Top Publications

  1. Yin H, Paterson R, Wen X, Lamb R, Jardetzky T. Structure of the uncleaved ectodomain of the paramyxovirus (hPIV3) fusion protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:9288-93 pubmed
    ..The transmembrane anchor domains of F may therefore profoundly influence the folding energetics that establish and maintain a metastable, prefusion state. ..
  2. Luque L, Russell C. Spring-loaded heptad repeat residues regulate the expression and activation of paramyxovirus fusion protein. J Virol. 2007;81:3130-41 pubmed
    ..Overall, the data support the hypothesis that regions in the F protein that undergo dramatic changes in secondary and tertiary structure between the prefusion and hairpin conformations regulate F protein expression and activation. ..
  3. Harcourt B, Tamin A, Ksiazek T, Rollin P, Anderson L, Bellini W, et al. Molecular characterization of Nipah virus, a newly emergent paramyxovirus. Virology. 2000;271:334-49 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that although HV and NV are closely related, they are clearly distinct from any of the established genera within the Paramyxoviridae and should be considered a new genus. ..
  4. Porotto M, Carta P, Deng Y, Kellogg G, Whitt M, Lu M, et al. Molecular determinants of antiviral potency of paramyxovirus entry inhibitors. J Virol. 2007;81:10567-74 pubmed
  5. Bowden T, Bingham J, Harper J, Boyle D. Menangle virus, a pteropid bat paramyxovirus infectious for pigs and humans, exhibits tropism for secondary lymphoid organs and intestinal epithelium in weaned pigs. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:1007-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide new insights into the pathogenesis of MenPV in weaned pigs, and will facilitate future control and eradication programmes should it ever re-emerge in the pig population...
  6. Donald J, Zhang Y, Fiorin G, Carnevale V, Slochower D, Gai F, et al. Transmembrane orientation and possible role of the fusogenic peptide from parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) in promoting fusion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:3958-63 pubmed publisher
  7. Wang L, Harcourt B, Yu M, Tamin A, Rota P, Bellini W, et al. Molecular biology of Hendra and Nipah viruses. Microbes Infect. 2001;3:279-87 pubmed
    The structure and genetic organization of Hendra and Nipah viruses places them in the subfamily Paramyxovirinae. However, low homology with other subfamily members and several novel biological and molecular features such as genome length ..
  8. Connolly S, Leser G, Jardetzky T, Lamb R. Bimolecular complementation of paramyxovirus fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins enhances fusion: implications for the mechanism of fusion triggering. J Virol. 2009;83:10857-68 pubmed publisher
    ..In support of a provocateur model of F activation, we demonstrate by analysis of the morphology of soluble F trimers that the hyperfusogenic mutation S443P has a destabilizing effect on F. ..
  9. Chua K. A novel approach for collecting samples from fruit bats for isolation of infectious agents. Microbes Infect. 2003;5:487-90 pubmed
    ..This novel approach resulted in the isolation of several other known and unidentified infectious agents besides Nipah virus. ..

More Information


  1. Karlin D, Ferron F, Canard B, Longhi S. Structural disorder and modular organization in Paramyxovirinae N and P. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:3239-52 pubmed
    The existence and extent of disorder within the replicative complex (N, P and the polymerase, L) of Paramyxovirinae were investigated, drawing on the discovery that the N-terminal moiety of the phosphoprotein (P) and the C-terminal ..
  2. Smith E, Popa A, Chang A, Masante C, Dutch R. Viral entry mechanisms: the increasing diversity of paramyxovirus entry. FEBS J. 2009;276:7217-27 pubmed publisher
  3. Zokarkar A, Lamb R. The paramyxovirus fusion protein C-terminal region: mutagenesis indicates an indivisible protein unit. J Virol. 2012;86:2600-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Alanine scanning mutagenesis of MPER indicates that it has a regulatory role in fusion since both hyperfusogenic and hypofusogenic mutations were found. ..
  4. Chua K, Goh K, Wong K, Kamarulzaman A, Tan P, Ksiazek T, et al. Fatal encephalitis due to Nipah virus among pig-farmers in Malaysia. Lancet. 1999;354:1257-9 pubmed
    ..Clinically and epidemiologically the infection is distinct from infection by the Hendra virus. We propose that this Hendra-like virus was the cause of the outbreak of encephalitis in Malaysia. ..
