination of GPV from NDV. ..
  59. Toro H, Hoerr F, Farmer K, Dykstra C, Roberts S, Perdue M. Pigeon paramyxovirus: association with common avian pathogens in chickens and serologic survey in wild birds. Avian Dis. 2005;49:92-8 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean titers were observed during the months of October and November 2001, following closely multiple PPMV-1 episodes of mortality in wild collard doves in northwestern Florida. ..
  60. Li H, Ma B, Mi J, Jin H, Xu L, Wang J. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of goose interferon gamma. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007;117:67-74 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the availability of bioactive rgoIFN-gamma and its specific antibodies provides valuable tools for studying T cell immunity in geese. ..
  61. Shihmanter E, Panshin A, Lipkind M. Nucleotide sequence of the matrix protein gene of avian paramyxovirus, serotype 3b: evidence on another member of the suggested new genus of the subfamily Paramyxovirinae. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005;28:37-51 pubmed
    ..recently been suggested to be excluded from the Rubulavirus genus and assigned (together with APMV-6) to a new Avulavirus genus within the subfamily Paramyxovirinae of the Paramyxoviridae family...
  62. Woolcock P, Moore J, McFarland M, Panigrahy B. Isolation of paramyxovirus serotype 7 from ostriches (Struthio camelus). Avian Dis. 1996;40:945-9 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report of an isolation of PMV-7 from ostriches. ..
  63. Meulemans G, Roels S, van den Berg T, Godfroid J, Decaesstecker M. Acute pancreatitis in chickens due to non-virulent Newcastle disease virus. Vet Rec. 1998;143:300-3 pubmed
  64. Capua I, Alexander D. Human health implications of avian influenza viruses and paramyxoviruses. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2004;23:1-6 pubmed
    ..For this reason, any suspected case should be investigated thoroughly. ..
  65. Thomazelli L, de Araujo J, Fabrizio T, Walker D, Reischak D, Ometto T, et al. Novel avian paramyxovirus (APMV-15) isolated from a migratory bird in South America. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177214 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that unclassified/calidris_fuscicollis/Brazil/RS-1177/2012 is the prototype strain of a new APMV serotype, APMV-15. ..
  66. Dundon W, Heidari A, Fusaro A, Monne I, Beato M, Cattoli G, et al. Genetic data from avian influenza and avian paramyxoviruses generated by the European network of excellence (EPIZONE) between 2006 and 2011--review and recommendations for surveillance. Vet Microbiol. 2012;154:209-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on this information and putting it all into a European context, recommendations for continued surveillance of these important viruses within Europe are presented...