  5. Wang L, Yu M, Hansson E, Pritchard L, Shiell B, Michalski W, et al. The exceptionally large genome of Hendra virus: support for creation of a new genus within the family Paramyxoviridae. J Virol. 2000;74:9972-9 pubmed
    ..The large genome of HeV also fills a gap in the spectrum of genome sizes observed with NNS RNA virus genomes. As such, it provides a further piece in the puzzle of NNS RNA virus evolution. ..
  6. Yob J, Field H, Rashdi A, Morrissy C, Van Der Heide B, Rota P, et al. Nipah virus infection in bats (order Chiroptera) in peninsular Malaysia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2001;7:439-41 pubmed
    ..We collected 324 bats from 14 species on peninsular Malaysia. Neutralizing antibodies to Nipah virus were demonstrated in five species, suggesting widespread infection in bat populations in peninsular Malaysia. ..
  7. Plemper R, Brindley M, Iorio R. Structural and mechanistic studies of measles virus illuminate paramyxovirus entry. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002058 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review these advances in our molecular understanding of MeV entry in the context of diverse entry strategies employed by other members of the paramyxovirus family. ..
  8. Bissonnette M, Connolly S, Young D, Randall R, Paterson R, Lamb R. Analysis of the pH requirement for membrane fusion of different isolates of the paramyxovirus parainfluenza virus 5. J Virol. 2006;80:3071-7 pubmed
    ..The challenge of discovering how the paramyxovirus receptor binding protein (HN, H, or G) activates the metastable fusion protein to cause membrane fusion at neutral pH remains. ..
  9. Bissonnette M, Donald J, Degrado W, Jardetzky T, Lamb R. Functional analysis of the transmembrane domain in paramyxovirus F protein-mediated membrane fusion. J Mol Biol. 2009;386:14-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the unusual length of this TM helix might allow it to serve as a template for formation of or specifically stabilize the lipid stalk intermediate in fusion. ..
  10. Paton N, Leo Y, Zaki S, Auchus A, Lee K, Ling A, et al. Outbreak of Nipah-virus infection among abattoir workers in Singapore. Lancet. 1999;354:1253-6 pubmed
    ..Infection with Nipah virus caused an encephalitis illness with characteristic focal areas of increased intensity seen on MRI. Lung involvement was also common, and the disease may present as an atypical pneumonia. ..
  11. Olson J, Rupprecht C, Rollin P, An U, Niezgoda M, Clemins T, et al. Antibodies to Nipah-like virus in bats (Pteropus lylei), Cambodia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:987-8 pubmed
    ..5%) of 96 Lyle's flying foxes (Pteropus lylei). Our study suggests that viruses closely related to Nipah or Hendra viruses are more widespread in Southeast Asia than previously documented. ..
  12. Chua K, Bellini W, Rota P, Harcourt B, Tamin A, Lam S, et al. Nipah virus: a recently emergent deadly paramyxovirus. Science. 2000;288:1432-5 pubmed
    ..Like Hendra virus, Nipah virus is unusual among the paramyxoviruses in its ability to infect and cause potentially fatal disease in a number of host species, including humans. ..
  13. Porotto M, Yokoyama C, Orefice G, Kim H, Aljofan M, Mungall B, et al. Kinetic dependence of paramyxovirus entry inhibition. J Virol. 2009;83:6947-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight new issues to be considered in developing strategies for fusion inhibitors. ..
  14. Li Z, Xu J, Patel J, Fuentes S, Lin Y, Anderson D, et al. Function of the small hydrophobic protein of J paramyxovirus. J Virol. 2011;85:32-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, infection of mice with rJPVΔSH induced more TNF-α expression, indicating that SH plays a role in blocking TNF-α expression in vivo. ..
  15. Baker K, Todd S, Marsh G, Fernandez Loras A, Suu Ire R, Wood J, et al. Co-circulation of diverse paramyxoviruses in an urban African fruit bat population. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:850-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the high rate of bat-human contact at the study site calls for the zoonotic potential of the detected viruses to be investigated further...
  16. Tong S, Chern S, Li Y, Pallansch M, Anderson L. Sensitive and broadly reactive reverse transcription-PCR assays to detect novel paramyxoviruses. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:2652-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Primers were designed from the conserved motifs of the polymerase pol gene sequences to detect members of the Paramyxovirinae or Pneumovirinae subfamily or groups of genera within the Paramyxovirinae subfamily...
  17. Chua K, Koh C, Hooi P, Wee K, Khong J, Chua B, et al. Isolation of Nipah virus from Malaysian Island flying-foxes. Microbes Infect. 2002;4:145-51 pubmed
    ..The isolation of Nipah virus from the Island flying-fox corroborates the serological evidence that it is one of the natural hosts of the virus. ..
  18. Villar E, Barroso I. Role of sialic acid-containing molecules in paramyxovirus entry into the host cell: a minireview. Glycoconj J. 2006;23:5-17 pubmed
    ..In spite of all these data, the exact nature of paramyxovirus receptors, apart from their sialylated nature, and the mechanism(s) of viral attachment to the cell surface are poorly understood. ..
  19. Wong K, Shieh W, Kumar S, Norain K, Abdullah W, Guarner J, et al. Nipah virus infection: pathology and pathogenesis of an emerging paramyxoviral zoonosis. Am J Pathol. 2002;161:2153-67 pubmed
    ..Infection of endothelial cells and neurons as well as vasculitis and thrombosis seem to be critical to the pathogenesis of this new human disease...
  20. Li Z, Yu M, Zhang H, Magoffin D, Jack P, Hyatt A, et al. Beilong virus, a novel paramyxovirus with the largest genome of non-segmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. Virology. 2006;346:219-28 pubmed publisher
  21. Russell C, Jardetzky T, Lamb R. Conserved glycine residues in the fusion peptide of the paramyxovirus fusion protein regulate activation of the native state. J Virol. 2004;78:13727-42 pubmed
    ..Glycine residues in the FPs of other class I vFGPs may also regulate fusion activation. ..
  22. Chong H, Kamarulzaman A, Tan C, Goh K, Thayaparan T, Kunjapan S, et al. Treatment of acute Nipah encephalitis with ribavirin. Ann Neurol. 2001;49:810-3 pubmed
    ..This represents a 36% reduction in mortality (p = 0.011). There was no associated serious side effect. This study suggests that ribavirin is able to reduce the mortality of acute Nipah encephalitis. ..
  23. Marschang R, Papp T, Frost J. Comparison of paramyxovirus isolates from snakes, lizards and a tortoise. Virus Res. 2009;144:272-9 pubmed publisher
    ..supported the classification of all reptilian PMVs in a separate genus (Ferlavirus) in the subfamily Paramyxovirinae. Within each of the gene segments, the squamatid isolates could be divided into two groups with a sequence ..
  24. Papp T, Gal J, Abbas M, Marschang R, Farkas S. A novel type of paramyxovirus found in Hungary in a masked water snake (Homalopsis buccata) with pneumonia supports the suggested new taxonomy within the Ferlavirus genus. Vet Microbiol. 2013;162:195-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Our paper presents the first description of this novel reptilian paramyxovirus from a homalopsid snake with mucopurulent pneumonia in Hungary...
  25. Morgan O, Chittaganpitch M, Clague B, Chantra S, Sanasuttipun W, Prapasiri P, et al. Hospitalization due to human parainfluenza virus-associated lower respiratory tract illness in rural Thailand. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2013;7:280-5 pubmed publisher
    ..In Thailand, HPIV caused substantial illnesses requiring hospitalization in young children. ..
  26. Ren G, Wang Z, Wang G, Song Y, Yao P, Xu H, et al. Effects of heptad repeat regions of f protein on the specific membrane fusion in paramyxoviruses. Intervirology. 2006;49:299-306 pubmed
    ..HR1 of NDV F might be important for its specific membrane fusion, but HR2 of NDV F may not; both HR1 and HR2 of hPIV F may be important for its specific membrane fusion. ..
  27. Dillon P, Parks G. Role for the phosphoprotein P subunit of the paramyxovirus polymerase in limiting induction of host cell antiviral responses. J Virol. 2007;81:11116-27 pubmed
    ..A model is presented for the mechanism by which both the P subunit of the viral polymerase and the V accessory protein contribute to the ability of a paramyxovirus to limit activation of antiviral responses. ..
  28. Abe M, Tahara M, Sakai K, Yamaguchi H, Kanou K, Shirato K, et al. TMPRSS2 is an activating protease for respiratory parainfluenza viruses. J Virol. 2013;87:11930-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, mutations of these residues affected SeV growth in specific epithelial cell lines, suggesting the importance of these residues for SeV replication in epithelia. ..
  29. Nguyen D, de Vries R, Ludlow M, van den Hoogen B, Lemon K, van Amerongen G, et al. Paramyxovirus infections in ex vivo lung slice cultures of different host species. J Virol Methods. 2013;193:159-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these ex vivo lung slice cultures are discriminatory models for the study of respiratory virus infections and can be used to inform the design of future in vivo experiments, thereby reducing numbers of animals required. ..
  30. Mackenzie J, Field H, Guyatt K. Managing emerging diseases borne by fruit bats (flying foxes), with particular reference to henipaviruses and Australian bat lyssavirus. J Appl Microbiol. 2003;94 Suppl:59S-69S pubmed
    ..Finally, an intriguing and long-term strategy is that of wildlife immunization through plant-derived vaccination. ..
  31. Saladino R, Ciambecchini U, Nencioni L, Palamara A. Recent advances in the chemistry of parainfluenza-1 (Sendai) virus inhibitors. Med Res Rev. 2003;23:427-55 pubmed
  32. Kurth A, Kohl C, Brinkmann A, Ebinger A, Harper J, Wang L, et al. Novel paramyxoviruses in free-ranging European bats. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38688 pubmed publisher
  33. Bossart K, Wang L, Eaton B, Broder C. Functional expression and membrane fusion tropism of the envelope glycoproteins of Hendra virus. Virology. 2001;290:121-35 pubmed
    ..Fusion negative cell types have also been identified. Protease treatments of the target cells abolished fusion activity, suggesting that the virus is employing a cell-surface protein as its receptor. ..
  34. Bost K. Tachykinin-modulated anti-viral responses. Front Biosci. 2004;9:1994-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these studies demonstrate a surprising role for substance P and the neurokinin-1 receptor in the host response following these viral infections. ..
  35. Karlin D, Belshaw R. Detecting remote sequence homology in disordered proteins: discovery of conserved motifs in the N-termini of Mononegavirales phosphoproteins. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31719 pubmed publisher
    b>Paramyxovirinae are a large group of viruses that includes measles virus and parainfluenza viruses. The viral Phosphoprotein (P) plays a central role in viral replication...
  36. McCormack J, Allworth A. Emerging viral infections in Australia. Med J Aust. 2002;177:45-9 pubmed
    ..Japanese encephalitis vaccine should be considered for people intending to reside in or visit endemic areas of southern or eastern Asia for more than 30 days. ..
  37. Lim C, Lee K, Lee W, Tambyah P, Lee C, Sitoh Y, et al. Nipah virus encephalitis: serial MR study of an emerging disease. Radiology. 2002;222:219-26 pubmed
    ..The Nipah virus has findings unlike other viral encephalitides: small lesions that are primarily within the white matter, with transient punctate cortical hyperintensities on T1-weighted images. ..
  38. Middleton D, Westbury H, Morrissy C, van der Heide B, Russell G, Braun M, et al. Experimental Nipah virus infection in pigs and cats. J Comp Pathol. 2002;126:124-36 pubmed
    ..The findings indicate the possibility of field transmission of Nipah virus between pigs via respiratory and oropharyngeal secretions. ..
  39. Smith I, Halpin K, Warrilow D, Smith G. Development of a fluorogenic RT-PCR assay (TaqMan) for the detection of Hendra virus. J Virol Methods. 2001;98:33-40 pubmed
    ..This assay will provide a rapid diagnosis of future outbreaks of Hendra virus. ..
  40. Williamson M, Hooper P, Selleck P, Westbury H, Slocombe R. A guinea-pig model of Hendra virus encephalitis. J Comp Pathol. 2001;124:273-9 pubmed
    ..Guinea-pigs would appear to be suitable for the study of HeV encephalitis. ..
  41. Abbas M, Marschang R, Schmidt V, Kasper A, Papp T. A unique novel reptilian paramyxovirus, four atadenovirus types and a reovirus identified in a concurrent infection of a corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) collection in Germany. Vet Microbiol. 2011;150:70-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The possibility of concurrent infection with several different viruses and subsequent consequences for animal health should be kept in mind when testing reptile samples for viruses...
  42. Rodriguez J, Parisien J, Horvath C. Nipah virus V protein evades alpha and gamma interferons by preventing STAT1 and STAT2 activation and nuclear accumulation. J Virol. 2002;76:11476-83 pubmed
    ..As a result, Nipah virus V protein efficiently prevents STAT1 and STAT2 nuclear translocation in response to IFN, inhibiting cellular responses to both IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma. ..
  43. Kumar S. Inadequate research facilities fail to tackle mystery disease. BMJ. 2003;326:12 pubmed
  44. Morrison T. The three faces of paramyxovirus attachment proteins. Trends Microbiol. 2001;9:103-5 pubmed
    ..The recent report of the structure of a paramyxovirus attachment protein should clarify the mechanism of cell entry by these viruses. ..
  45. Mounts A, Kaur H, Parashar U, Ksiazek T, Cannon D, Arokiasamy J, et al. A cohort study of health care workers to assess nosocomial transmissibility of Nipah virus, Malaysia, 1999. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:810-3 pubmed
  46. Ozawa Y, Ong B, An S. Traceback systems used during recent epizootics in Asia. Rev Sci Tech. 2001;20:605-13 pubmed
    ..Comparative studies of the pathogenicities of FMD (type O) viruses isolated in Taipei China, the Republic of Korea and Japan, suggest that these viruses might have originated as vaccine strains used in a third country. ..
  47. Wong S, Ooi M, Wong M, Tio P, Solomon T, Cardosa M. Late presentation of Nipah virus encephalitis and kinetics of the humoral immune response. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001;71:552-4 pubmed
    ..The late presentation and IgG subclass responses had similarities to subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Nipah virus should be considered in patients with encephalitis even months after their possible exposure. ..
  48. Crameri G, Wang L, Morrissy C, White J, Eaton B. A rapid immune plaque assay for the detection of Hendra and Nipah viruses and anti-virus antibodies. J Virol Methods. 2002;99:41-51 pubmed
  49. Schmitt A, Leser G, Morita E, Sundquist W, Lamb R. Evidence for a new viral late-domain core sequence, FPIV, necessary for budding of a paramyxovirus. J Virol. 2005;79:2988-97 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that these proline residues act to partially restore virus budding by generation of new motifs that act as suboptimal late domains. ..
  50. Calvo C, Garcia Garcia M, Ambrona P, Rico M, Pozo F, Del Mar Molinero M, et al. The burden of infections by parainfluenza virus in hospitalized children in Spain. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:792-4 pubmed publisher
    ..PIV infections were a significant proportion of viral respiratory detections (11.8% of cases). PIV types 3 and 4 were most commonly detected. There were clinical differences between PIV and respiratory syncytial virus infections. ..
  51. Chan Y, Chua K, Koh C, Lim M, Lam S. Complete nucleotide sequences of Nipah virus isolates from Malaysia. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:2151-5 pubmed
    ..The existing evidence demonstrates a clear need for the creation of a new genus within the subfamily Paramyxovirinae to accommodate the close similarities between NiV and HeV and their significant differences from other ..
  52. Weinberg G. Parainfluenza viruses: an underappreciated cause of pediatric respiratory morbidity. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:447-8 pubmed
  53. Yoon J, Chawla D, Paal T, Ndungu M, Du Y, Kurtkaya S, et al. High-throughput screening-based identification of paramyxovirus inhibitors. J Biomol Screen. 2008;13:591-608 pubmed publisher
    ..MV and related viruses of the same genus, and 3) broader range inhibitors with activity against a different Paramyxovirinae genus...
  54. Yu M, Hansson E, Langedijk J, Eaton B, Wang L. The attachment protein of Hendra virus has high structural similarity but limited primary sequence homology compared with viruses in the genus Paramyxovirus. Virology. 1998;251:227-33 pubmed
    The complete nucleotide sequence of the attachment protein gene of Hendra virus, a new member of the subfamily Paramyxovirinae, has been determined from cDNA clones derived from viral genomic RNA...
  55. Dunn J, Woolstenhulme R, Langer J, Carroll K. Sensitivity of respiratory virus culture when screening with R-mix fresh cells. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:79-82 pubmed
    ..The sensitivities of DFA testing and R-Mix cells for identification of influenza viruses were 70.5% and 96.7%, respectively. The R-Mix method detected influenza virus in 18 samples that were negative by DFA testing. ..
  56. Welch B, Liu Y, Kors C, Leser G, Jardetzky T, Lamb R. Structure of the cleavage-activated prefusion form of the parainfluenza virus 5 fusion protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:16672-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The conformational freedom of the charged arginine residues that compose the protease recognition site increases on cleavage of F protein. ..
  57. Coiras M, Aguilar J, Garcia M, Casas I, Perez Brena P. Simultaneous detection of fourteen respiratory viruses in clinical specimens by two multiplex reverse transcription nested-PCR assays. J Med Virol. 2004;72:484-95 pubmed
  58. Tan C, Wong K. Nipah encephalitis outbreak in Malaysia. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2003;32:112-7 pubmed
    ..Nipah virus, a recently discovered paramyxovirus, causes a unique encephalitis with high mortality as well as relapse and late-onset encephalitis. The infection is mainly spread from pigs to man. ..
  59. Harrison M, Sakaguchi T, Schmitt A. Paramyxovirus assembly and budding: building particles that transmit infections. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2010;42:1416-29 pubmed publisher
  60. Surman S, Collins P, Murphy B, Skiadopoulos M. An improved method for the recovery of recombinant paramyxovirus vaccine candidates suitable for use in human clinical trials. J Virol Methods. 2007;141:30-3 pubmed
    ..Since it is likely that all live-attenuated parainfluenza virus and pneumovirus vaccines in the future will be generated using reverse genetics, this simplified method provides guidance on how this can be achieved. ..
  61. López Pérez G, Morfín Maciel B, Navarrete N, Aguirre A. Identification of influenza, parainfluenza, adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus during rhinopharyngitis in a group of Mexican children with asthma and wheezing. Rev Alerg Mex. 2009;56:86-91 pubmed
    ..Viral infections can promote allergic sensitization in genetically susceptible individuals. Besides, they are the main cause of wheezing in children...
  62. Parisien J, Bamming D, Komuro A, Ramachandran A, Rodriguez J, Barber G, et al. A shared interface mediates paramyxovirus interference with antiviral RNA helicases MDA5 and LGP2. J Virol. 2009;83:7252-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a potential mechanistic basis for V protein-mediated helicase interference and identify LGP2 as a second cellular RNA helicase targeted by paramyxovirus V proteins. ..
  63. Manuse M, Parks G. Role for the paramyxovirus genomic promoter in limiting host cell antiviral responses and cell killing. J Virol. 2009;83:9057-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Control of genomic promoter activity may be particularly important for viruses such as SV5, that express a V protein targeting mda-5 but do not encode antagonists such as the paramyxovirus C proteins, that specifically target RIG-I. ..
  64. Ito M, Yamakawa I, Nishio M, Tsurudome M, Kawano M, Komada H, et al. A quantitative method for analyzing establishing-efficiency of persistent viral infection. Microbiol Immunol. 2009;53:259-65 pubmed publisher
    ..001, the rSeV(Mpi) and the rSeV(Fpi) were unexpectedly found to be capable of forming persistently-infected cells, indicating that both the Fpi and Mpi proteins contribute to the establishing efficiency of persistent infection of SeVpi. ..
  65. Chong H, Kunjapan S, Thayaparan T, Tong J, Petharunam V, Jusoh M, et al. Nipah encephalitis outbreak in Malaysia, clinical features in patients from Seremban. Can J Neurol Sci. 2002;29:83-7 pubmed
    ..As for the other 19%, the residual neurological signs were mostly mild. Nipah virus caused an encephalitis illness with short incubation period and high mortality. The prognosis for the survivors was good. ..
  66. Zvirbliene A, Kucinskaite Kodze I, Juozapaitis M, Lasickiene R, Gritenaite D, Russell G, et al. Novel monoclonal antibodies against Menangle virus nucleocapsid protein. Arch Virol. 2010;155:13-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The MAbs against MenV N protein may be a useful tool for immunohistological diagnosis of MenV infection. ..
  67. Yaiw K, Crameri G, Wang L, Chong H, Chua K, Tan C, et al. Serological evidence of possible human infection with Tioman virus, a newly described paramyxovirus of bat origin. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:884-6 pubmed
    ..0%) were positive for T. virus, by comparative ELISA. Of these 5 sera, 3 (1.8% of the total) had neutralizing antibodies against T. virus, suggesting previous infection of this study population by this virus or a similar virus. ..
  68. Wu B, Hur S. Viral counterattack against the host innate immune system. Cell Res. 2013;23:735-6 pubmed publisher
  69. Wilkinson D, Temmam S, Lebarbenchon C, Lagadec E, Chotte J, Guillebaud J, et al. Identification of novel paramyxoviruses in insectivorous bats of the Southwest Indian Ocean. Virus Res. 2012;170:159-63 pubmed publisher
  70. Parashar U, Sunn L, Ong F, Mounts A, Arif M, Ksiazek T, et al. Case-control study of risk factors for human infection with a new zoonotic paramyxovirus, Nipah virus, during a 1998-1999 outbreak of severe encephalitis in Malaysia. J Infect Dis. 2000;181:1755-9 pubmed
    ..The outbreak stopped after pigs in the affected areas were slaughtered and buried. Direct, close contact with pigs was the primary source of human Nipah infection, but other sources, such as infected dogs and cats, cannot be excluded. ..
  71. Wong K. Emerging and re-emerging epidemic encephalitis: a tale of two viruses. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2000;26:313-8 pubmed
  72. Johnson R. Emerging viral infections of the nervous system. J Neurovirol. 2003;9:140-7 pubmed
    ..The burgeoning human population and the speed and frequency of travel favor the evolution, preservation, and spread of new viral agents. ..
  73. Griot C, Vandevelde M, Schobesberger M, Zurbriggen A. Canine distemper, a re-emerging morbillivirus with complex neuropathogenic mechanisms. Anim Health Res Rev. 2003;4:1-10 pubmed
    ..Study of the neuropathogenesis of CDV might give insight into disease mechanisms and suggest approaches for the prevention of other recently discovered paramyxovirus infections...
  74. Chua K, Lam S, Goh K, Hooi P, Ksiazek T, Kamarulzaman A, et al. The presence of Nipah virus in respiratory secretions and urine of patients during an outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in Malaysia. J Infect. 2001;42:40-3 pubmed
    ..This study shows that it is possible to be infected from secretions of infected patients, but epidemiological survey on close contacts so far did not suggest that human-to-human transmission is common. ..
  75. Witko S, Kotash C, Nowak R, Johnson J, Boutilier L, Melville K, et al. An efficient helper-virus-free method for rescue of recombinant paramyxoviruses and rhadoviruses from a cell line suitable for vaccine development. J Virol Methods. 2006;135:91-101 pubmed
  76. Harcourt B, Tamin A, Halpin K, Ksiazek T, Rollin P, Bellini W, et al. Molecular characterization of the polymerase gene and genomic termini of Nipah virus. Virology. 2001;287:192-201 pubmed publisher
    ..genomic termini of HV and share sequence homology with the genomic termini of other members of the subfamily Paramyxovirinae. At 18,246 nucleotides, the genome of NV is 12 nucleotides longer than the genome of HV and they have the ..
  77. Gotoh B, Komatsu T, Takeuchi K, Yokoo J. Paramyxovirus strategies for evading the interferon response. Rev Med Virol. 2002;12:337-57 pubmed
    ..hPIV3) and the Rubulavirus (simian virus (SV) 5, SV41, mumps virus and hPIV2), of the three in the subfamily Paramyxovirinae inhibit interferon (IFN) signalling to circumvent the IFN response...
  78. Porotto M, Rockx B, Yokoyama C, Talekar A, Devito I, Palermo L, et al. Inhibition of Nipah virus infection in vivo: targeting an early stage of paramyxovirus fusion activation during viral entry. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001168 pubmed publisher
    ..The in vivo efficacy of cholesterol-tagged peptides, and in particular their ability to penetrate the CNS, suggests that they are promising candidates for the prevention or therapy of infection by Nipah and other lethal paramyxoviruses. ..